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\i-M 




i 






A HANDBOOK 

TO 

INDIA 
BURMA AND CEYLON 






O.t). 



^ This sign in the text a/ppended to a name 
indicates that further information rekUing to the 
suhjtct is to be found in the Index and Djreo- 
TORY at the end of the booh 






HANDBOOK FOE TEAVELLEBS •^■" 

INDIA 

BURMA AND CEYLON 

INCLUDING THE 

PROVINCES OF BENGAL, BOMBAY, AND MADRAS 

THE PUNJAB, NORTH-WEST PROVINCES, RAJPUTANA, 
CENTRAL PROVINCES, MYSORE, ETC. 

THE NATIVE STATES, 
ASSAM AND CASHMERE 



FOURTH EDITION 

SBCOND IMPRBSSION 

WITH SEVENTY-FOUR MAPS AND PLANS 



LONDON? • 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 
CALCUTTA: THACKER, SPINK, * CO. 
1903 

0>J' 



THE NEW YORK 
PTJBUC UBRA?Y 

TlUOfiN FOUNDATIONS 



EXTEACT FROM THE 

PfiEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

'^SiNCB the publication of the Eandbock to IfMa^ in four volamefi, 
time and events have effected great changes, not only in the 
ooontry itself but also in the facilities for reaching it from all parts 
of the world, and for travelling throughout the peninsula. The 
pnblic, moreover, are yearly becoming better aware of the glorious 
field which in India is opened up for the enjoyment of travel and 
jsport, and of the inexhaustible opportunities afforded them for Hie 
study of an engrossing history, an interesting nationality, and an un- 
rivalled art, as displayed not only in architectural monuments^ but 
alflo in native industries and handicrafts. On this account, and in 
consequence of the yearly increasing tide of travellers setting towards 
India, the publisher has found it necessary to arrange his guide in an 
entirely new form. It has been to a great extent rewritten, thoroughly 
revised, and condensed into one handy volume. . . . 

^ The accounts of most places described in this book have been revise 
on the spot, and in this revision the publisher has received much Idnd 
assistance from civil servants and others resident in different parts of 
India. He takes this opportunity of tendering to them his grateful 
thanks, as also to the following persons who have assisted him in 
various parts of the book : Dr. Burgess, Dr. Bradshaw, LL.D., Mr. H. 
Beauehamp, Major F. Spratt, RJE., Mr. R Clarke, B.C.S., Mr. J. 
Westlake, Mr. G. Marsden, Mr. E. A. Smith, Mr. Ottewill ; particularly 
to the Hon. Sir Arthur Gordon, G.C.M.G., who, with exception of the 
description of Colombo and the first route, has written the whole 
of the account of Ceylon from his own personal knowledge and wide 
experience of that country ; and finally to Professor Forrest, Keeper 
of the Records in Calcutta, through whose hands the whole of the 
proo& of ' India ' have passed." 

Nwmber 1802. 



LIST OF ROUTES 



[The names of places are printed in black only in those Routes where tha 
plcuxa themselyes are desoribecU When not otherwise stated, the routes are all ; 
by raiL] 



KOUTBOr 
CAPITAL PAOS 

Bonbay and Environi, indnding 
the Cayes of Elephanta, 
Montpesir, and Kanhari 1 

1 Bombay to Calcutta by Kalyan, 

NasilE, Bhusawal, Ehand- 
wa, Jubbnlpore, Allahabad, 
Mognl Sarai, and Patna, 
with expeditions by road to 
the caves of Ajanta, the 
hiU-statiohofPachmari, the 
Karble Bocks at Jubbulpore, 
and to Parasnath, and visits 
by rail to Benares and 

Oaya 26 

Calcutta and Environs, includ- 
ing the approach from the 
sea, Chinsurah, Hooghly, 
Serampore, and Chander- 
nagore . . 52 

2 Nandgaon to Aurangabad, 

the Caves, Boza or Ehul- 
dabad, and the Caves of 
Ellora . .65 

8 Bhusawal to Akola (with ex- 
pedition to Warora and 
Chanda), Nagpnr, Kamptee, 
Baipur, Bilaspur, Purulia, 
and Asensol ... 78 

4 Khandwa to Ajmere through 

nhow, ludoire, Neemuch, 
Chitor,and Nusseerabad, with 
expeditions by road to Un- 
kaiji and Handu, and by 
rail to Ujjain and Debari 
for Oodeypore . . .78 

5 Itarsi Junction to Cawnpore 

through Bhopal, Bhilsa, 
Sanchi, Jhansi, and Kalpi. 
with expedition by rail to 
Saugor .... 86 
5a Agra to Manikpur Junction 
^%rough Dholpur, Owalior, 



92 



BOUTS or 

CAPITAL 

Datia, Jhansi, Barwa-San- 
gar, Mahoba, and Banda, 

with expedition by road to 
Khajurahu 

6 Bombay to Delhi through 

Bassein, Surat, Broadi, 
Baroda^Ahmedabad, Msh- 
saaa, Mount Abu, AJmere, 
Jeypore, Baadikui Junc- 
tion, Alwar, Bewazi, and 
Delhi, with excursions \^ 
rail to Dabhoi and Jod&* 
pur . . . . 104 

7 Ahmedabad to Viramgim, 

Kharaghoda, Wadhvan, 
Bhaunagar, Juna^adh, 
Gimar, Sonmath, Pofban- ^ ' 
dar, Baikot, and bibk to 
Ahmedabad, with «xpedi* 
tion by road to Paltona . 152 

8 Bewari to Ferozepur And La- 

hore, through HanB,Hl8sar, 
and Bhatinda . . .165 

9 Jeypore to Agra through 

Bandikni Junction, Bhurt- 
pur, and Achnezt Junction, 
with expeditio; by road 
to Fatehpur SiOri . . 167 

10 Muttra to MahaKn, Bindra- 

ban, and Dig fpm Achnera 
Junction for titvellers from 
the W., and fom Hathras 
Junction for those from 
Delhi or the^^. . . 182 

11 Delhi to Siml^ via Paniput. 

Kumal, Tb^esar, Umbal- 
la, Ealka,i>ndKa8auli . 187 
11 A Delhi to Un^lla via Ohaiia- 
ba4 Junct>n, Heerut. Bar- 
dbana, a4 Saharanpore . 193 

12 Umballa t/ Lahore through 

Sirhindi^adhiana, Amrit- 



UST OB* ROtTTJCS 



soutBor 

CJinTAL PAGX 

ear, Heean Heer and La- 
hore .... 195 

13 Lahore to Peshawar through 

Oujranwala, Wasirabad 
Jtmction, Gujrat, Sotaa, 
Manikjrala Tope, Bawal 
Fiadi, and Attock, with 
expedition by rail from 
Wasirabad to Sialkot and 
Jummoo .... 207 
13a Cashmere and some of the 

routes into that country , 216 

14 Lahore to Karachi by 

rail through Montgom- 
ery, Mooltan, Bahawalpur, 
Bohri, the Indus Bridge, 
Sukkur, Buk Junction, 
Larkana, Sehwan, Eotri, 
Hyderabad on the Indus, 
and Jungshahi, from 
whence an expedition by 
roadtoTatta . . .221 

15 Ruk Junction to Ghaman, 

on the frontier, through 
Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Sibi 
Junction, and Hamai, re- 
turning by Quetta and the 
BolanPass .234 

16 Saharanpore by the Oudh 

and Rohilcund Railway to 
Mogul Sarai, visiting on the 
way Moradabad, Bareilly, 
Lucknow, and Benares 237 

16a Bareilly Junction to Naini 
Tal, Almorah, and Bani- 
khet .... 258 

17 Lhaksar Junction to Hard- 

war, Dehra Dun, and the 
lull-stations of Mussoorie, 
Landour, and Chakrata , 254 

18 Delhi to Allahabad by Ghaz- 

iabad, Aligarh, Hathras 
Junction, Tundla Junction, 
Etawah, and Cawnpore . 257 

19 Calcutta by the East Indian 

Railway Loop Line to 
Luckeeserai, visiting Azim- 
gaaj, Murshedabad, Ber- 
hampnr, Easim Bazar, 
Plassey, Bajmahal, Mal- 
dah, Qaur, and Pandnah . 264 

20 From Calcutta by Eastern 

Beng{d Railway to Daijeel- 
ing, visiting Damookdea, 



OAPITAL 

the Ganges crossing, SilU- 
gnri, and Kurseong . 

20a Calcutta to Dibm^h by 
Bungpore, Dhubri, Qau- 
hati, and ShiUong . 

20b Calcutta to Dacca and the 
Sylhet Valley by Ooalnndo, 
Narainganj, and Cherra- 
Pnnji, and by Goalundo to 
Chittegong by Chandpnr 
and Laksam Jnnctioii 

21 Calcutta to Diamond Har- 

bour, False Point Harbour, 
Pun, the Black Pagoda, 
Bhuvaneshwar, the Caves 
of Udayagiri and Khanda- 
giri, Cuttack, Jajpur, and 
Balasore 

22 Poona to Goa through Wa- 

thar, Satara, Miraj, Bel- 
gaum, and Harmagoa 
Harbour, with expeditions 
by road to Hahabalesh- 
war ani the temples near 
Belgaum, and by rail to 
Eolhapur .... 

23 Hotgi Junction to Bijapur, 

Badami, and Dharwar, with 
excursions by road to 
temples in the vicinity of 
Badami .... 

24 Bombay to Madras by Kalyan 

Junction, the Bor Ghat, 
Kirkee, and Podna, Shola- 
pur, Eulbarga, Wadi Junc- 
tion, Baichur, Gnntakal 
Junction, Benigunta Junc- 
tion, and Arkonam Junction, 
with excursions by road to 
HatheranHill, the Caves of 
Earli and Bhaja, and to 
Pandharpur, and by rail to 
Ahmednagar and Tirupati 
Madras City and Environs 

25 Wadi Junction to Hyderabad, 

Secunderabad, Warangal, 
Bezwada, Bajahmundry, 
Vizagapatam, Viziana- 
gram, Ganjam, and Chilka 
Lake, with expedition by 
road to Bidar . 

26 Gadag Junction to Hospet, 

Vijayanagar (B-yanagar), ' 
Bellary, Gnntakal Juno- 



270 



278 



275 



277 



292 



304 



318 
336 



345 



List OfP ROUtKB 



RODTBOr 
CAPITAL PAQK 

tioD, Nandyal, and Bex* 
wadia, with expeditions by 
road to Enmool and Ama- 
ravati .353 

27 Hubli Junction to Harihar, 

Banawar, Arsikere, Tnm- 
knr, and Bangalore, with 
expeditions by road to the 
temples at Hollabid, Belnr, 
and Jamgal, also to the 
hills of Indra-betta and 
Chandragiri, near Shra- 
vana Belagola 360 

28 By coasting -steamer from 

Bombay to Batnagiri, Mar- 
magoa Harbour, Karwar, 
Honawar, Mangalore, Can- 
nannore, Telllcherry,Hah^, 
Calicut, Beypur, Narakal, 
Cochixi, and Tuticorin, with 
an expedition inland from 
Honawar to the FaUs of Qer- 
Boppa .... 363 

29 Madras through Arcot, Vel- 

lore, Jalarpet Junction to 
Bangalore, and by Maddur 
to Seri2igapatam and My- 
sore, with expedition by 
road to the Falls of the 
Cauvery . .371 

30 Jalarpet Junction to Salem, 

the Shevaroy Hills, Erode 
Junction for Trichinopoly, 
Ck>imbatore, and the NilgM 
HillB .... 387 

31 Madras by the South Indian 

Railway to Chingleput 
Junction, Conjeveram, Por- 
to Novo, Chidambaram, 
Kumbhakonam, Tanjore, 
Trichinopoly, Dindigal, 
Madura, and Tinnevelly, 
with excursions by road to 
Gingi, Kodaikanal, and 
Eutallam, and by rail to 
Pondicherry 392 

32 Madras to Mahabalipur and 



BouTJcor 

CAPITAL 



the Seven Pagodas by 

Canal .... 408 



BURMA 

Introductory remarks. Gene- 
ral description, History, 
Climate, etc. . . 413-420 



Rangoon 



420 



1 Rangoon to Kandalay, Bha- 

mo, and the First Defile, 
returning via Prome . . 425 

2 Rangoon to Moulmein, with 

possible extension to Tavoy 
andMergoi .435 

3 Rangoon to Kywakpjn and 

Akyab .... 437 

4 From Rangoon to Bassein 

and back . . .438 

5 Up the Chindwin to Kindat 439 

CEYLON 

1 

Introductory remarks, His- 
tory, Colombo . 440, 441 

1 Colombo to Eandy 443 

2 Colombo to Nuwara Eliya, 

Badulla, and Batticaloa . 445 

3 Colombo to Batnapura and 

Badulla .... 448 

4 Colombo to Ratnapura via 

Panadura and Nambapane 451 

5 Colombo to Galle, Hatara, 

Hambantotta, and Tis- 
samaharama . .451 

6 Colombo to Trincomalee by 

Negombo, Puttalam, and 
Anuradhapura . . .454 

7 Kandy to Jaffna by Anurad- 

hapura . . . .455 

8 Kandy to Trincomalee (with 

excursion to Pollonama) . 459 

9 (Sporting Tour) Badulla to 

Nilgala by Bnttale, Kat- 
eragam, and Okanda , 461 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS 

PAQB 

Agra, and Environs To face 168 

„ the Fort ,,171 

„ Moti Musjid 172 

„ Tjy Mahal To /ace 170 

„ Fatehpur Sikri 178 

Ahmedabad . . To face 112 

ijmere, the Arhai-din-ka-jhompra Mosque 125 

Allahabad To face 87 

Attock ,,212 

Badami, the Cave 314 

Bangalore .376 

Bijapur * .* .To /ace 304 

„ Gol Gumbaz 305 

„ Section of Domes, Jumma Musjid . . 306 

Bombay To face 1 

„ showing Malabar Hill ........ 6 

,, and Environs ,, 18 

Buddha, Figures of. Plate 2 . . . . To follow Plate 1, afUr Hi. 

Burma (South) To face HZ 

Calcutta . . „ 52 

Cashmere ,,216 

Caste Marks. Plate 2 To follow FlaU 1, after lii. 

Cawnpore To /ace 260 

Ceylon ,,440 

Daijeeling ,,271 

Delhi ,,132 

„ Palace in Fort 138 

„ the Environs To face 148 

„ Humayun's Tomb 146 

„ Mosque of Eutbl Islam and the Kutb Minar .... 148 

EUora, the Dherwara Cave 72 

„ theKailas 72 

Giniar Mountain . . ' To face 157 



XU LIST OF MAPS AND l^LAKS 

Girnar, Temple of Nimnath 158 

,f Temple of Tejpala and Yastupala 160 

Gods, Hindu, some common forms ot Plates 1 and 2 . . To/aee lii 

Gwalior, the Fort , 98 

India, Average Rainfall ; (2) during the wet and dry seasons . ,, xviii. 
,, Average Temperature ; (2) during the hot and cold seasons ,, xvi. 
„ General Map o^ showing the Railway System • . In Pocket 

,, Geological Features of To face toy, 

,, Vegetable Products ,, xxiL 

Jagannath, the Temple 279 

Jaunpur, West half of Jumma Mu£;jid 251 

Karachi To/ace 2Z2 

Karli, the Cave 321 

Lahore To face 200 

Lucknow ,, 239 

„ the Residency , 240 

Madras 336 

Madura, Tirumala's Choultrie 407 

Matheran To face 319 

Murree „ 211 

Mussoorie ,, 25$ 

Mutiny, showing distribution of troops on May 1, 1857 „ Izxiv. 

NainiTal ,,253 

North- West Frontier ,,214 

Ootacamund „ 389 

Pagan, the Ananda Temple 432 

„ the Thapinyu Temple 43^ 

Pattadakal, the Temple 311 

Poona and Kirkee To face S2i 

Quetta Railways 23( 

Railways, General, see India. 

Rangoon To face 42 

Sanchi, Plan of Great Tope 8 

„ Section of Great Tope 8 

Simla To face 18 

Somnath, the Temple j 1^ 

„ Verawal and Patan 1< 

Srinagar To face, 21 

Trivalur, Bird's-eye View of Temple 3^ 

„ Plan of Inner Temple 3j 

Vyayanagar ' n 



t Oalcoita, 

Delei, Kabaohi, and back. 

BoBlMjr At the bcgiimiiig. 

JoMmlpon (Marble Bocka, 

ilkhabad . . » 1* 

GUoitte, 0&d of Bte. 1 ^- 

eonioii to DarJeeUng, Eta. 

Boazaa Bte. 1. 

Loeknoir . „ U. 

(kvnpoie » 18* 

iga, Bte. 9 (Owalior Bte., 

5a; Fatdtpur Sikri, Bte. 9). 
Mhi, Bte. 6; Kutb, etc., 

Bte.0. 
Amxitaar (Oolden Temple^ 

Bte. IS. 
Ukan, Bte. 18 (Shah Deza, 

Bte. IS) 
Xoottan Bte. 14. 

Mknr » U. 

laaehi «. li. 

Bombay. 

Mdaya.' 

Itar B— BoMBAT, Ahmkda- 

IAD, BSLHI, LaHOBX, KaB- 

ACD, and back. 
Bonbay. At the baginning. 
Buoda . . Rte. e. 

flnmt ... M 0- 

Alunedabad • . „ 0. 

ibaBoad(HoimtAba) „ 6. 
Ibnrar, for Jodbpar „ 0. 
UD«e . . ,6. 

iifpore . . „ 6. 

ApK Bte. 9 (OwaUor. Bte. 6a ; 

fktcOiparSikri, Bte.9)L 
ftattanation of Bonte aa in 

'srdaya.! 

O — Bomb it, Dmun, 

UUB» Oaixjdtta, Ma- 

IKAS, PoooiA, and Bombay. 

Imbay to Agra, aa in Tour B. 
kvnpore . Bte. 18. 



CIRCULAK TOURS » 

BBOOMMENDBD BT MB88B8. T. OOOK & BON. 



Bte. 10. 

" }' 

Fatna ... » !• 
Oalcatta, end of Bte. 1 (Bar- 
Jeeling, Bte. 20). 
[JSar . . Bte.i2. 
Fdona ... »* 8S. 

Bombay. 

46dayi.* 

Tour D— Bombay, Jubbui<- 
POBB, DBun, Bbbabm, 
Calcotta, Cktuxk, Gau- 
OUT, Ma]»a8, etc 

Bombay to Jubbulpoie and 
Allahabad, aa in Bte. 1. 

Gawnpore . Bte. 18. 

A|m, Bte. 9^waUor, Bte. 6a. ; 
IJ^tehpnr SfkrI, Rte. »). 

Jeypore Bte. 6. 

aAIZ ... ..6. 

Delhi ... M 8. 

Locknow ,,16. 

Benarea. „ 1. 

QOeattomudMUBg Rte. 20), 
end of Bte. 1. 

Tntioorin . Rte. 28. 

Madnxa „ 81. 

Tai^ore . „ 81. 

Calient . . .,28. 

Madraa . End of Rte. 22. 

Poona ... ., 88* 

Bombay. 

OldaykS 

Tour B—BoMBAY, Madras, 

Galcdtta, BnrABBS, Dblhx, 

Baboda. 

Bombay. At the beainning. 

Hedraa . . Bte. 2S. 

Oalcatta ODaijeeling, Bte. 20), 

end of Rte. 1. 

Bte. 1. 
„ 16. 
„ 18. 
>. 9- 
» 8. 
.. 6. 



Alwar . . 


Bte. 6. 


ACTBkwd '. 


:;£ 


Ahmadabad . . 


, 0. 


Baroda . 


.. «. 


Snrat . 


«. 


Bombay. 




88 days.* 





Tow F— Bombay (StaanierX 
TxTTiooBiv, Madura, Tab- 
JOBB, Madbas, Poova, and 



Bombay End of Bte. 1. 

Steamer thence to 
Ooa (Steamer) Btea. 88, 88. 
Galiont (Steamer) Rte. 28. 
Tntioorin „ tL 

Ban to 
Madnia . . . „ 81. 
Tai^ore and Trichinopoly, 

Bte. 81. 
Jalaipet (Bangalore) Bte. 28. 
Madraa %d of Bte. 22 

Poona ... „ 88 

Bombay 

16day8.3 

ToiirO^BoMBAYandback,v(a 
Karachi, Lahobb, Dblhi, 
BbhIbbs, Jubbulpobx. 



Karachi . . 


Rte. 14. 


Mooltan 


„ 14. 


Lahore. . 


„ 18. 


Amrttnr . 


18. 


Umballa 


„ 11. 


Meemt 


»11A. 


Delhi . . 


r .. «. 



Lncknow 
Gawnpore 
Agra . 
Delhi . 
Jeypore 



Ana, Bte. 9 (G^nOior, Bte. 6a ; 

Fkitehpor Slkri, Bte. OX 
Mnttaa . . . Bte. 



Gawnpore 
Lveknow 



Allahabad 

Jnbbnlpore 

Bombay. 

88day8.a 



18. 
18 

1 

1. 

1. 



1 Messrs. T. Gook ft Son Isane tickete for these tours andm expUnatory pamphlet, 
b fiieir addresaea In Bombay and Galcutta, tee Index and Directory. „ ^ ^ ^ „ 
* mSe flSSSTrepr^ tie shorteat limit of days given by Messrs. T. Cook &8on, for 
Irfonnliig wke jottrney. 



XIV 



OIBOULAR TOURS 



India 



Tour H— Bombay and tack, 
via Calicut, Maduba, 
Madbas, etc. 

Bombay jSad of Bte. 1. 

Steamfirto 

OalicntCBaU) Rte. 28. 

Erode ... „ 80. 

Madnn „ 81. 

Trichinopoly . .,81. 

TaAjole „ 81. 

Ohinglepat . . „ 81. 

Kadiaa >, 22. 

Poona ... „ 22. 

Ealyan . . ,,82. 
Bombay 

14 days.i 

Tour I— Bombay and back, 
via JuBBOLPOBx, Galodtta, 
BsNABxs, Delhi, Baboba, 
etc 

Bombay to Delhi, as in Tour A. 
Delhi to Bombay, „ „ E. 

29 days.! 

Tour K— Colombo to Bombay. 

Colombo Bte. 88. 

Steamer to 
Tuticorin (Bail) „ 28. 

Madura (Bte. 31) to Bombay, 

as in Tour H. 
Bombay to Calcutta and Delhi, 

as in Tour A. 
Delhi to Bombay, as in Tour E. 

45dayB.i 



Tour L— Colombo to Bombay, 
via C AI.IOOT, llAnBAB, Cal- 
cutta, Dblhx, Jubbulpobx. 

Colombo to Madura, as in 

TourK. 
Madura to Madnw, as in Tour 

H. 
Madras to Calcutta (Daijeel- 

ing, Bte. 20X as in Tour B. 
Calcutta to Delhi,as in Tour B. 
Alwar ... Rte. e. 
A^ to Bombay (reTened), as 

in Tour A. 

49days.i 

Tour M— Colombo to Bom- 
bay, via Calicut, Madbas, 
Bombay, Allahabad, Bkn- 

ABKS, DbLHI, BaBODA. 

Colombo to Calicut, as in Tour 

Calicut to Bombay, as in Tour 

H. 
Bombay to Delhi, as in Tour 

Delhi to Bombay as in Tour 
B. 

48 days.! 

Tour N— Colombo to Bombay, 
via Calicut, Madbas, Bom- 
bay, Kabachi, Lahobe, 
Calcutta, Allahabad, and 
Bombay. 

Colombo ik> Bombay, as in 
ToorH. 



Bombay to Karachi, as in 

Tour G. 
Karachi to Calctttta(reTer8ed), . 

as in Tour A. 
Calcutta to Bombay, as in 

Tour A. 

58 days. 

Detour to Hydsrabad (Deo- 

canXRte. 25.ean be Joined U 

Tours C.D.B.F.H.K.M.N. 
Detour to Bangalore and - 

M^iore, Bte. 29, can be 

Joined to TOnn aD.B.F.H. ; 

K.L.M.N. 
Detour to the KUgizlg, Rte. 

80, can be Joined to Tours 

D.E.H.K.L.M.N. 
Detour to LallOKB, Bte. 12, 

can be Joined to Tonn 

aD.B.I.K.L.M. 
Detour to Qnetta (for Kan* 

dahar), Rte. 15,can be Joined 

to Tours A. B.G.N. 
Detour to Pealiawar, Rte. 

18, can be joined to Tours 

A.B.G.N. 
Detour to Qaya, Rte. 1, can 

be Joined to Tours A.C.D. 

E.I.K.L.M. 
Detour to (Iwallor, Rte. 5a 

can be joined to Tours A.B 

C.D.E.G.I.K.1/.M.N. 
Detour to B^apur, Rte. 24, 

can be Joined to Tours B.D. 

E.F.H.K.L.M.N. 
Detour to ABsam and Bra- 

mabputra Rirer, Btes. 20a 

and 20b. 



* These figures represent the shortest Itaift of days giren hy Messrs. T. Cook & Son for 
performing the Journey »«« tw 



INTEODUCTOKY INFORMATION 



Enqlish Lanquaqk 

A. TBiF to India is no longer a formidable journey or one that 
requires very special preparation. English is spoken in all the hotels 
(but not in the dak bungalows) ; and European shops have good 
articles for all ordinary requirements, with attendants who speak 

TJIAYELLING SBRYANTS 

A good travelling servant, a native who can speak English, is indis- 
pensable, but should on no account be engaged without a good personal 
character or the recommendation of a trustworthy agent Such a 
servant is necessary not only to wait on his master at hotels, dak 
bungalows, and even in private houses, where without him he would 
be but poorly served ; but in a hundred different ways when travelling 
l^nil or otherwise, and as an interpreter and go-between when dealing 
with natives. Having ascertained beforehand from his agent the fair 
wages which his servant ought to be x>aid, the master shoidd take care 
to come to some definite arrangement with him before engaging him. 
It is advisable to have an agreement in writing. If the servant 
proves satisfactory, it is the custom to make him a small present before 
parting with him. The same remarks apply to a lady's ayah. Madras 
ayahs though expensive are considered the best If the traveller has 
friends ^ up country," it is well to write beforehand and ask them to 
engage a servant for him, and to send him to meet his master at the 
port of arrival. " Up-country " servants are often cheaper and more 
idiable than those to be met with on the coast 

Bailwayb • 

In Bombay, the Ifidian A.B.O. Gmde and the hidicm Baihoay 
^twvdlen^ Ouide^ and in Calcutta, Newman's Inddan Bradshaw, give 
i&aps, the railway routes for all India, and steamer routes. For rail- 
way purposes the hours are counted up to 24, as in Italy * thus 20.18 



xvi RAILWAT8 — SEASON India 

is 8.12 P.M., and so on. Bailway time throughout India is Madras 
time. The difference is as follows : — 

Karachi time is 52 min. behind railway time. 

Mooltan ,, 36 

Lahore ,.23 ,, ,. 

Delhi „ 13 

Agra ,. 10 

AUahahad », 7 min. before railway time. 

Calcutta ,,33 ,, „ 

Chittagong,, 46 „ „ 

At most of the larger towns there are several stations. The traveller 
should not, as a rule, book for the "citj," but the '' cantonment ** 
station. Before booking he should note what station is mentioned in 
the Handbook, The Railway Companies in India do much for the 
comfort of travellers. Every 1st and 2nd class compartment is pro- : 
vided with a lavatory, and the seats, which are unusually deep, are so i 
arranged as to form couches at night, but are not furnished with 
bedding or pillows. There are refreshment rooms at frequent 
intervals, and some of them are very well managed and supplied; 
but when travellers intend to make use of them for dinner or 
otherwise they should signify their intention to the guard of the 
train beforehand and he will telegraph (free of chaise) to have 
everything in readiness at the station indicated on the arrival ^ 
of the train. The Station-masters are particularly civil and obliging, | 
and, as a rule, are most useful to travellers in providing ponies, [ 
conveyances, or accommodation at out-of-the-way stations if notice | 
is given them beforehand; they will also. receive letters addressed: 
to their care, — this is often a convenience to travellers. One ' 
drawback to travelling in India is that baggage is occasionally 
transhipped from one train to another — e^g. at a junction or from an 
express to a slow train — ^in which case a traveller may arrive at his 
destination and find that his luggage will not reach him for some 
hours. Every inquiry, therefore, should be made beforehand as tc 
the stations where luggage is likely to be transhipped, and the 
traveller should make a point of ascertaining that it is deposited in 
the same train with him. At every station carriages of some sort 
await the arrival of the trains. 

Season fob Visit to India 

The season for a pleasant visit to the plains of India lies between 
15th November and 10th March, but in the Punjab these dates may 
be slightly extended ; then, however, the heat will be found trying 
at the ports of arrival and departure, October and April are as trying 
months as any in the year, much more so than July, August, and 
^ibntember, when rain cools the atmosphere. 



s^^ 






■S' ■ ," 3 t^-3? ^fX, J-i ■^, "--7 •■-■•-- . .= .T/'tj.-X 




Inirod, expenses — olothikg xvii 

ilXPENfeES 

Owing to the depreciation of the rupee, the traveller whose financed 
are upon a gold hasis will find India a cheap country. The hotels 
charge 5 to 7 rupees a day for board and lodging. As walking in 
the heat of the day is better avoided, even in the cold weather, 
carriages have to be used in order to visit the various objects of 
interest The charge for a day varies from 5 to 10 rupees according 
to the locality, and the number of horses required. In a hotel a 
small gratuity may be given to the water-carrier (" bhisti "). Quests 
at private houses generally fee the chief attendants. The railway 
charges are moderate. The traveller starting on a journey does well to 
proYide himself with a sufficiency of small change. 

Clothing 

Not very long ago it was thought essential to have a special outfit 
prepared for a journey to India. This is scarcely the case now. 

For the Voyage a few warm clothes for the northern part 
and thin ones for the Red Sea and Arabian Sea are required. As 
regards the lighter clothes, a man will find it convenient to have a 
very thin suit of cloth or grey flannel for day, and a thin black coat 
for dinner. It is not necessary to dress for dinner on board ship. 

A lady cannot do better than provide herself with thin skirts of , 
tussore-silk or some such material, and thin flannel or silk shirts. 
Shoes with india-rubber soles are the best for the deck, as they afford 
good foothold when the vessel is unsteady. 

On Baggage-daySy which occur once a week, boxes marked wanted on 
wpge may be brought up from the hold, and suitable clothes taken 
out or stowed away according to the temperature and weather. 

For a winter tour in the plains of India, a traveller requires 
similar clothing to that which he would wear in the spring or autumn 
in England, but in addition he must take very warm winter wraps. 
A man should have a light overcoat in which he can ride, and a warm 
long ulster for night travelling or in the early morning. A lady, be- 
sides a jacket and shawl, should have a very thin dust-cloak, and a loose 
V3rm cloak to wear in a long drive before the sun rises, or to sleep 
in at night when roughing it. Tourists should remember that the 
mning dews are so heavy as to absolutely wet the outer garment, the 
i^bts and mornings are quite cold, and yet the middle of the day is 
•Iways warm, sometimes very hot, so that the secret of dressing is to 
%in the day in things that can. be thrown off ajs the heat increases. 

In Bombay and Calcutta, and, in fsu^t, all along the coast and 
ID the south of the peninsula, much thinner clothing is required. 
Cool linen suits for men, and very thin dresses for ladies, also Khakee 
i^ and shooting-suits, can be got cheaper and better in India than 
^ England, and a native tailor will make a very satisfactory suit 
[India] b 




XViii CliOTHING — BEDDING =^^ 

from an English pattern. Linen and underclothing for a( c ^-i ^' 
weeks should be taken, — with less th^ traveller on arrivrdS 
inconvenienced, or even detained until his hoard -ship * i>5, ^ ^ 
washed. The Indian washermen, though not as bad as th /L^*''^: 
be, destroy things rather rapidly. Winter clothing will bi ';:3k ^^ 
if it is intended to visit the hill -stations. Flannel ^f^^^^^ 
underclothing and sleeping garments and a flannel *' Kumi$3^ j 
(a strip of flannel 3 yd& long and 1 ft wide worn round ^^ - 
to be worn at any rate at night, are strongly recommended. 

The hospitality of India involves a considerable amount 
out^ and therefore a lady, unless she intends to eschew sociel 
be provided with several evening dresses. Riding-breeches 
for men, and riding-habits for ladies should not be forgotten. 

A good sun-hat is an essential. The Term hat (two soft 
fitting one over the other) might suffice for the coolest mo| 
even in cold weather the midday sun in India is dangerouSj 
therefore advisable to wear a cork or pith helmet, which is li 
better ventilated, and affords better protection from the sun 
Terai, and is indispensable in real hot weather. Many London 
have a large choice of sun-hats and helmets for ladies as well 
The Sola or pith hats are very light, but brittle and soon spoilt 
they can be bought in India very cheaply. A thick white 
the umbrella is also a necessary, especially for a lady, and a 
for the cool hours of the morning and evening will be found 
convenience. 

Travellers in Ceylon will seldom require any but the thi 
clothing, except in the mountains, where the temperature 
proportionately cooler as he ascends. At Kandy a light over 
at Nuwara Eliya warm wraps and underclothing, are necessary. 

Bedding 

Every traveller who contemplates a tour must on arrival in 
provide himself with some bedding, which he should take witha 
everywhere, even when on a visit to friends, and should have a 
at hand on a railway journey. Except at the best hotels, 
is either no bedding at all or there is the chance of its 
dirty. The minimum equipment is a pillow and two cotton vr&ci 
quilts (Razais), one to sleep on, the other as a coverlet ; or a 
rami and a couple of warm blankets. The ready-made ones \ 
usually very thin, but they can be got to order of any thickn^ 
To these should be added a pillow case, cheap calico dieets, an(S 
blanket A waterproof cover to wrap the bedding in must 
be omitted, with a pocket to contain pyjamas, etc., or the 
time the bedding is carried any distance by a cooly or packed 
a pony it may be very much dirtied. A waterproof sheet is a ve 



Introd, HOTELS — dak buno/llowb — FOOD xix 

yaluable addition to the bedding, but cannot be called an absolute 
necessity for a short tour. Without such a modest supply of covering 
as is here indicated, a traveller may at any time have to spend a night 
shivering in the cold, which woidd probably result in an attack of 
ague. An india-rubber hot-water bottle takes up very little room, 
and will often be found very handy. Some persons carry their own 
camp-bed, which they can rely upon being always clean. 

Hotels 

He who expects to find good hotels in India, up to the European 
standard of excellence, will be disappointed. Owing to the fact that 
the nominal proprietor is often a tenant for a short term, the character 
of a hotel may change very suddenly. At aU the chief towns large 
aiiy rooms can be procured, but the traveller will not be properly 
waited upon imless he brings a servant of his own with him. He 
should give notice beforehand of his intended arrival, as the hotels 
are often crowded in the tourist season. Most of the clubs admit 
recommended visitors as honorary members. A club which has sleep- 
ing accommodation is far more comfortable than a hoteL 

Dak Bungalows 

With regard to dak bungalows (travellers' rest-houses established 
by Qovemment), it is advisable to make some inquiries beforehand 
as to their accommodation. In some casec the keeper in charge 
has facilities for procuring food, in others the traveller has to bring 
provisions with him, and in some D.Bs. there are neither servants 
nor provisions. The rooms have an adjoining bathroom, and are 
nsaally furnished with bedstead, wash-stand, table and chairs, and 
crockery and lights are supplied. They cannot be retained beforehand 
—the first comer has the preference. After occupying a D.B. for 
twenty-four hours the traveller must give place, if necessary, to the 
next comer. 

Rest-Houbeb 

The Rest-House of Ceylon is mere like an hotel than the Dak 
Bungalow in India, in that it is more frequently furnished with 
bedding and linen, and food is generally provided. 

Food 

As a rule, the food in India is not good. The meat, with ex- 
ception of bullock hump, is lean and tough, and the fowls are 
ildnny and smalL Bread is fairly good; but milk is dangeroua. 
Aerated water should be preferred to plain water, unless the 
latter has passed through a filter of the best pattern, which has 
been kept thoroughly dean. If this cannot be ensured the water 



XXii ANCIENT MONUMBNTB 

the account of that island hy Sir J. Emerson Tennent^ El. O. S 
2 vols., 8vo (Longman), 1859. It has never yet been. »^ 
Sir Monier Williams's Buddhism^ 1 vol., Bvo (MurrayX 183d- 

Army and GlylL Lists and a useful Postal guide are to l>e : 
all Clubs. For books on Burma, see p. 418. 

The Preservation of Ancient Monuments 

The striking architectural monuments of India — Hindu^ 1B\ 
and Mohammedan — ^must largely attract the attention of tho 
and the means, or rather want of means, taken for their pi*e8e 
must be a subject of frequent remark. Partly under outside pi 
Government has made various attempts at conservation, but 
carried out through the engineering staff of the Public Works I 
ment, — the officers of which have not necessarily any intimate laio^ 
of architecture, — their work has too frequently been seriously inj 
to the monuments to be repaired. Lamentable examples o: 
mischievous policy are numerous. What has been wanted i 
guidance of the trained architect who would strictly confine hims 
the work of preservation and eschew everything of the nature of n 
Etion, which some engineers have been too fond of. Were this 
in connection with the Archaeological Survey, the monuments of 2 
might be rationally conserved at a minimum of outlay. The Goi 
ment of India carried on for many years an Archaeological Survey, 
gether dissociated from any conservation of the architectural monum< 
with which it concerned itself little, if at all, but rather with 
identification of ancient sites, coins, dates, and relics of long-foi^oi 
times, interesting chiefly to the savant. A few years ago a cha 
in this respect was attempted, and a careful survey of the monumei 
remains at Jaunpur, Badaun, Fatehpur-Sikri, etc., was begun ; but 
surveys were again reduced in 1889, and only one architectural ass 
ant and a few native draughtsmen were retained in Upper India. Wi 
this department officered by competent architects in the Punjab, Beng 
and Eajputana, who could authoritatively advise Government 
questions of conservation, the safety of the monuments would i 
insured, as well as the survey. In Southern and Western India, if ^ 
except Bijapur, which seems to have been wholly handed over to tl 
P. W. engineer, the monuments have generally been treated wit 
consideration, but many have been too much neglected. 




I 



Introd. ENGLAND TO GIBRALTAR XXiii 

VOYAGE FROM ENGLAND TO GIBRALTAR, MALTA, PORT 
SAID, THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL AND RED SEA 
TO ADEN AND BOMBAY. 

The comfort of tlie voyage depends much on the choice of the ship, 
and the cabin. ^ The largest ships, as having less motion and more 
room on deck, are usually preferable to smaller ones. The cabin 
should be as near the centre of the ship as possible. In going through 
the Red Sea to India the cabins on the port side are the best, as they 
do not get heated by the afternoon sun. On the return voyage this 
cabins on the starboard side are better, but the difference is not material. 
On going on board it is well to secure a seat at table at once, as 
after the first day at sea, when seats have been arranged, it is difficult 
to make a change ; the seats are usually allotted by the chief steward. 

It is usual to give at least lOs. as a fee to the cabin steward, and 10s. 
to the one who waits on you at table. The doctor also is fee'd by those 
who put themselves under his care. Going by sea from England, through 
the Bay of Biscay, the saving in point of money, as compared with the 
expense of the overland route across the Continent of Europe, is about 
£15. It involves much less trouble, and little or no risk of losing 
baggage. The first place sighted is generally Gape La Hagfue, or 
Hogue, on the E. coast of Cotentin in France, off which, on the 19th 
of May 1692 Admiral Russell, afterwards Earl of Oxford, defeated De 
Tourville, and sunk or burned 16 French men-of-war. Then Cape 
Pinisterre (finis ierros), a promontory on the W. coast of Galicia in 
Spain, and in N. lat. 42* 54', and W. long. 9" 20', will probably be 
seen, off which Anson defeated the French, fleet in 1747. The next 
land sighted will be, perhaps, Gape Boca, near Lisbon, and then 
Cape St. Vincent in N.lat 37** 3', W. long. 8*59', at the S.W. comer 
of the Portuguese province Algarve, off which Sir G. Rodney, on the 
16th January 1780 defeated the Spanish fleet, and Sir J. Jervis won 
his earldom on the 14th of February 1797, and Nelson the Order 
of the Bath, after taking the S. Josef smd the S. Nicholas of 112 guns 
each. This cape has a fort upon it, and the white cliffs, 150 feet 
high, are honeycombed by the waves, which break with great violence 
npon them. From the last three capes steamers are signalled to 
Lloyd's. Just before entering the Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalsrar 
will also probably be seen in N. lat. 36*^ 9', W. loner. 6' 1', immortalised 
by Nelson's victory of the 2 1 st of October 1805. Gibraltar: comes next 
in sight. The following table of distances is taken from the pocket-book 
published by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, 
This little book, costing only 2s., can be highly recommended. 

1 Apply to Messrs. Thos, Cook & Son, either at Ludgate Circus, Charing 
Cross, or 35 Piccadilly. 



XZIV 



GIBRALTAR 



India 



Taslb op Distances between the vabious Ports according to the Routes taken by th 
Steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company 

London {if via PlamQuih add 50) 

-| 



01 D 



129^ 10^4 Qlbniitai- 

2210 2036 
^27$ 2027 



S!1$S9^1 



H420:SM4 



' ' 'r*-- 



703 0e706e«@ 



31 y 74£0t5l^ 



295, Flytiioiitli 



&73 



Via FriRdijii 



moo 



3035 



371HI 



2^10 



2i540 



3613,3303 



4afl54T£0 



083 S2d09350,^J3S fil£)3 



Mfir&eJIIes 



^1 

BiiO 



2H30 
2271 



Kaplei 



I Maltii Ui Ft Jit Bail! dlruct . , Oaa mil en. 



Um 



li03 1200 1110 



15511383 [11 S3 



^aSOJ^t]7|4^^9|410O 



e3a^ &()Q6,[iS3s S'^ofi 



713B 037G,fllflS 507fi 



Trleato 

Venice 

An conn 



190 



4iK> 



laEKJ 



5458 



12fi 



3D5 



IJ^O 



'270 



lOSlJ 
I2O0, 



BrmOiHl 

Al[txaLndrifl, 



iJHO 



idea 



Fort Said 

Aden 



4H 



13D5 



smii 



las 



3016 



7023';SiiS 4S2:j 



1604 Boiular 

Colombo 



2703.1 *S.: 



61 Q Madn 



13!^0 



770 CalcnttflJ 



Calcutj 



907JSl3*S2S3fiS22 S077 7023 O^rt0.0042^58i52 014^jIp077 6fla2'3HJfi2 itf07|l752k709.33a7 21 SO 1264 



1 Calling it HarJru, 



3 QmittfJig Madmif. 



0IBRALTAli.^ — -As the steamers never stop for mor*j than o few 
hours, passen^^rs rarely find time fttr ^uylhiiifr beyond a walk in the 
town and loiier fortifications, Tliis iii a good place to buy tohjicco, 
as thet-e is no duty arni it is cliLuT^p. ThL-re are steamers from Gibraltar 
two or three times a week tn Tanj^ier. 

Gibraltar wae reekoned as one of the Pillar?? of Hercules, the other 
beiii^ Abyla, now Ajies^ Hill, Gibraltai' was taken from the Spaniards 
in 7H A.D. by Taiik ibii ^ayatl^ from wlmm it was calh^d Jabal al 
Tank = Gibraltar - aud it waa retaken 1309 ; and not finally wrested 
fpojii the Moors till 1503. In 3704 it Wfm taken by the Enf^liah, and 
sustained many sieges by rrench and Spaniards between 1704 and 1779. 
la tJie latter ymr uommeiiced the meinorablu sie^e wliicli lasted 4 
' " ' ' ^~4 ended by the I'epulse of the combined fleets of Prance and 



i 



IfUrod. GIBRALTAR XXV 

Spain by the garrison under General Elliott. Since that time it has 
remained an uncontested possession of the English. 

The JElock of Gibraltar first comes in sight at the distance of about 
10 m. Rounding Point Camero, and breasting Europa Point, the 
spacious but exposed bay 6 m. wide and 10 m. deep is entered. The 
defensive strength of the place is not at once perceptible. Two tiers of 
batteries are concealed in galleries hewn out of the rock half-way up, 
or lie so near, to the sea-line that they are hidden by the vessels moored 
around. Gibraltar is a vast rocky promontory, which on the N. side 
rises in a perpendicular precipicb 1200 ft high, and ascends in the 
centre to 1408 ft. It is 3 m. in length, and from ^ m. to J m. in breadth. 
It is joined to the mainland by a low sandy isthmus, l| m. in length. 
On all sides but the W. it is steep and rugged, but on that side there 
is a general slope from 200 to 300 ft. from the rock down to the sea. 
On this side the eye catches three high points : N. is the Rock G-un, 
or Wolf's Oragr, 1337 ft. ; in the centre the Upper Signal Station, 
or Bl Hacho, 1256 ft high ; and S. is O'Hara's Tower, 1408 ft. 
Here the rock descends to Windmill Hill Plats, a level plateau J 
10. long, which ends in a still lower plateau from 100 to 50 ft. above 
the sea, called Europa Flats. The new mole, landing-place, and dock- 
yard are on the W. of O'Hara's Tower. 

Passports are rigidly exacted on landing from all but British subjects, 
and sketching is, under all circumstances, strictly prohibited. The 
hours of gun-fire vary according to the time of year, but are easily 
ascertained ; a few minutes later all gates are shut and not opened 
again till sunrise. 

Walk or drive up Main Street as far as the Alameda, where the 
hand plays ; it was the parade-ground until 1814, when Sir George Don 
made a garden of it, and it is now really lovely. Notice a column 
brought from the ruins of Lepida, surmounted by a bust of the Duke of 
Wellington, also a bust of General Elliott, the hero of the great siege. 
Half-way is the Exchangre, containing a commercial library, with the 
Ohib House to the W., and the King's Arms Hotel to the E. The 
English Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, built in the Moorish 
style in 1832, stands near the centre of the town. Returning through 
the South. Port Q-ate, look at the dockyard, and passing by the South 
Barracks, take the lower of two roads to Europa Point, N.E. of which 
a another range of barracks. Beyond these, on the E. shore, is the 
lummer residence of the Governors, called " The Cottage," built by 
General Fox. The Governor's official residence in South Port Street, 
which is still called " The Convent," once belonged to Franciscan friars. 

Those remaining several days will have time to explore the Heights 
and fortifications, for which purpose an order from the military secre- 
tary is necessary. From the Rock Gun there is a fine view of the 
Ronda Mountains and the Sierra Nevada ; the Moorish Castle is on 



xxvi MALTA India 

the way (746 A.D.); under a massive tower, called the Torre de 
Omenaga, are some well-constructed tanks ; and beyond, the wonderful 
galleries excavated by convict labour. At the Sigmal House refresh- 
ments can be obtained, and from it is a noble view, which includes the 
Atlas Mountains, Ceuta, and Barbary, ending with the Bay of Tangieis. 
Between Rock Gun and O'Hara's Tower live a few monkeys, which 
are jealously protected. S. of the Signal Station, and 1100 ft above 
the sea, is the celebrated St Michael's Cave, open twice .a week ; an 
entrance only 6 ft wide leads into a hall 200 ft. long and 60 ft high 
supported by stala?.tite pillars like Gdthic arches. Beyond are smaller 
caves, which have been traversed to a distance of 288 ft In Windmill 
Hill are the four Genista caves, where many bones of men and animals 
have been dieMX>vered. 

Beyond the Land Port Gate is a causeway leading into Spain, with 
the sea on the left, and the " Inundation," a sheet of water so called, 
on the right. Beyond these is the North Front, where are the ceme- 
tery, the cricket-ground, and the race-course. The eastern beach, called 
" Ramsgate and Margate," is the general afternoon resort. Across the 
isthmus is a line of English sentries, then the Neutral Ground, and then 
the Spanish sentries. 6 m. from Gibraltar is a small hill, on the top of 
which is the town of S. Roque, and 1 m. beyond the ruins of the 
ancient city of Carteia are passed. 4 m. from S. Roque is an inn, 
and then a ride through the cork woods of about 4 m. brings the 
'Visitor to the Convent of Almorainia and the Long Stables. 10 m. 
from Gibraltar by land, and beyond the rivers Guadarauque and 
Palmones, is the town of Algesiras, where there is good anchorage, 
and steamers to various ports in Spain. 

Malta. — On the way from Gibraltar to Malta, Algriers may possibly 
be seen, its white buildings stretching like a triangle with its base on 
the sea, and the apex on higher ground. Cape Fez, and the promon- 
tory of the Seven Oapes, jagged, irregular headlands, are passed on the 
starboard side, also Cape Bon, the most northern point of Africa, and 
the Island of Pantellaria, the ancient Cossyra, between Cape Bon and 
Sicily. It is 8 m. long, volcanic, and rises to a height of more than 
2000 ft There is a town of the same name near the sea-shore, on the 
western slope, where there is much cultivation. It is used by the 
Italians as a penal settlement, and is rather smaller than Gozo. The 
Maltese group of islands consists of Gk>zo, Coinino, and Malta., and 
stretches from N.W. to S.E., the total distance from San Dimitri, the 
most W. point of Gozo, to Ras Benhisa, the most S. part of Malta, 
being about 25 m. From the nearest point of Gozo to Sicily is 65 m., 
and Africa is 187 m. distant from Malta. 

Malta lies in N. lat 35" 53' 49", E. long. 14" 30' 28". It is 17 
m. long and 8 broad. Its area, together with that of Gozo, is 116 
sq. m., and the population of the three islands is about 150,000. It 



IfUrod. UJLLTJL zxvii 

is a calcareous rock, the highest point being 590 ft above the sea-leveL 
Towards the S. it ends in precipitous cliffs. It has a barren appear* 
ance^ but there are many fertile gardens and fields, enclosed in high 
walls, where fine oranges, grapes, and figs, and other crops, returning 
from thirty to sixty fold, are grown. The Maltese language is a mix- 
ture of Arabic and Italian, but most of the townspeople have sufficient 
knowledge of Italian to transact business in that tongue. The port of 
Malta is situated somewhat to the K of the centre of the northern 
shore of the island. It consists of two fine harbours, separated by the 
narrow promontory called Mount Xiberras, or Sciberras. The western 
or qnarantine harbour, protected by Fort Tigrna on the W., is called 
Marsamuscatta ; the other is Valetta, or the great harbour, — it is 
there that the men-of-war are moored. The entrance to the great 
harbour is protected on the W. by Fort St. Elmo at the end of 
Sciberras, and on the E. by Fort Bicasoli, both very formidable. At 
Fort St Elmo is one of the finest lighthouses in the Mediterranean. 
The great harbour runs away into numerous creeks and inlets, in which 
are tiie dockyard, victualling-yard, and arsenal, all of which could be 
swept by the guns of St. Angelo, which is a fort behind St. Elmo. 
The mail steamers are moored in the quarantine harbour, and the 
charge for landing is one shilling for a boat, which will carry four 
people. On landing, a long flight of steps is ascended to the Strada 
San Maroo, which leads to the principal street, Strada Beale, 
I m. long, in the town of Valetta, so-called from Jean de la Valette, 
Grand Master of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, who built it 
after the Turkish armament sent against Malta by Sultan Sulaiman II. 
had been repulsed. The foundation stone was laid on the 28th of 
March 1566, and the whole town, designed by one architect, Girolamo 
Cassar, was completed in May 1571. On the E. side of the great 
harbour is the town called Citta Vittoriosa. 

Left of the Strada Reale is St. John's Cathedral, a remarkable 
chnrch, both historically and architecturally, designed by Cassar. 
The floor is paved with slabs bearing the arms of scores of knights 
who have been interred in this church. In the first chapel on the 
right, the altar-piece represents the beheading of John the Baptist, and 
i« by M. Angelo Caravaggio. In the next chapel, which belonged to 
the Portuguese, are the monuments of Manoel Pinto and Grand Master 
Manoel de Yilhena, which latter is of bronze. The third, or Spanish 
chapel, has the monuments of Grand Masters Perellos and N. Cotoner, 
and two others. The fourth chapel belonged to the Provencals. The 
fifth chapel is sacred to the Virgin, and here are kept the town keys 
taken from the Turks. On the left of the entrance is a bronze monu- 
ment of Grand Master Marc Antonio Sondadario. The first chapel on 
the left is the sacristy. The second chapel belonged to the Anstrians, 
the third to Italians, and here are pictures, ascribed to Caravaggio, of 



Mviii MALTA hidia 

St. Jerome and Mary Mj^dalene. The fourth is the French chapel, 
the fifth the Bavarian, and hence a staircase descends to the crypt, 
where are the sarcophagi of the first Grand Master who ruled in Malta, 
L'lsle Adam, and of La Valette and others. 

The Gtovernor'B Palace, formerly the Grand Master's, close to the 
Strada Reale, is a noble range of buildings, containing marble-paved 
corridors and staircase, and many portraits, and armed figures carrying 
the shields of all the Governors from the first Grand Master to the 
present day. The armoury is full of interesting relics, including the 
original deed granted to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by Pope 
Pascal II. in 1126, and the deed when they left Rhodes in 1522. The 
Library, close to the Palace, contains 40,000 volumes, and some Phoe- 
nician and Roman antiquities. The highest battery commands a fine 
view of both harbours and of the fortifications. There are several statues 
of Grand Masters and Governors in the walk on the ramparts. The 
Opera House, the Bourse, the Courts of Justice, once the Auberge 
d'Auvergne, and the Olubs (the Union Club was the Auberge de 
Provence), and the statues of L'Isle Adam and La. Valette, are all in 
the Strada Reale. The Auberge d'ltalie is now the engineer's office ; 
the Auberge de Castille has become the headquarters of the Artillery ; 
the Auberge de France, in the Strada Mezzodi, is now the house of the 
Comptroller of Military Stores ; and the Auberge d'Aragon is where 
the General of the Garrison resides. The Auberge d'Allemagne was 
removed in order to erect St. Paul's Church on its site. The Anglo- 
Bavarian Auberge is the headquarters of the regiment stationed at St. 
Elmo. The Military Hospital has the largest room in Europe, 480 
ft. long, erected in 1628 by Grand Master Vasconcelos. Below the 
Military Hospital is the Civil Hospital for Incurables, founded by 
Caterina Scappi in 1646. Where the Strada Mercanti joins the Strada 
S. Giovanni a large hook may be observed, which formerly served as 
the Pillory. For further information consult the Guide to Malta, 
included in Murray's Handbook to the Mediterranean. The island on 
which the Quarantine House stands was captured by the Turks in 1565. 
The Parlettario there is a long, narrow room near the anchorage, divided 
by a barrier, where the gold and silver filigree- work, the cameos, brace- 
lets and brooches in mosaic, and other bijouterie for which Malta is 
famous are sold. Maltese lace and silk embroidery should be bought 
under the advice of an expert, for the vendors in general demand 
extravagant prices. In the wall of a house in Strada Strella and Strada 
Britannica is a stone with an Arabic inscription, dated Thursday 1 6th 
Shaban 569 A.H. = 21st March 1174 a.d., for which see Journal Roy. 
Ab. Sac. vol. vi. p. 173. 

Five m. beyond the landing-stairs is the Governor's country Palace 
of S. Antonio, where is a lovely garden with creepers of astonishing 
beautv, and cypresses 40 ft. high, as well as many luxuriant orange 



Mrod. HAI/TA xixx 

trees. About | m. farther to the S.W. is Oitta Vecohia, which 
stands on a ridge from 200 to 300 fL high, affording a view over nearly 
the whole island. There is a fine church here, St. Paul's ; near it are 
lome curious catacombs. This is all that it is possible to see during the 
short stay steamers usually make, but those who have more leisure can 
visit St. Paul's Bay at the N.W. extremity of the island, with the 
statue of bronze erected on an islet at the mouth of the bay. Also 
the Carthaginian or Phoenician ruins at Hagiar Chexn, properly Hajar 
Eaim, '* upright stone," near the village of Casal Crendi, 1^ hour's drive 
from Yaletta. These ruins, excavated in 1839, consist of walls of large 
stones fixed upright in the ground, forming small enclosures, connected 
with one another by passages, and all contained within one large enclos- 
ure. The building is thought to have been a temple of Baal and 
Astarte. The main entrance is on the S.S.E., and a passage leads from 
it into a court, on the left of which is an altar, with the semblance 
Qf a plant rudely sculptured on it Similar remains are found in other 
parts of Malta and in Gozo. 

Malta is said to have been occupied by the Phoenicians in 1500 B.C., 
and by the Greeks in 750 B.a The Carthaginians got possession of it 
in 500 B.C., and the Eomans took it after the sea-fight of Putatia in 
215 ac. The Goths and Vandals invaded it in 420 a.d. In 520 a.d. 
Belisarius made it a province of the Byzantine Empire, the Moslems 
conquered it in 730 a.d., and Count Boger, the Norman, captured it in 
1100 A.D. It then passed to Louis IX., to the Count of Anjou, and to 
the Kings of Castile, and then to Charles Y., who gave it, in 1530, to 
the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. On 1 8th May 1565 
the Turks attacked St Elmo, St. ^gelo, and Sanglea, but the siege was 
raised on the 8th of September (see Major WhitwortJh Porter's History 
of the Knights of Malta, Longmans, 1858). The Knights had their own 
mint, fleet, and army, and accredited ambassadors to foreign Courts. 
In the archives are letters from Henry VIII., Charles II., and Anne, 
addressed to them as princes. On the 7th of September 1792 the 
French Directory commanded the Order to be annuUed, and seized all 
its French possessions. On the 7th of June 1798 Bonaparte arrived 
with a fleet of 18 ships of the line, 18 frigates, and 600 transports, 
and Malta was surrendered. A tree of liberty was planted before the 
Palace, the decorations of the Knights were burned, and the churches, 
palaces, and charitable houses at Valetta and Citta Vecchia were 
pillaged. On the 2d of September 1798, when the French tried to 
pull down the decorations in the Cathedral, a general revolt took 
place, and Nelson sent Captain Alexander John Ball with a frigate to 
lid the Maltese, and himself blockaded Valetta. The French were 
reduced to such extremities that a rat sold for Is. 7d., and on the 5th 
of September 1800 their commander. General Vaubois, surrendered. 
Over tiie main guard-room in St George's Square is written : 



XXX EGYPT, POBT SAID, AND THS SUEZ OANAL India 

** MaffiuB et inyict» Britannia 
Meutensium amor et £urop« vox 
Has insnlas confirmat a.d. 1814." 

Egypt, Port Said, aot) the Suez Oanal. — ^The land about 
Port Sidd is so low, that the approach to the harbour would be difficult 
were it not for a lighthouse 160 ft high, built of concrete, which 
stands on the sea-shore to the right of the harbour close to the W. 
mole, and shows an electric light flashing every 20 seconds, and visible 
20 m. off. The harbour is formed by two breakwaters, 1600 yards 
apart, built of concrete, the western 2726 yards long, the eastern 1962 
yards long. A red light is shown at the end of the W. mole, and a 
green one at the end of the R The depth of water at the entrance is 
30 ft. Since the works were begun, the sea has receded ^ m., and a 
bank has formed to the N.W. of the entrance, having only 4 to 5 
fathoms water on it, and it increases, being caused by a current which 
sets along the shore, and meeting the sea rolling in from the N., is 
forced back, and deposits its silt. Inside the W. jetty another bank 
is forming, and extends 100 ft every year. In 1874 the channel 
was dredged out to 29 ft, and by 1876 it had filled again to 26 ft. 
Port Said town is modem, and though- not very inviting, consisting 
mainly of wooden houses, chiefly low caf^s and gambling-houses, with 
some shops, has, since 1890, been improved, and is a very important 
coaling-station. - Opposite the anchorage on the Marina is the French 
office, where pilots are got, and where they take a note of the ship's 
draught, breadth, length, and tonnage. In this office there is a wooden 
plan of the canal, along which wooden pegs, with flags, are placed, 
showing the exact position of every vessel passing through the canaL 
The Arab quarter lies to the W., and contains over 7600 souls and a 
mosque. The Place de Lesseps in the centre of this quai-ter has a 
garden, and some houses of a better sort The streets swarm with flies, 
and mosquitoes also are numerous. The Exchange Hotel may be recom- 
mended. There are Coptic and Syrian churches, as well as Protestant 
and Catholic. Trains leave for Ismailia, Suez, and Cairo twice daily. 

The GaJial,^ opened in 1870, is in round numbers 100 m. in 
length, and as far as Ismailia, that is for about 42 m., it runs due N. 
and S. It the^ bends to the E. for about 36 m., and is again almost 
straight for the last 20 m. 

The following were the dimensions of the canal, which is now 
being widened (see Hcmdbooh of Egypt), 

Width at water-line, where banks are low . . 328 ft. 

ft in deep cuttings . , 190 „ 

,, at base 72 „ 

Depth 26 „ 

Slope of bank at water-line 1 in 5 ; near base 1 in 2. , 

^ For a history of the canal, see Handbook qfJSgypt, John Murray. 



Introd, ISMAILIA xzxi 

Every few m, there is a gaxe, or station, and a siding with signal 
posts, by which the traffic is regulated according to the block system 
by hoisting black balls. Every year the navigation is rendered easier 
by the construction of additional sidings. Traffic is carried on through 
the canal at night by the aid of electric light. Vessels must not 
move faster than 6 m. an hour. 

On the W. of the canal, as far as Al Kantarah (the Bridge), that 
is for about one>fourth of the way, there is a broad expanse of water, 
called Lake ManzalaJti, and for the rest of the distance to the W., and 
the whole distance to the E., a sandy desert, on which foxes, jackals, 
hyenas, and, it is said, occasionally even lions, wander at night 21 m., 
or 34 kiL, from Eantarah, and 20 m. from Port Said, the old Pelusiac 
branch of the Nile is crossed, and 8 m. to the S.E. are the ruins of the 
ancient city of Pelusiuni. At Kantarah the caual intersects the 
caravan-track between Egypt and Syria, and is crossed by a -flying 
bridge ; a traveller should go on the upper deck of his ship 
when approaching it, as, if a caravan chances to be passing, it 
is a most interesting sight. 10 m. to the W, is Tel al Daphne, 
the site of Daphne, the. Taphnes of Judith, i. 9. At 2 m. S. 
of Eantarah the canal enters the Lake Ballah, and after 12 ni. 
reaches the promontory Al Fardanah, which it cuts through. 
Thence, after 4^ m., it reaches Al Girsh, the highest ground in 
the isthmus, 65 ft. above sea-leveL There was a great camp here 
when the works were in progress. A staircase of 100 steps led 
down to the canaL Beyond l^is, near the entrance to Lake Timsah, 
a small canal joins the maritime canal to the Fresh- Water CanaL 
The dilFerence of level is 17 ft, which is overcome by two locks. 
A steam-launch comes to meet steamers on the canal, and land 
passengers for 

IsmaiIjIA, pop. 4000, which has now much of the importance and 
traffic that formerly belonged to Suez ; the mails and passengers for 
Egypt are landed here — hotel. A broad road lined with trees leads from 
the landing-place across the Fresh-Water Canal to the Quai Mehemet, 
and traverses the town from E. to W. In the W. quarter are the 
stations, the landing-quays of the Fresh- Water Canal, and large blocks 
of warehouses, and beyond them the Arab village. In the E. part are 
the houses of the employ^, the residence of the Khedive, which was 
used as a military hospital during the English occupation of Ismailia 
in 1882, and the works by which water is pumped from the Fresh- 
Water Canal to Port Said. These are worth visiting. At Ismailia 
there is much vegetation, and some good houses, — one belongs to M. 
de Lesseps. There is good water-fowl shooting here, and some ante- 
lopes are to be found. The fish of Lake Timsah are better flavoured 
than those of the Mediterranean. Lake Timsah, or Bahr al Timsah, 
*' the Lake of the Crocodile/' to which the Bed Sea is said to have 



XKxii BUE2 InAia 

formerly extended, is crossed in about 2^ m. The course is marked 
by buoys. After 4 m. the canal reaches the higher ground of Tassum, 
where the level of the desert is 20 ft above the sea, and here the first 
working encampment in the S. half of the isthmus was formed in 
1859. Three m. to the S. is Serapeuxn, where the level is from 15 to 
25 ft. above the sea, so called from some remains of a temple of Serapis. 

A mile and a half from this the canal enters the Bitter Ijafa^, 
where the course is buoyed. These lakes are the ancient Qulf of 
Heraeopolis. At the N. and S. ends of the principal lake is an iron 
lighthouse 65 ft. high, on a solid masonry base. After 28 m. the 
deep cutting of Shaluf is reached, in which is a band of sandstone^ 
with layers of limestone and conglomerate, in which fossil remains 
of the shark, hippopotamus, tortoise, and whale have been found. 
From this to the Suez mouth of the canal is 12|^ m. Some think 
that the passage of the Israelites was through the Gulf of Heneopolis. 

All the way from Ismailia the banks are fringed with vegetation,^ 
and the plain on either side is dotted with bushes. There is a little 
fishing in the canal for those who like the amusement, and at Suez there 
is a great variety of fish. 

Suez. — The chief historical interest o£ Suez is derived from its having 
been supposed to be the spot near which the Israelites crossed the Red 
Sea under the guidance of Moses, and where the Egyptian army was 
drowned, but modern criticism tends to place the scene of this event 
farther N. In the early years of the 18th century Suez was little better 
than a small fishing-village, galvanised now and then into commercial 
life by the passage of caravans going to and fro between Asia and Egypt 
But in 1837, owing to the exertions of Lieutenant Waghom, the route 
through Egypt was adopted for the transit of the Indian mail, and a 
few years after the P. & 0. Company began running a line of 
steamers regularly between India and Suez. This was followed in 
1857 by the completion of a railway from Cairo (since destroyed), and 
Suez soon began to increase again in size and importance. It suffered, 
however, from the want of fresh water until the completion (1863) of 
the Fresh-Water Canal to Suez brought an abundance of Nile water 
to the town ; and the various works in connection with the Suez Canal, 
the new quays, the docks, etc., raised the population to 15,000. With 
the completion of the canal, the activity of the town decreased, and 
since the transfer of the mails to Ismailia, the place has been almost 
deserted, and the fine quays and warehouses are unused, as steamers 
now usually anchor in the Roads. There is a railway line to 
Ismailia and Port Said. 

The Old Town itself offers few points of interest. To the N. of 
the town are the storehouses of the P. & 0. Company, the lock 
which terminates the Fresh-Water Canal, the English Hospital, and, 
on tbe heights above, is the chalet of the Khedive, from which there is 



Introd. EXCURSION to wells of hoses xxziii 

a magnificent view ; in the foreground is the town, the harbour, the 
roadstead, and the mouth of the Suez Canal ; to the right the range 
of Ghebel Attckkah, a most striking and beautiful object, with its 
black-violet heights hemming in the Bed Sea ; away to the left, though 
considerably farther S., are the rosy peaks of the Mount Sinai range ; 
and between the two, the deep blue of the gulf. 

The whole of the ground on which the quays and other constructions 
stand has been recovered from the sea. 

BXCUBSION TO "Wells of Moses. — A pleasant excursion may be 
made to the Wells or Fountains of Moses, Ain Musa. (This 
is the quarantine station for Suez.) From a steamer in the roadstead 
the wells look quite near. It will occupy, according to the route 
taken and the time spent at the place, from half a day to a day. 
The shortest way is to take a sailing - boat, or one of the small 
steamers tbat ply between the town and the harbour, as far as the 
jetty, which has been built out into the sea tot communicate with the 
new Quarantine lately established on the shore of the gulf for the 
reception of the pilgrims on their return from Mecca. From this 
point to Ain Musa the distance is not much over a mile ; if donkeys 
are required between the jetty and the Wells, they must be sent from 
Suez. The other plan is to cross over in a boat to the old Quarantine 
jetty, about half a mile from the town, either taking donkeys in the 
boat or sending themi on previously, and then to cross the Suez Canal 
by the ferry used for the passage of caravans between Arabia and 
S^gypt, and ride along the desert to the Wells. Or the boat may be 
taken down to the entrance to the canal, and then up it a short 
way to the usual starting-point for the WeUs. Either of these routes 
will take from three to four hours. The sums to be paid for boats 
and donkeys had better be strictly agreed upon beforehand. There 
are two so-called hotels at Ain Musa, where beds and refreshments 
can. be procured, but the visitor who intends spending the day 
there had better, perhaps, take some food with him. This excursion 
may be combined with a visit to the docks, the traveller landing there 
on his return. 

The " Wells " are a sort of oasis, formed by a collection of springs, 
Borrounded with tamarisk bushes and palm trees. Since it has become, 
as Dean Stanley calls it, ** the Richmond of Suez," — a regular picnicking 
place for the inhabitants of that town, — some Arabs and Europeans 
have regularly settled in it, and there are now a few houses, and 
gudens with fruit trees and vegetables. The water from the springs 
has a brackish taste. Most of them are simply holes dug in the soil, 
which is here composed of earth, sand, and clay ; but one is built up 
of massive masonry of great age. Though not mentioned in the Bible, 
its position has always caused it to be associated with the passage of 
the Bed Sea by the Israelites, and tradition has fixed upon it as the 
llndia] c 



xzxiT THB nvD SEA India 

»pot wbere Moses and Miriam and the Children of Israel sang their 
song of triumph. 

The Bbd Sea. — A fresh breeze from the N. generally prevails for 
two-thirds of the voyage down the Red Sea, and is, dnring the winter 
months, succeeded by an equally strong wind ttom tiie S. for th&rest of 
the way. During the summer, the wind from the N. blows through- 
out the sea, but is light in the southern half, and the heat is great 
The Sinaitic ransre is the first remarkable land viewed to the £., 
but Sinai itself^ 37 geographical m. distant, can be seen only for five 
minutes, from the bridge of the steamer. 

The Red Sea extends from the head of the Gulf of Suez to the 
Strait of £ab-el-Mandeb, about 1400 miles, and its greatest width is 
about 200 miles. At Ras Mohammed it is split by the peninsula of 
Sinai into two parts; one, the Gulf of Suez, about 150 m. long, 
and from 10 to 18 widej and the other, the Gulf of Akabah, about 
100 m. long, and from -6 to 10 wide. 

Wherever seen from the sea, the shores of the Red Sea present an 
appearance of absolute sterility. A broad sandy plain slopes inappreci- 
ably to the foot of the mountains, which are in most parts a considerable 
distance inland. The ordinary mail-steamer's track, however, lies down 
the centre of the sea, and little more than the summits of the distant 
bare and arid mountains will be seen. 

The only port on the E. shore between Suez and the division of 
the sea is Tor, two days' journey from Sinai The Khedivieh Company 
run steamers, touching at one or two of the intermediate ports between 
Tor and El Wedj. Opposite the end of the Sinai peninsula is' Jebel 
ez-Zeit, "the mountain of oil,'' close to the sea. At this point the 
Egyptian Government have lately expended large sums in searching 
for the petroleum which there is reason to believe exists. Up to the 
present, although a certain amount of oil has been found, it has not 
been proved to exist in sufficiently large quantities to pay for the 
money sunk. If leave can be obtained from the Public Works De- 
partment, a visit to the site of the borings might be made. At £21- 
G-irosheh, a headland, terminating the bay to the S.S.W. of it, are 
some sulphur-mines, grottoes, and inscriptions in the Sinaitic character. 
About 27 m. inland are the old porphyry quarries of Jebel ed-Dokhan, 
'^ mountain of smoke." The road from Gimsheh past Jebel ed- 
Dokhan may be followed to Eeneh on the Nile. The distance is 
about 140 miLea 

The ruins of Myos Hormos are on the coast in latitude 27*" 24'. 
The town is small, very regularly built, surrounded by a ditch, 
and defended by round towers at the comers and the gateways. 
The port mentioned by Strabo b'es to the northward, and is nearly- 
filled with sand. Below the hills, to the eastward, is the Fons Tadmos, 
mentioned by Pliny. Besides the ancient roads that lead from Myos 



Mni K0S8BIB XZXT 

HoonnoB to the westward is another running N. and S., a short distance 
from the coast^ leading to Ab6o Dorrag and Suez on one side, and to 
SoAkin on the S. 

KosSEiR. — At Old Kouevr are the small town and port of Philot^ra, 
of which little remains hut mounds and the vestiges of houses, some of 
andeat, others of Arah date. The modem town of Koeseir stands 
(m s small bay or cove, 4^ m. to the southward. The population is 
about 2000. This is a separate gor^morehip. It was formerly a plaee 
of some importance, but is now fedling into decay. The water-supply 
is bad. There is a custom-house, but the trade is very limited, consist- 
ing principally of dates &om Arabia. 

After passing Kosseir are the ^ several ports '^ mentioned by Pliny, 
with landmarks to direct small vessels through the dangerous coral- 
iee&, whose abrupt diecontinuanoe forms their mouth. These 
corresponding openings are singular, and are due to the inability of 
the coral A^nimula to live where the fresh water of the winter torrents 
rons into the sea, which is the case where these ports are found. 
There are no remains fsi towns at any of them, except at Nechesia 
and the Leueas Portui ; the former now called Wadi en-Nukkeuri, the 
latter known by the name of Eah-Shuna, or ''the magazine." Nechesia 
has the ruins of a temple^ and a citadel of hewn stone ; but the Leucos 
Portus is in a very dilapidated state ; and the materials of which the 
houses were built^ like those of Berenice, are merely fragments of 
madrepore and shap^ess pieces of stone. About half-way between 
them is another small port, 4 m. to the W. of which are the l6ad«inixies 
of Qabel er-BoBas ; and a short distance to the northward, in Wadi 
Abu-Raikeb, is a small quarry of basinite, worked by the ancients. 
About 20 m. inland from the site of Nechesia are the old Necda 
qaarries and emerald mines at Jebel Zobarah. 

Behind the headland of Ras Benas, called Has el-Unf, or Cape Nose, 
by the Arab sailors, opposite Y^nbo on the Arabian coast^ there is a 
deep gulf, at the head of which stood the old town of Berenice. This 
gnlf, according to Strabo, was called Sinus Immundus. The long 
peninsula or chersonesus, called Lepte Eztrema, projecting from this 
golf, is mentioned by Diodorus, who says its neck was so narrow that 
boats were sometimes carried across it from the gulf to the open sea. 
From the end of the cape may be perceived the Peak of St. John, or 
the Emerald Isle, Jeziret Zibii^eh, or Semergid, which seems to be 
the'0<^utf&79, or serpentuie island, of Diodorus. The inner bay, which 
oimstituted the ancient port of Berenice, is now nearly filled with sand ; 
and at low tide its mouth is closed by a bank, which is then left entirely 
exposed. The tide rises and falls in it about one foot. 

The town of Berenice was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and 
10 called after his mother. There is a temple at the end of a street, 
towards %h.e centre of the town, built of hewn stone, and consisting of 



\ 



xxxvi 8UAKTN — JTDDAH India 

three inner and the same number of outer chambers, with a staircase 
leading to the summit, the whole ornamented with sculptures and 
hieroglyphics in relief. It was dedicated to Serapis; and in the 
hieroglyphics are the names of Tiberius and Trajan. 

Between Bas Benas and Bas Elba are a number of small harbours 
which are much used by Arab traders to convey provisions to the 
Bishareen tribes, and to bring slaves back to Tembo and Jiddah. 
Since the trade with the Soudan has been stopped in consequence of 
the rebellion, a good deal of the commerce which used to pass through 
Suakin now goes to these small harbours, the custom duties being thus 
lost to the Egyptian Qovemment South of Bas Elba is Bas Boway, 
a long, low promontory. Here is an Egyptian station dependent upon 
Suakin. At Boway are some very extensive salt-fields, from which a 
considerable amount of salt is exported annually, principally to India. 

Suakin is the most important town on the W. side of the Red Sea. 
It was the scene of the two English expeditions of 1884, 1885, neither 
of which led to any result In 1896 the 2lBt Bombay InfiBmtry held 
Suakin for the Khedive of Egypt, and caused a division of Osman 
Digna's forces, thus enabling the Elhedive's troops, under Sir Herbert 
Kitchener, the more easily to reconquer the North Soudan. The prin- 
cipal tribes in the vicinity of Suakin are the Hadendowa and Amarar. 

After leaving Suez the lifirlitliouBes seen are Zafarana and Bas 
Gharib, both on the W. coast before Tor is reached. Then follows the 
light on Ashrafi, just inside the mouth of the Qulf of Suez, and that 
on Shadwar, just south of it. The light on The Bf^oHhars is nearly due 
E. of Kosseir. The Daedalus Beef, small and dangerous, lies in. mid- 
channel in latitude 25"*, and was a terror to navigators before the light was 
erected. And lastly, the light on Perim Island in the Bab-el-Mandeb. 

The most important ports of Arabia on the Bed Sea are fenbo, lat 
24"* N., the port of Medina, 130 m. to the E The town is but- 
rounded by a wall 12 ft high and is a mean place, but the harbour 
is one of the best on the coast 

Jiddah, in latitude 21^"* N., is an important place ; the seaport of 
Mecca, which is 60 m. E. The population, including surroundii^ 
villages, is about 40,000. English and other steamers call here 
frequently. The anchorage is 3^ m. from the shore. The town is 
square in shape, enclosed by a wall with towers at intervals, and on the 
sea-face two forts. There is a good street parallel to the sea. The 
other streets are irregular and not so clean. The town, for this 
part of the world, is well kept, but the suburbs are very poor. The 
population is most fanatical, and Europeans landing must behave in al 
respects cautiously. Supplies are abundant, but it is the custom to 
ask strangers exorbitant prices. There are three entrances to the town 
on the sea side, but the central one at the jetty is the only one in 



InfncL HODBIDA XXXYli 

oidinary use. The gate on the S. side of the town is seldom opened, 
that on the N. is free to all, but the E. or Mecca gate, which formerly 
was strictly reserved for Mohammedans, should be approached with 
caution, though Europeans are now generally permitted to use it. 
The only sight of the town is the so-called Tomb of Eve. This is a 
small mosque in the centre of two long low walls 140 ft. in length, 
which are supposed to enclose the grave of our gigantic ancestress. 
It is isegarded with considerable veneration, and lies north of the town 
The antiquity of the tradition is unlmown. Jiddah was bombarded 
hj the British in 1858 in retribution for a massacre of the consul and 
other British subjects by the population. 

HODEIDA, lat. 14"* 40' N., has a population of about 33,000. The 
anchorage here also is about 3^ m. from the shore. European 
steamers call weekly or oftener. Mocha, which this place has sup- 
planted as a commercial port, is 100 m. S. Hodeida has well-built 
houses and an amply -supplied market. It looks well from having 
mosques with fine domes and minarets. 

The Italians and French have settlements on the African shore in 
the S. part of the Red Sea, at Asab and Obokh, but passenger 
steamers to India do not approach these places. 

The Island of Perim occupies the narrowest part of the Strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb ("the gate of tears"). It is distant 1|^ m. from the Arabian 
coast, and 9 to 10 m. from the African. The average width is 1^ m., 
the greatest length 3^ m. Captain F. M. Hunter has given the most 
complete description of the island in his StaUtticai Account of Aden. 

Perim is called by the author of The Periplus the island of Diodorus, 
and is known amongst the Arabs as Mayun. The formation is purely 
volcanic and consists of long low hills surrounding a capacious harbour 
about l-^- m. long, ^ m. in breadth, with a depth of from 4 to 6 
&thom8 in the best anchorages. The highest point of the island is 
S45 ft above sea-level. All endeavours to find water have failed, and 
but little is procurable from the mainland near. There are water 
tanks that used to be supplied from Aden, but a condensing apparatus 
is found the most convenient means of supply. The British are the 
only nation who have ever permanently occupied Perim. Albuquerque 
landed upon it in 1613, and erected a high cross on an eminence, and 
called it the island of Vera Cruz, by which name it is shown on old 
Admiralty charts. Afterwards it was occupied by pirates who in vain 
dug for water. In 1799 the East India Company took possession of it, 
and sent a force from Bombay to hold it, to prevent the French then in 
Egypt from passing on to India, where it was feared they would effect a 
jnnction with Tipu- Sahib. The lighthouse on the highest point was 
completedin 1 86 1, andsince then two others have been built on the shore. 
There is always a guard from the garrison at Aden. They occupy 
a small block house for the protection of the lighthouse and coaling- 



xxxTiii ▲DIN India 

statioiu. Steamers lunullj paas to the £. of the island near the 
€k>vemment boat harbour. The western side of the large inner 
harbour has been assigned to the Perim Ck>al Companj, who have ex- 
pended £120,000 in making the place one of the most perfect ooaling 
and salvage stations in the East The salvage steamers are powerful, 
and always ready to render assistance to vessels in distress. The 
" City *' line of steamers coal here. 

Throughout the Red Sea enormous coral reefs run along the 'coasts 
in broken lines parallel to the shores, but not connected with them. 
They usually rise out of deep water to within a few feet of the surface. 
A navigable channel from 2 to 3 m. wide extends between them and 
the E. coast, and a narrower one on the W. coast The whole sea is in 
course of upheaval The former seaport of Adulis, in Annesley Bay, near 
Massowa, is now 4 m. inland. 

The tides are very uncertain. At Suez, where they are most regular, 
they rise from 7 ft. at spring to 4 ft. at neap tides. 

During the hottest months, July to September, the prevalence of 
northerly winds drives the water out of the Red Sea. The S. W. 
monsoon is then blowing in the Indian Ocean, and the general level 
of the Red Sea is from 2 to 3 ft. lower than during the cooler months,- 
when the N.E. monsoon forces water into the Qulf of Aden and thence 
through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. 

Aden was known to the Romans, and was for many years held 
by the Turks, who captured the port from the Arabs. Marco Polo, 
the Venetian, visited Aden on his return from his travels in China. 
It was then, in the 14th cent, held by a governor appointed by the 
" Soldan.'' Polo mentions the port as having been " a seat of direct 
trade with China in the early centuries of Islam." An Ai'ab reports 
it at that period as " enclosed by mountains, and you can enter by 
one side only.'' On the 18th February 1513 Albuquerque sailed 
from India with 20 ships for the conquest of Aden. In the assault on 
the fortress their scaling-ladders broke, and although they succeeded 
in taking " a bulwark which guarded the port with 39 great pieces of 
cannon,'' they were obliged to withdraw after a four days' siege. On 
the drd of August 1639 Soliman "Basha," the admiral-in-chief of a 
Turkish armada of 74 ships and gunboats, cast anchor in the port. 
His mission was against the Portuguese in India A Venetian captive 
serving as a slave on a Turkish galley writes in his Memoirs : *^ 'Tis 
very strong, and stands by the seaside, surrounded with exceeding 
high mountains, on the top of which are little castles or forts" 
(evidently watch-towers, the ruins of which are still to be seen on the 
most inaccessible points on the rim of the Crater). '* 'Tis encompassed 
also with ravelins on every side, excepting a little opening, about 300 
paces wide " (now made into the '* Main Pass "), << for a road into the 



Mred. adbk xxxix 

coantiy aad to the ahore, with gates, towers, and good wallai Besides 
all this there is a shoal before the city, on which is built a fort ; and 
at the foot of it a tower for the defence of the port, which lies to the 
south, and has two fathom of water. To the north there is a large 
port^ with good anchorage, covered from all winds" (this is the 
modem port). 

On this' occasion the admiral was offended at the reception he met 
with from the Turkish governor of Aden, and landed a force of 
Janissaries, who occupied all the forts, and brought the governor to 
paj a visit to the admiral The latter gave a most sumptuous 
entertainment to his guest ; but when about to withdraw made a 
signal to his crew, on which the governor was seized, and he and his 
staff hung out on the yard-arms of the flag-ship. 

Mareo Polo mentions : '' And it is a fieust that when the Soldan of 
Eabylon went against the city of Acre " (in A.D. 1291) *'this Soldan of 
Aden sent to his assistance 30,000 horsemen and 40,000 camels, to 
the great help of the Saracens and the grievous injury of the Christians. 
He did this a great deal more for the hate he bears the Christians 
than for any love he bears the Soldan." This was the Mameluke 
Saltan Malik Ashraf Khalil 

Aden was taken from the Arabs by the Britiah on the 16th 
oi January 1839 (see the Aden Hamdbookf by Captain F. M. Hunter). 
It was attacked by the Abdalis and Fadthelis on the 11th of November 
in that year, but they were repulsed with the loss of 200 killed and 
wounded. The united Arab tribes made a second attack on the 22nd 
of May 1840, but fEiiled after losing many men. On the 5th of July 
1840 a third attack took place, but the assailants, Abdalis and Fad- 
thelis, were driven back and lost 300 men. In January 1846 Saiyad 
Ismail, after preaching a jihad, or religious war, in Mecca, attacked this 
place, and was easily repulsed. A series of murders then commenced. 
On die 29th of May 1850 a seaman and a boy of H. E. L C. steam- 
frigate AwMcmd were killed while, picking up shells on the N. shore 
of the harbour. On the 28th of February 1851 Captain Milne, com- 
missariat officer, and a party of officers^ went to Wahat, in the Lahej 
territory. At midnight a fanatic mortally wounded Captain Milne, 
who died next day, severely wounded lieutenant MTherson, of the 
78th Highlanders, slightly wounded Mr. Saulez, and got dear away. 
On the 27th March following, another fanatic attacked and severely 
wounded Lieutenant Delisser of the 78 th Highlanders, but was killed 
by that officer with his own weapon. On the 12th of July in the same 
year, the mate and one sailor of the ship Sons of Commerce^ wrecked 
near Ghubet Sailan, were murdered. In 1858, 'Ali bin Muhsin, 
Saltan of the Abdalis, gave so much trouble that Brigadier Coghlan, 
Commandant at Aden, was compelled to march against him, when the 
Axabs weire routed with a loss of from 30 to 40 men, and with no 



tl AB8N India 

casualties on our aide. In December 1866, the Sultan of the Fadtheli 
tribe, which has a seaboard of 100 m., extending from the boundary 
of the Abdalis, attempted to blockade Aden on the land side ; but 
was utterly routed by Lieut.-Col. Woolcombe, C.B., at Bir Said, 15 
m. from the Barrier Qate. A force under Brigadier-General Baines, 
C.B., then marched through the Abgar districts, which are the low- 
lands of this tribe, dnd destroyed several fortified villages. Subse- 
quently, in January 1866, an expedition went from Aden by sea to 
Shugrah, the chief port of the Fadthelis, 65 m. from Aden, and de- 
stroyed the forts there. Since 1867 this tribe, which numbers 6700 
fighting men, have adhered to their engagements. The Sultan of the 
Abdalis, who inhabit a district 33 m. long and 8 broad to the N.N.W. 
of Aden, and number about 8000 souls, was present in Bombay during 
the Duke of Edinburgh's visit in February 1870, and is friendly. His 
territory is called La Hej, and the capital is Al-Hautah, 21 m. from the 
Barrier Qate (see expeditions, p. xliii.) 

Aden is hot, but healthy. Snakes and scorpions are rather 
numerous. The town is full of interest to the anthropologist, and a 
visit to the bazaar in the afternoon is well worth the trouble. Wild 
Arabs from the interior of Arabian Yemen, Turks, Egyptians, hideous 
Swahelis from the coast of East Africa, Somalis from the untamed 
shock-headed Bedouin to the more civilised officer's servant, Jews of 
various sects, inhabitants .of India, Parsis, British soldiers, Bombay 
Marathas, and lastly the Jack-tar, are seen together in a motley 
crowd. 

The Crater used in former days to be the fortress of Aden. Now 
modem science has converted " Steamer Point " into a seemingly im- 
pregnable position ; the peninsula which the '* Point *' forms to the 
whole Crater being cut off by a fortified line which runs fix)m 
N. to S. just to the eastward of the coal wharfs. The harbour 
mouth is swept by a powerful armament of 10" and 6^^ guns mounted 
on *' disappearing " hydraulic carriages in Forts Tarshine and Morbut 
Batteries sweep the inner harbour and the approach by land from 
the Main Pass and village of Ma'ala. The accuracy of the artillery 
fire is ensured by "position finders" on the spurs of the mountain 
Shumshum. The whole position bristles with quick-firing ordnance 
of the latest patterns. The only £etult that critics have found is 
that too much has been spent on ordnance of unnecessarily large 
calibre. 

Inside the Light Ship the water shallows to 4 fathoms, and a lai^ 
steamer stirs up the mud with the keeL As soon as the vessel stops, 
scores of little boats with one or two Somali boys in each paddle off 
and surround the steamer, shouting "Overboard, overboard," and 
" Have a dive, have a dive," also " Good boy, good boy,*' all together, 
with a very strong accent on the first syllable. The cadence is not 



Introd. APBN xli 

anpleasing. If a small coin is flung to them they all spring into the 
water, and nothing is seen but scores of heels disappearing under the 
Boiface as they dive for the money. Owing to a number of fatalities, 
from sharks, diving is prohibited in the S.W. monsoon months. Other 
fish are almost as ravenous. Tn 1877 a rock cod between 6 and 6 ft. 
long seized a man who was diving and tore off the flesh of his thigh. 
The man's brother went down with a knife and killed the cod, which 
was brought ashore and photographed at Aden, as was the woimded 
man. 

As soon as the captain has fixed the hour at which he will leave 
the port, a notice is posted, and then passengers generally start for the 
shore to escape the dust and heat during coaling. All the ports are 
closed, and the heat and closeness of the cabins will be found quite in- 
supportable. 

No boat can ply for hire in Aden Harbour without a licence 
from the Conservator of the Port^ and the number of the licence must 
be displayed on the bow and stem, and also by each of the crew. 
When asking payment the crew must exhibit the tables of fares and 
rules, and any one asking prepayment is liable to fine or imprison- 
ment In case of dispute, recourse must be had' to the nearest European 
police officer. By specisd agreement a first-class boat may be engaged 
for 4 fares, and a second-class boat for 3 falres. Every boat must have 
a lantern at night A boat inspector attends at the Gun Wharf from 6 
Ajc to 1 1 P.M. to caU boats, suppress irregularities, and give informa- 
tion to {)a8senger& After sunset passengers can be landed only at the 
Gun Wharfc 

It takes from twelve to twenty minutes to land at the Post Office 
Pier, which is broad and sheltered. The band occasionally plays 
there. To the left, after a walk or drive of a mile, one arrives at 
the hotels. There is also a lai^e shop for wares of all kinds kept 
by a ParsL 

Land Conveyances 

Every conveyance must have the number of its licence and the 
number of persons it can carry painted on it A table of fares must 
be fixed on some conspicuous part of the conveyance, and the driver 
must wear a badge with the number of his licence, and must not 
demand prepayment of his fare. From Isthmus to the Point the fare 
is the same as friom Town to Point. The Point signifies any inhabited 
part of Steamer Ptmt, the name given to the part of the peninsula off 
which the steamers lie. 

Condensers 

At a short distance N. of the hotels is a condenser belonging to a 
privftte proprietor. There are three such condensers belonging to 



xlii AQBN India 

Qovemmeiit^ and seyeral the property of private companies, and by 
these and an aqueduct from Sheikh Othman, 7 m. beyond the Barrier 
Qate, Aden is supplied with water. Crondensed water costs from about 
2 rs. per 100 gallons. 

The Tanks 

Besides these there are tanks, which are worth a visit The 
distance to them from the pier is about 6 m. Altogether there 
are about Mty tanks in Aden, which if entirely cleared out, 
would have an aggregate capacity of nearly 30,000,000 imperial 
gallons. It is supposed that they were commenced about the second 
Persian invasion of Yaman in 600 a.d. Mr. Salt, who saw them 
in 1809, says, ''The most remarkable of these reservoirs consists 
of a line of cisterns situated on the N.W. side of the town, three oi 
which are fuUy 80 ft. wide and proportionally deep, all excavated 
out of the solid rock, and lined with a thick coat of fine stucco. A 
broad aqueduct may still be traced which formerly conducted the 
water to these cisterns from a deep ravine in the mountain above; 
higher up is another still entire, which at the time we visited it was 
partly filled with water." In 1856 the restoration of these magnifi- 
cent works was undertaken (eee the Aden Hcmdbocky by Captain F. M. 
Hunter). And thirteen have been completed, capable of holding 
8,000,000 gallons of water. The range of hills which was the crater 
of Aden is nearly circular. On the W. side the hills are precipitous, 
and the rain that descends from them rushes speedily to the sea. On 
the E. side the descent is broken by a tableland winding between the 
summit and the sea, which occupies a quarter of the entire snperficies 
of Aden. The ravines which intersect this plateau converge into one 
valley, and a very moderate fall of rain sufi&ces to send a considerable 
torrent down it. This water is partly retained in the tanks which were 
made to receive it, and which are so constructed that the overflow of 
the upper tank falls into a lower, and so on in succession. As the ann ual 
rainfall at Aden did not exceed 6 or 7 in., Malik al Mansur, King of 
Yaman, at the close of the 16th century built an aqueduct to bring the 
water of the Bir Hamid into Aden (see Playfair's History of Yama/rC), 

The Salt Pans on the way to Sheikh Othman are curious. The sea- 
water is pumped into shallow pans cut out of the earth, and allowed 
to evaporate, and the salt which remains is collected. It belongs 
to an Italian company, who pay royalty on every ton of salt procured. 
The Keith-Falconer Medical Mission at Sheikh Othman, as well as 
Steamer Point, was established by the Hon. Ion Keith - Falconer, 
Arabian Professor, Cambridge, who died there. His tomb, erected by 
the Dowager Countess of Kintore, of fine Carrara marble, is in the 
military cemetery of Aden. The Mission, under the care of the 
doctors of the Free Church of Scotland, is most popular. At Steamer 



Introd, ADEK xliii 

Point there are three churches for the troops, Anglican, Scottish, and 
Roman. In the Crater there are two churches. 

Expeditions 

There is no risk attending an expedition at any time in the day 
beyond the Barrier Gate up to Sheikh Othman, distant about 5 m. 
Parties of officers now go shooting without being troubled in the 
Abdali country, within a radius of 20 m. 

An expedition should be made, if a few days' stay at Aden is 
possible, to Al-Hautah. There is a Dak Bungalow provided by the 
Saltan of La Hej, with bed -cots and crockery, etc., and cooking 
utensils. Food should be taken from Aden, where also camels for 
riding can be procured by application to the Commissariat officer. 
The Political Resident is always pleased to give every attention to any 
application for permission. The Sultan of Al-HautaJi is most generous 
in his provision for strangers. It is the custom to call upon him. 

After leaving Aden the only land usually approached by steamers 
bound for India is the Island of Soootra, which is about 150 m. 
E. of Cape Guardafui, the E. point of the African continent The 
island is 71 m. long, and 22 broad. Most of the surface is a tableland 
about 800 ft above sea-leveL The capital is Tamarida or Hadibu, on 
the N. coast. The population is only 4000, or 4 to the square mile. 
It is politically a British possession subordinate to Aden, but adminis- 
tered in its internal affairs by its own chiefs. 



zliv 



THB FEOPLB OF INDIA — ^MOHAMMEDANS 



India 



THE PEOPLE OF INDIA 

The census of 1891 gave the population of India and Burma as 
follows : — 



British 
Feudatory . 
Portuguese . 
French 4 


Area in 
Square Miles. 


Population. 


Persons per 
Square Ifile. 


961,994 

595,313 

1,086 

178 


221,113,264 

66,050,479 

481,467 

282,928 


229 

110 
\ chiefly in 
J towns 


1,558,571 


287,928,133 


184 



Of this total of 288,000,000 about 160,000 aie British bom, of 
whom one half are soldiers. The army of British India comprises : — 

British Troops 74,000 

Native 145,000 



219,000 



In addition there are Native Reserves, 16,000 ; Imperial Service 
Troops furnished by Native States, 19,000 ; and European or Eurasian 
Volunteers, 27,000, making altogether 61,000 additional men trained 
by British officers. The Native States have semi -trained troops 
which are not included in this list. 

There are four races in India — ^the aborigines, or non-Aryans ; the 
pure Aryans, or twice -bom castes ; the Mohammedans ; and the 
Hindus, a blend of Aryans and non- Aryans, who form the bulk of 
the population. 

The census of 1891 gave, in round numbers, the following religious 
statistics : — 



Brahmanic . 


207,700,000 


Christian 


• 


. 2,300,000 


Animist (non- Aryan) . 


9,300,000 


Sikh . 


a 


. 1,900,000 


Mohammedan 


57,300,000 


Jain 


• 


. 1,400,000 


Buddhist . 


7,100,000 


Zoroastrian • 


• 


90,000 



THE MOHAMMEDZNS. 

Mohammed (strictly Muhammad, 'Hhe praised '') was born at 
Mecca in 570 a.d., his father being a poor merchant who died soon 
after the birth of his son. When twenty-five years old he became 
manager or agent to a rich widow named Ehadija, who, although 
fifteen years his senior, offered him marriage. By her he had two sons 
who died young, and four daughters, of whom the best known is 
Fatima. At the age of forty he received the first divine commnnica- 



Ifiitrod. 



THE MOHAMMEDANS 



xlv 



tion in the solitude of the mountain Hira, near Mecca. Tlie angel 
Qabriel appeared, and commanded him to preach the new religion. 
The Meccans persecuted him; his wife and uncle died ; and he became 
poYBily - stricken. In Jime 622 he fled to Medina, where he was 
accepted as a prophet. He made war upon the Meccans, and finally 
succeeded in capturing Mecca, where he was then recognised as chief 
and prophet He died in the arms of his favourite wife Ayesha, on 
tbe 8th June 632. 

The chief tenet of the Mohammedan religion is Islam, which means 
resignation, submission to the will of Gk>d. In its dogmatical form it 
is Imam (faith), in its practical Din (religion). The fundamental 
principle is, " There is no God but God ; and Mohammed is God's 
prophet" There are four great duties. 1. Daily prayers. These should 
take place five tinies a day — at sunset, nightfall, daybreak, noon, and 
afternoon. 2. The giving of alms. 3. The fast of Ramazan. 4. A 
pilgrimage to Mecca. In the Koran (much of which was dictated by 
Mohammed), a holy war or Jihad is enjoined as a religious duty. 
The Mohammedans believe in resurrection, heaven, and hell. In 
heaven are all manner of sensuous delights. In hell all who deny 
the unity of God will be tortured eternally. There is a separate 
heaven for women, but most of them will find their way to hell. 
Mohammed enjoined care in ablution of the hands, mouth, and nose, 
before eating or praying. The Koran forbids the drinking of wine, 
or the eating of the flesh of swine. Usury, and games of chance are 
prohibited, and the laws against idolatry are very stringent. Every 
man may have four wives, and some concubine slaves, but he must 
not look upon the f&ce of any other woman except a near relative. 
Hope and fear, reward and punishment^ with a belief in predestina- 
tion, form the system of faith. It is contrary to the religion of 
Mohammed to make any figure or representation of anything living. 
There are two main Mohammedan sects. According to the Sunnis the 
first four caliphs (representatives) after Mohammed are Abubekr, 
Omar, Othman, and AJi in that order. The Shias consider that Ali 
was the first, excluding the other three. 

Ercts. — The Mohammedan era of the Hijrah takes its name from 
the ** departure '* of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina on Friday the 
16th of July 622 A.D. This date was ordered by the Khalifah Umar 
to be used as their era by Mohammedans. Their year consists of 
twelve lunar months, as follows : — 



Maharram 


30 days. 


Rajab . 
Sh'aban. 


30 days. 


8a&r . 


. 29 „ 


. 29 „ 


Babi nl avval 


. . 30 „ 




30 „ 


Sabins-sani . 


29 „ 


Shawwal 


29 


Jmnada '1 avval 


30 „ 


Zik'adah 


30 


Jmada 's-sani 


. 29 „ 


Zi hijjah 


29 




= 354 


daya 





Xlvi MOHAMMEDAN FESTIVALS IfMi 

Their year, therefore, is 1 1 days short of the solar year, and iheir 
New Year's Day is every year 1 1 days earlier than in the preceding year. 
In every 30 years the month Zi hijjah is made to consist 1 1 times of 
30 days instead of 29, which accounts for the 9 honrs in the lunar 
year, which = 364 days, 9 hours. To bring the Hijrah year into ac- 
cordance with the Christian year, express the former in years and 
decimals of a year, and multiply by •970225, add 621-64, and the 
total will correspond exactly to the Christian year. Or to effect the 
same correspondence roughly, deduct 3 per cent from the Hijrah year, 
add 621*54, and the result will be the period of the Christian year 
when the Mohammedan year begins. All trouble, however, of com- 
parison is saved by Dr. Ferdinand Wtistenfeld's Comparative Tables, 
Leipzig, 1854. 

The Tarikh Ilahiy or Era of Akbar, and the FasU or Harvest Era 

These eras begin from the commencement of Akbar's reign on Friday 
the 5th of Babi us-sani, 963 a.h.« 19th of February 1556. To make 
them correspond with the Christian, 693 must be added to the former. 

Mohammedan Festivals 

Bakari ^Id, held on the 10th of Zi hijjah in memory of Abraham's 
offering of Ishmael, which is the version of the Koran. Camels, 
cows, sheep, goats, kids, or lambs are sacrificed. 

Muharramy a fast in remembrance of the death of Hasan and 
Husain, the sons of 'Ali by Fatimah the daughter of Mohammed. 
Hasan was poisoned by Yezid in 49 a.h., and Husain was murdered at 
Karbala on the 10th of Muharram, 61 A.H.a9th October 680 a.d. 
The fast begins on the Ist of Muharram and lasts 10 days. Moslems 
of the Shi'ah persuasion assemble in the T'aziyah Khana, house of 
mourning. On the night of the 7th an image of Burak, the animal 
(vehicle) on which Mohanmied ascended to heaven, is carried in proces- 
sion, and on the 10th a Tabut or bier. The Tabuts are thrown into 
the sea, or other water, and in the absence of water are buried in t^e 
earth. The mourners move in a circle, beating their breasts with cries 
of " Ai ! Hasan. Ai ! Husain." At this time the fanatical spirit is 
at its height, and serious disturbances often take place (see Hobson 
Jobson in Yule's Glossary of Anglo-Inddem Terms), 

AJMri GhahoT SharnbaJi, held on the last Wednesday of Safar, when 
Mohammed recovered a little in his last iUness and bathed for the last 
time. It is proper to write out seven blessings, wash off the ink and 
drink it, as also to bathe and repeat prayers. 

BaH Wafat, held on the 13th of Rabi ul awal in memory of Mo- 
hammed's death, 11 a.h. 

Pir-i'DastgWy held on the 10th of Rabi us-sani in honour of 
Saiyad 'Abdul Kadir Gilani, called Pir Piran or Saint of Saints,, who 



Mroi. MOSAHHISDAN DATB6 xlvix 

taught and died at Baghdad. During epidemics a green flag is carried 
in his name. 

Ghiraghan-i-Zlndah Shah Madar^ held on the 17th of Jumada 1 
awal in honour of a saint who lived at Makkhanpur, and who is 
thought to be still alive, whence he is called Zindah, " living/' 

UrS'i-Kadir WaU^ held on the 11th of Jumada's-sani, in honour of 
Khwajah Mu'in-tid-din Chisti, who was buried at Ajmere in 628 A.H. 

MvTaj-i-Mvhammad, held on the 25th of Kajab, when the Prophet 
ascended to heaven. 

Shab'i-harat, night of record, held on the 16th of Sh'aban, 
when they say men's actions for next year are recorded. The 
Koran ought to be read all night, and the next day a fast should 
be observed. 

Bamcuoanj the month-long &st of the Mohammedans. The night 
of the 27th is called Lailatu '1-Kadr, " night of power," because the 
Koran came down from heaven, on that night 

*Idu 'l-Jitr, the festival when the fast of the Eamazan is broken. 
The evening is spent in rejoicing and in exhibitions of the Nautch girls. 

Ghn/ra^han-i^Bwndah Na/waz, held on the 16th of Zik'adah in 
honour of a saint of the Chisti family, who is buried at Kalbarga and 
is also called Gisu Daraz, ^' long ringlets." 

Soke Mohammbdan Dates affecting India 

A.D. 

Birth of Mohammed 570 

His departure from Mecca to Medina. The hijrah era . ... 622 

His death 632 

Arab invasions of Sind 647-828 

Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Rajputs at Peshawar . . . 1001 
Mahmud captures Somnath in Guzerat, and carries off the temple 

gates to Ghazni 1024 

The Afghans of Ghor capture Ghazni 1162 

Mohammed of Ghor captures Delhi 1193 

Kutb-ud-din (originally a slave) proclaims himself sovereign of 

India at Delhi 1206 

Altamsh extends the empire of the slave dynasty . . . 1229 
Ala-nd-din conquers Southern India ; defeats several Mogul in- 

▼asions from Central Asia 1295-1315 

Timnr, or Tamerlane, sacks Delhi 1398 

Babar the Mogul, sixth in descent from Timur, defeats the Afghan 

Sultans of Delhi, at the battle of Panipat 1624 

Babar defeats the* Rajputs at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra . . 1627 

Akbar defeats the Afghans at Panipat 1666 

Akbar conquers the Rajputs, annexes Bengal, Guzerat, Sind, 

Cashmere, and Kandahar 1661-94 

Death of Akbar at Agra 1605 

Commencement of the struggle between the Mogul Emperor and 

theMarathas 1688 

Anrongzeb captures Sambhaji, the son of the Maratha chief Sivaji, 

md puts him to death 1688 



Zlyiii 80VBREION8 WHO REIGNED AT DELHI India 

▲.D. 

Death of Aurongzeb ; deolme of the Mogal power .... 1707 

Bajputana lost to the Moenl 1715 

Defeat and persecution of the Sikhs, the Mogul puts their leader 

Banda to death with cruel tortures 1716 

Kabul severed from the Moguls 1738 

Nadir Shah, king of Persia, sacks Delhi 1739 

The Marathas obtain Malwa ; Oude becomes independent of Delhi 1743 

Hyderabad becomes independent 1748 

The Marathas obtain Southern Onssa ; and tribute from Bengal . 1751 
Invasion of the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani, and cession of 

Punjab to him 1751-2 

Ahmad Shah Durani sacks Delhi 1756 

The Marathas capture Delhi 1759 

Defeat of the Marathas by the Afghana at the battle of Panipat . 1761 

General Lake captures Delhi 1803 



List of Sovereigns who ebioned at Delhi from 1198 to 1887 a.d. 
T?ie Pathcmy Afghan^ or Qhori Kings of HvadiLstan who reigned at Delhi. 



Muhammad bin Sam, Ist Dynasty . 

Kutb-ud-din 

Aram Shah . . 
Shams-ud-din Altamsh . 
Ruknu-din Feroz .... 
Sultanah Biziah .... 

Bahram 

A'lau-din 

Nasiru-din Mahmud . . • 

Balban 

Eaikubad . . . . 

Jelalu-din Feroz Shah, 2nd Dynasty 
Ruknu-din Ibrahim .... 
'Alau-din Muhammad 
Shahabu-din 'Umar . . . . 
Eutbu-din Mubarak 
Nasiru-din Khusni .... 
Ohiasu-din Tnghlak Zrd Dynasty 
Muhammad bin Tnghlak . 

Feroz Shah 

Tughlak 

Abubakr 

Muhammad Shah . . . . 

Sikander 

Mahmud 

Nusrat Shah 

Mahmud restored . . . . 
Daulat Ehan Lodi . . . . 
Ehizr Ehan Sa'id, 4th Dynasty 

Mubarak Shah II 

Muhammad Shah 

'Alam Shah 

Bahlol Lodi, 6th Dynasty 

Sikandar 

Ibrahim ...... 



A.H. 


A.D. 


589 


, 1193 


602 


1206 


607 


1210 


607 


1211 


683 


1236 


634 


1236 


637 


1240 


639 


1242 


643 


1246 


664 


1266 


686 


1289 


689 


1290 


695 


1296 


695 


1296 


715 


1316 


716 


1316 


720 


1321 


720 


1321 


725 


1325 


752 


1361 


790 


1388 


791 


1389 


793 


1891 


795 


1393 


795 


1393 


797 


1396 


802 


1400 


816 


1413 


817 


1414 


824 


1421 


837 


1434 


849 


1445 


855 


1451 


894 


1489 


923 


1517 



Mrod. 



THB HINDUS 



xlix 



The Mogul 'Emperors of Hvnd%Mtcm. 

Babar 

Uomayun 

Akbar 

Jehangir 

ShahJehan 

Anrangzeb 

Bahadur Shah ........ 

Jahandar Shah 

Farroklisiyar 

Bafiu-darjat 

Bafia-daalat 

Mahammad Shah 

Ahmad Shah 

'Alamgir II. ....*.. , 

Shah\Alam 

Akbar II. 

Bahadur Shah 



A.H. 


A.D. 


899 


1494 


987 


1531 


963 


1556 


1014 


1605 


1037 


1628 


1068 


1658 


1118 


1707 


1124 


1718 


1124 


1718 


1131 


1719 


1181 


1719 


1131 


1719 


1162 


1748 


1168 


1754 


1173 


1759 


1221 


1806 


1252 


1837 



THE HINDUS 



The first form of the Hindu religion was Vedism, the worship of 
nature, as represented in the songs and prayers collectively called 
Veda. Their chief gods were the triad Indra (rain), Agni (fire), and 
Surya (sun). Then followed Brahmanism, from brih^ to expand, which 
introduced the idea of a universal spirit^ or essence, which permeated 
everything. Men, gods, and the visible world were merely its mani- 
festations. Prose works, called Brahmanas, were added to the Yedas, 
to explain the sacrifices, and the duties of the Brahmans, or priests. 
The oldest of these may have been written about 700 B.a The code 
of Manu, which is believed to have originated shortly before the 
Christian era, lays down the rules of domestic conduct and ceremony. 
It divides Hindus into four castes. First, the Brahmans ; second, 
the warriors, called Kshattriyas or Bajputs, literally "of the royal 
itock '' ; third, the agricultural settlers, called Yaisyas. All these 
\im% of Aryan descent^ were honoured by the name of the Twice-born 
cartes. Fourth, were the Sudras, or conquered non- Aryan tribes, who 
became serfs. They were not allowed to be present at the great 
national sacrifices, or at the feasts, and they were given the severest 
toil in the fields, and the dirty work of the village community. The 
I^iests asserted that they, the Brahmans, came from the mouth of 
Brahma ; the R^'puts or Kshattriyas from his arms ; the Yaisyas from 
lus thighs; and the Sudras from his feet Caste was originally a dis- 



1 THE HINDUS India 

tinction between priest, soldier, artisan, and meniaL Each trade in 
time came to have a separate caste. The priests insisted on the roles 
of caste as a means of securing their own social supremacy. 

The modem Hindu religion is a development of Brahmanism. 
There is one impersonal and spiritual Being which pervades everything 
— one God, called Brahma. His three personal manifestations are as 
Brahma, the Creator ; Vishnu, the Preserver ; and SitHi, the Destroyer 
and Reproducer. Brahma, the Creator, is generally represented with 
four heads and four arms, in which he holds a portion of the Veda, a 
spoon for lustral observations, a rosary, and a vessel of lustral water 
(see Plate). Sarasvati, the wife of Brahma, rides on a peacock, and 
has a musical instrument, the " vina," in her arms. She is the goddess 
of music, speech, the arts, and literature. The sin of lying is readily 
expiated by an offering to her (see Plate). 

Vishnu holds a quoit in one hand, a conk shell in another, and 
sometimes a mace or club in another, and a lotus flower in a fourth 
(see Plate). A common picture shows him with his wife, Lakslimi, 
sitting on Naga, the snake (eternity), with Brahma springing on a 
lotus from his navel (see Plate). He is said to have come down from 
heaven to the earth nine times, and is expected a tenth time. These 
ten incarnations (avatara, or descents) are — (1) a fish ; (2) a tortoise ; 
(3) a boar ; (4) a man lion ; (5) a dwarf ; (6) Parasu rama ; (7) RamujL, 
the hero of the epic poem, tlie Ramayana. His wife, Sita, was carried 
off by Bavana, the tyrant king of Ceylon, and recovered by Rama after 
making a bridge of rocks to the island. He was aided by Hanuman, 
a non-Aryan chie£ Rama carries a bow and arrows (see Plate). He is 
revered throughout India as the model of a son, a brother, and a hus- 
band. When friends meet it is common for them to salute each other 
by uttering Rama's name twice. No name is more commonly given 
to children, or more commonly invoked at funerals and in the hour of 
death. Hanvman is represented as a monkey, his images being 
smeared with vermilion (see Plate). He is worshipped as the model 
of a faithful devoted servant. (8) Krishna, whose biography is given 
in the epic poem, Mahabharata, although himself a powerful chief, -was 
brought up among peasants, and is peculiarly the god of the loinrer 
classes. As a boy he killed the serpent Kaliya by trampling upon his 
head. He lifted the mountain-range Qovardhana on his finger to 
shelter the herdsmen's wives from the wrath of Indra, the Yedic rain- 
god. Krishna had countless wives and 108,000 sons. He is a sen- 
suous god. He stands on a snake with his left hand holding its body, 
and a lotus in his right (see Plate). He is painted blue. Sometimes 
he is playing the flute. (9) Buddha. The adoption of Buddha as one 
of the incarnations was a compromise with Buddhism. (10) Kalki. 
Vishnu will descend as an armed warrior on a winged white horse, 
for the purpose of dissolving the universe at the close of the fourth or 



Introd, THE HINDUS li 

Kali age, of 432,000 years, when the world haa become wholly 
depraved. 

Devotion to Vishnu in his human incarnations of Bama and 
Krishna (who were real men) is the most popular religion of India. 
His descents upon earth were for the delivery of men from the three- 
fold miseries of life, viz. (1) from lust, anger, avarice, and their evil 
consequences ; (2) &om beasts, snakes, wicked men, etc. ; (3) from 
demons. Vishnu has power to elevate his worshippers to eternal 
bliss in his own heaven. 

Vishnu's wife Lakahmi, the goddess of wealth and beauty, sprang 
from the froth of the ocean when churned by gods and demons (see 
Plate). An image of her is often to be found in the houses of shop- 
keepers. 

Siva is also called Mahadeva, the great god, and his wife who is 
known by several names and in several characters as Parvati (see Plate) 
the goddess of beauty, Dnrga or Kali, the terrible (see Plate), is also 
called Devi, the goddess (see Plate). The commonest of these is Kali, 
who requires to be propitiated by sacrifices (see Plate). Siva holds 
a trident^ an antelope, a noose for binding his enemies, and a kind 
of drum in his four hands, and wears a tiger's skin about the loin£ 
(see Plate). He is a less human and more mystical god than Vishnu, 
and is worshipped in the form of a symbol, the linga, or as a bidl. 
In his character of destroyer Siva haunts cemeteries and burning- 
grounds, but his terrible qualities are now more especially associated 
with his wife Kali. He is the impersonation of the reproductive power 
of nature, the word Siva meaning "blessed" or "auspicious." He 
is the typical ascetic and self-mortifier. And as a learned philosopher 
he is the chief god of the priests. 

Siva has two sons Ganesh, or Ganpati, and Kartikkeya. Ganesh has 
a fat body and an elephant's head (see Plate). He is a great favourite, 
being worshipped for good luck or success. It is as a bringer of success 
that he is invoked at the beginning of every Indian book. KartUckeya 
has six heads and twelve arms, and is a warlike god, the leader of the 
hosts of good demons (see Plate). In the south of India he is called 
Skanda or Subrahmanya. 

The Hindu theory of metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, 
arises from the belief that evil proceeds from antecedent evil, and that 
the penalty must be suffered in succeeding ezistence& According to 
Hindu belief there are eighty-four laks of different species of animals 
through which the soul of a man is liable to pass, and the Hindu's 
object is to get rid of the series of perpetual transmigrations so that he 
may live in the same heaven with the personal god. To this end he 
makes offerings to the image of a god, Krishna, Ganesh, or Kali being 
the most generally selected ; he abstains from killing any animal ; he 
gives money to the priests ; and does penances which sometimes extend 



lii THE HINDUS India 

to fievere bodily torture. His religion amounts to little more than tihe 
fear of demons, of the loss of caste, and of the priests. Demons have 
to be propitiated, the caste rules strictly kept, and the prieste presented 
with gifts. Great care has to be token not to eat food cooked by a 
man of inferior caste ; food cooked in water must not be eaten together 
by people of different castes, and the castes are entirely separated with 
regard to marriage and trades. A sacred thread of cotton is worn by 
the higher castes. Washing in any holy river, particularly the Ganges, 
and more especially at Allahabad, Benares, Hardwar, and other excep- 
tionally holy spots, is of great efficacy in preserving caste, and cleansing 
the soul of impurities. 

The traveller should remember that all who are not Hindus are 
outcasts, contact with whom may cause the loss of caste to a Hindu. 
He should not touch any cooking or water-holding utensil belonging 
to a Hindu, nor disturb Hindus when at their meals ; he should not 
molest a cow, or shoot any sacred animal, and should not pollute holy 
places by his presence if any objection is mada The most sacred of 
all animals is the cow, then the serpent and the monkey. The eagle 
(Garuda) is the attendant of Vishnu, the bull of Siva, the goose of 
Brahma, the elephant of Indra, the tiger of Durga, the buffalo of Kama, 
the rat of Ganesh, the ram of Agni, the peacock of Eartikkeya, the 
parrot of Kama (the god of love) ; the fish, tortoise, and boar are 
incarnations of Vishnu ; and the crocodile, cat, dog, crow, many trees, 
plants, stones, livers and tanks, are sacred. 

The KaH-Ytig, or Hindu Era 

According to the Hindus, the world is now in ite 4th Yug, or Age, 
the Kali- Yug, which commenced from the equinox in 18th Feb. 3102 
B.C., and will last 432,000 years. The 3 preceding ages were the 
Satya, the Treta, and the Dwapaia. The Satya, or Age of Truth, 
lasted 1,728,000 years; the Trete (from tra, "to preserve") lasted 
1,296,000; and the Dwapara (from dwa, "two," and par, ** after") 
864,000 years. 

The Era of Vikrafnaditya or SwmwaJb 

This era commenced from the first year of T^ing Vikramaditya, who 
began to reign at Ujjain 67 b.c. 

The Shaka Era, or Era of ShaHvahana 
Shalivahana, having a shali (lion) for his vehicle {vahana\ was a 
king who reigned in the S. of India. The Shaka era dates from his 
birth 78 A.D. 

Era of Pofraskurama 

This era is current in Malabar and Travancore, and dates from a 
king of that name, who reigned 1176 a.ix 



PLATE 1. 



Vkhmi 



( >.d 



I I \ 





8r^hm^ 




Laksfmjt 



Parvsti 





S^r^^stt 




DurgaorKall 




Devi 




Kartikkej/a 




Canesh 






To fact p, lii. 



Some Common Forms of Hindu Gods. 



PLATE 2. 




Some Common Forms of Hindu Gods. 



U UJ 



A 



6 7 

1, 2, 3, and 4, FoXLowtra of Vishnu. 
5, 6/7, and 8, Followers of Siva. 

Caste Marks. 




Buddha 




( Teaching) 



Buddha. 



(Ciitfteniplating) 



Buddha 




(Renou^ngthe WoMj 



Buddha. 



TofdOow Plate 1 after p. lii. 



Introd. 



HINDU FESTIVALS 



liii 



The Hindu year has 6 seasons or riius : Vasamta, " spring," grUhma, 
"the hot season,** va/nha^ "the rains," sharada, "the autumn" (from 
skriy "to wither"), hemantay "the winter," shidvi/ra, "the cool season." 

Table of the Seasons cmd Months in JSanscrit, EiTidUj cmd English :. 



1. Vasakta . 

2. Gkishma . 
8. Vaksha . . 
4. Shaaada . 
6. Hemanta , 
6. Shishira . 


Names of Months. 


Sanscrit. 


Hindu. 


English. 


/ Ohaitra. 

i lyeshtha. 
lA'shadha. 
J Sravana. 
1 Bhadra. 
J Ashwina. 
1 Kartika. 
j Marffasirsha. 

/Magha. 
\Phalgaha. 


Chait 

Jeth. 

Asarh. 

Sawan. 

Bhadon. 

Asan. 

Kartik. 

Aghan. 

Pus. 

Magh. 

Phagun. 


April. 

June. { 
July. } 
August. { 
September. 1 
October. J 
November. \ 
December, j" 
January. ) 
February. ( 
March. 



Hindu Festivals 

Maka/r SavJcrcmti. — On the Ist of the month Magh (about 12th 
January) the sun enters the sign Capricorn or Makar. From this day 
till the arrival of the sun at the N. point of the zodiac the period is 
called Uttarayana, and from that time till he returns to Makar is 
Dakshinayana, the former period beiog lucky and the latter unlucky. 
At this festival the Hindus bathe, and rub themselves with sesamum 
oil They also invite Brahmans and give them pots full of sesamum 
seed. They w^ear new clothes with ornaments, and distribute sesamum 
seed mixed with sugar. 

Vascmt Pcmchami is on the 5th day of the light half of Magh, and 
is a festival in honour of Yasanta or Spring. 

SUvaarai, the night of Shiva, is held about the middle or end of 
February, when SUva is worshipped with flowers during the whole 
night. 

HoU — ^A festival in honour of Krishna, held fifteen days before the 
moon is at its full, in the month Phagun, celebrated with the squirting 
or throwing of red or yellow powder over every one. All sorts of licence 
are indulged in. It is a kind of carnival. 

GudM Padma, on the 1st of Chait. The leaves of the MeUa 
Azadirachta are eaten. On this day the New Year commences, and 
the Almanac for that year is worshipped. 

Bamama/vami, held on the 9th of Chait, in honour of Eamachan- 
dra, who was bom on this day at Ayodhya. A small image of Bama 



liv HiirDU FESTIVALS India 

is put into a cradle and worshipped, and red powder called gvM is 
thrown about. 

Vada Savitri, held on the 16th of Jeth, when women worship 
the Indian fig tree. 

Aihadhi Ehadashi^ the 11th of the month Asarh, sacred to Vishnu, 
when that deit7 reposes for 4 months. 

Nag Pa/nchami, held on the 5th of Sawan, when the serpent Kali 
is said to have been killed by Krishna. Ceremonies are performed to 
avert the bite of snakes. 

NaraU Pwmima, held on the 15th of Sawan. The stormy season 
is then considered over, and offerings of cocoa-nuts are thrown into the 
sea on the west coast 

GohU Ashtami, held on the 8th of the dark half of Sawan, when 
Krishna is said to have been bom at Gokul. Rice may not be eaten on this 
day, but fruits and other grains. At night Hindus bathe and worship 
an image of Ejishna, adorning it with the Ocyrmim sanctum. The 
chief votary of the temple of Kanhoba dances in an ecstatic fiashion, and 
is worshipped and receives large presents. He afterwards scoui^es the 
spectators. 

PUri Amavasya, held on the 30th of Sawan, when Hindus go 
to Yalkeshwar in Bombay and bathe in the tank called the Banganga, 
which is said to have been produced by Rama, who pierced the 
ground with an arrow and brought up the water. Shraddas or cere- 
monies in honour of departed ancestors are performed on the side of 
the tank. 

Ghmesh Ghatwrthi, held on the 4th of Bhadon, in honour of 
Ganesh, a clay image of whom is worshipped and Brahmans are 
entertained. The Hindus are prohibited from looking at the moon 
on this day, and if by accident they should see it, they get 
themselves abused by their neighbours in the hope ttiat this will 
remove the curse. 

BuM Panchami, held on the day following Ganesh Chaturthi, in 
honour of the 7 Rishis. 

Oavrv Vahauy held on the 7 th of Bhadon, in honour of Shiva's 
wife, called Gauri or the Fair. Cakes in the shape of pebbles are eaten 
by women. 

Woman DwadaMf on the 12th of Bhadon, in honour of the 6tli 
incarnation of Vishnu, who assumed the shape of a dwarf to destroy 
Bali. 

Anamt Chaturdashi, held on the 14th of Bhadon, in honour of 
Ananta, the endless serpent 

PUri PaJcsky held on the last day of Bhadon, in honour of the 
Pitras or Ancestors, when offerings of fire and water are made to 
them. 

Datara, held on the 10th of Asan, in honour of Durga, who on 



Inbrod, THS buddhists Iv 

this day slew the bufiblo-headed demon Maheshasur. On this day 
Rama inarched against Havana, and for this reason the Marathas chose 
it for their expeditions. Branches of the BtUea frondom are offered at 
the temples. This is an auspicious day for sending children to school. 
The 9 preceding days are called Navaratra, when Brahmans are paid to 
recite hymns to Dnrga. 

DitoaU, *' feast of lamps," from di/uHiy " a lamp," and ali, " a row," 
held on the new moon of Kartik, in honour of Kali or Bhawani, and 
more particularly of Lakshmi, when merchants and bankers count their 
wealth and worship it It is said that Vishnu killed a giant on that 
day, and the women went to meet him with Hghted lamps. In 
memory of this lighted lamps are set afloat in rivers and in the sea, 
and auguries are drawn from them according, as they shine on or are 
extingidshed. 

Bdi Pratipada is held on the 1st day of Kartik, when Hindus fill 
a basket with rubbish, put a lighted lamp on it, and throw it away 
outside the house, saying, ** Let troubles go and the kingdom of Bali 
come." 

Kartik EkadaM, held on the 11 th of Kartik, in honour of Vishnu, 
who is said then to rise from a slumber of 4 months. 

Kartik Pwmima^ held on the full moon of Kartik, in honour of 
Shiva, who destroyed on that day the demon Tripurasura. 

THE BUDDHISTS 

Gautama, afterwards called Buddha (the enlightened), was bom in 
the sixth century b.0. His father was a prince of the Sakya tribe, and 
of the Kshattriya or Bajput caste. Driving in his pleasure grounds 
Qautama met a man bowed down with age ; then a msm. stricken with 
incurable disease ; then a corpse ; and finally an ascetic walking in a 
cabn and dignified manner. Much troubled by the spectacle of human 
suffering, he decided to leave his happy home, his loved wife, and the 
child which had just been bom to him ; he cut off his long hair ; 
exchanged his princely raiment for the rags of a passer-by ; and went 
ou alone as a homeless beggar. This is called the Great Renunciation. 
He studied under two Brahman hermits in the Patna district, who 
taught him to mortify the body. For six .years he inflicted severe 
austerities upon himself, and gradually reduced his food to a grain of 
rice per diem. But no peace of mind or divine enlightenment came. 
He thereupon gave up penance and sat in meditation under a fig tree 
(the Pipal), where he was tempted by Mara, the personification of 
carnal desire, to return to his home and the world, but he resisted and 
thus became the Enlightened. 

Buddha taught that all life is suffering ; that suffering arises from 
indulging desires, especially the desire for continuity pf life ; and that 



Ivi BUODHiar rjBBTiVALs India 

the only hope of relief lies in the suppression of desire and the ex- 
tinction of existence. A man's object should be to become enlightened 
by meditation and introspection, so as to earn a cessation of the cycle 
of litres through which he would otherwise be destined to pass, and 
thus finally to reach nirvana, which puts an end to all re-birth. He 
should accumulate merit with the object of annihilating all conscious- 
ness of self; he should respect the life of all creation in order to earn 
the extinction of his own. In this task he must depend upon himself 
alone, and not upon any spiritual aid or guidance. All men are 
capable of attaining nirvana, without distinction of caste, and neither 
sacrifices nor bodily mortifications are of any avail. It is a pessimist 
and atheist creed, to which, however, excellent moral rules have been 
attached. Buddhism gave some encouragement to education ; it in- 
culcated universal benevolence and compassion; and stimulated exertion 
by declaring that a man's future depended, not upon sacrifices and 
self-torture, but upon his own acts. It is << the embodiment of the 
eternal verity that as a man sows he wHl reap ; associated with the 
personal duties of mastery over self and kindness to all men ; and 
quickened into a popular religion by the example of a noble and 
beautiful life" (Sir W. W. Hunter). "It substituted a religion of 
emotion and sympathy for one of ceremonial and dogma" (H. G. Keene). 
It never ousted Brahmanism from India, but the two systems existed 
together from about B.a 600 to a.d. 800, when it finally disappeared 
from India (except Ceylon). Sir Monier Williams estimates that 
there are not more than 100,000,000 Buddhists in the world, and 
that this number is decreasing. Buddha is generally represented in 
one of three attitudes ; he sits cross-legged, either with his hands in 
contact in an attitude of profound meditation, or with one hand point- 
ing to the earth, or with both hands raised in the preaching posture. 
His ears sometimes reach to his shoulders (see Plate). 

The small sect of Jains are the only Buddhists left in India (if 
Ceylon be excluded). Their founder was Mahat^ira, a contemporary 
of Qautama. The Jains consider bodily torture to be necessary to 
salvation ; they do not agree with other Buddhists in denying the 
existence of a soul, but believe that even inorganic matter has a soul, 
and that a man's soul may pass into a stone. They carry the Buddhisf s 
concern for animal life to an extreme. Their figures of Buddha are 
naked. 

Buddhist Festivals 

The New Year Festival corresponds to the- Makara-sankranti of 
the Hindus (see p. liiL), but in Burma it often takes place as late as 
April At a given moment, which is ascertained by the astrologers of 
Mandalay, a cannon is fired off announcing the descent of the King of 
the Naths ^enii) upon earth. Then begin the Saturnalia. 



/fltrod HINDU AND BUDDHIBT DATES — THE SIKHS Ivii 

The last birth of Gkkutamii is celebrated at the end of April or 
beginning of May by the worship of his images, followed by processions. 

The festival of lamps, corresponding to the Hindu '* diwali '' (see 
p. Iv.), occurs at the end of the rainy season, and is a day of rejoicing. 

In Ceylon the coming of the Buddha to their island is celebrated 
by a festival in March or April, when the pilgrims visit either his 
footprint on Adam's Peak, or the sacred £o-tree at Anuradhapura. 



Some bablt Hindu and Buddhist dates 

B.a 

The Yedas or hymns (probably about) 1400-800 

Birth of Gautama Buddha (the Enlightened) . . . (probably) 557 
Death of Buddha ; First Great Council of BuddhiitB (probably) 478 

Second Great Buddhist Council 378 

Alexander the Great crosses the Indus near Attock ; defeats Forus 
at the passage of the Jhelum (Hydaspes) ; captures Mooltau, where 
he is severely wounded ; and then retires to Persia via Karachi 
and Beluchistan, leaving Greek garrisons behind him . 827-6 
Chandra Gupta, a Hindu, conquers the Gangetio valley . . 316 
Chandra Gupta receives a Greek ambassador, named Megasthenes . 306 
Asoka, grandson of Chandra Gupta, is converted to Buddhism . 257 
Asoka convenes the third Buddhist Council at Patna, and dissemi- 
nates the principles of the faith 244 

The Mahabharata, an epic poem of the heroic age in Northern 
India ; the Ramayana, an epic poem relating to the Aryan advance 
into Southern India (of about 1000 B. o.) ; and the code of Manu 
laying down the laws and ceremonies for Brahmans — are all of 

uncertain age, but may date from 200-500 

The era of Samwat dates from YikramadiWa, of Ujjain, who with- 
stood the inroads of the Scythians. The drama of Sakuntala, 
or the lost ring 57 

The Northern form of Buddhism becomes one of the State religions 

of China , 66 

The era of Saka dates from Salivahana 78 

The fourth and last Buddhist Council held under the Scythian King 

TCiLmfthVu. (about) 100 

Pilgrimage of the Chinaman Fa Hiang to Buddhist shrines in India 400 

Simikr pilgrimage of the Chinaman Hiouen Thsang . . . 629-45 

The Vishnuite doctrines embodied in the Vishnu Purana . . 1045 
Birth of Nanak Shah, a Hindu reformer, who preaches the abolition 

of caste and establishes the Sikh religion 1469 



THE SIKHS 

The Sikhs are a sect of Hindus who follow a reformer named 
Nanak Shah, who was bom near Lahore in 1469. The word Sikh 
means a '* disciple " of the Guru or teacher. Except in denouncing 
idolatry and in welcoming all ranks, without distinction of caste, 



Iviii THE SIKHS India 

NanaVs philosophy was very similar to that of the worshippers of 
Vishnu. Garu Govind finally abolished caste, establiished the Sikh 
religion on a political and military basis, and stimulated the worship 
of the Granth, or holy book, which is now the chief Sikh god. 

In the middle of the 16th century the Sikhs, who had been 
gradually rising into power, struggled with the Afghans for supremacy 
in the Punjab. In 1716 their last Guru, Banda, was tortured to 
death by the Mogul. In 1764 they fought a long and doubtful battle 
with the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani, in the vicinity qf Amritsar. 
They then captured Lahore, destroyed many mosques, and made their 
Afghan prisoners, in chains, wash the foundations with the blood of 
swine. 

From this period, 1764, the Sikhs became the ruling power in the 
Punjab. The following is a chronological table of their Gurus, or 
spiritual leaders. Govind refused to name a successor. He said : — 
" He who wishes to behold the Guru, let him search the Granth." 

GUBUS OF THE SiKHS 

A.I>. 

1. Nanak, founder of the Sikh sect, bom 1469, died .... 1639 

2. Angad 1552 

3. Amara das 1552 

4. Ram das, built the lake temple at Amritsar . . . . . 1574 

5. Aijun Mai, compiled the Adi Oranth 1581 

6. Har Govind, first warlike leader 1606 

7. Har Rae, his grandson 1644 

8. Har Krishna, died at Delhi 1661 

9. Tegh Bahadur, put to death by Aurangzeb in 1676 . . 1664 

10. Govind, remodelled the Sikh Government 1675 

11. Banda . 1708 

The Sikhs were now formed into confederacies called Misls, each 
under a Sirdar, or chief. These were — 

1. Bhangi, called from their fondness for bhang, extract of hemp. 

2. Nishani, standard-bearers. 

8. Shahid or Nihang, martyrs and zealots. 

4. Ramgarhi, from Bamgarh, at Amritsar. 

5. Nakeia, fh>m a country so called. 

6. Alhuwsili, from the village in which Jassa lived. 

7. Ghaneia or Ehaneia. 

8. Faizulapuri or SinghpurL 

9. Sukarmakicu . 

10. Dalahwala. 

11. Erora Singhia or Panjgarhia. 

12. Phulkia. 

AH the other Misls were, about the year 1823, subdued by Raujit 
Sing of the Sukarchakia, and for a long time Ranjit was the most 
prominent personage in India. He died in 1839. 



Introd. THE PABSIS lix 



THE PARSIS 

The Parsis, formerly inhabitants of Persia, are the modem followers 
of Zoroaster, and now form a numerous and influential portion of the 
population of Surat and Bombay. 

When the Empire of the Sassanides was destroyed by the Saracens, 
about 650 aj>., the Zoroastrians were persecuted, and some of them 
fled to Hindustan, where the Bajah of Ghizerat was their principal 
protector. They suffered considerably from the persecution of Moham- 
medans until the time of the British occupation. Their worship, in 
the course of time^ became coirupted by Hindu practices, and the 
reverence for fire and the sun, as emblems of the glory of Ormuzd, 
degenerated into idolatrous practices. The sacred fire, which Zoroaster 
was said to have brought from heaven, is kept burning in consecrated 
spots, and temples are built over subterranean fires. Priests tend the 
fires on the altars, chanting hymns and burning incense. A partially 
successful attempt was made in 1852 to restore the creed of Zoroaster 
to its original purity. In order not to pollute the elements, which 
they adore, they neitiier bum nor bury their dead, but expose their 
corpses to be devoured by carnivorous birds (see Towers of Silence, 
Bombay). There is now a marked desire on the part of the Parsis to 
adapt themselves to the manners and customs of Europeans. The 
public and private schools of Bombay are largely attended by their 
children, and every effort is made to procure the translation of English 
works. Many follow commercial pursuits, and several of the wealthiest 
merchants of India are members of this religious community. 

Pabsi Months 

There are 12 months, of 30 days each, and 5 days are added at 
the end. They approximate as below to the English months. 



1. Farvardin, September. 

2. Ardibihisht, October. 

3. Ehurdad, November. 

4. Tir, December. 

5. Amardad, January. 

6. Sharivar, February. 



7. Mihr, March. 

8. Aban, April. 

9. Adar, May. 

10. Deh, June. 

11. Bahman, July. 

12. Asfandiyar, August 



The Parsi Festivals 

FaMif New Yearns Day. The 1st of Farvardin. The Parsis rise 
earlier than usual, put on new clothes, and pray at the Fire Temples. 
They then visit friends and join hands, distribute alms and give 
clothes to servants and others. This day is celebrated in honour of 
the accession of Yezdajird to the throne of Persia^ 632 a.d. 



Ix PA.R8I FESTIVALS AROHITEOTURE India 

Farvardin-Ja^scm, on the 19t1i of Farvardin, on which ceremonies 
are perfonned in honour of the dead called Frohars or ** protectors." 
There are 1 1 other Jasans in hononr of various angel& 

Khurdad-^al, the birthday of Zoroaster, who is said to have been 
bom 1200 B.O. at the city of Rai or Rhages near Teheran. 

Jamshidd NaurosSy held on the 2l8t of Mihr. It dates from the time 
of Jamshid, and the Parsis ought to commence their New Year from it 

Zaaiaskte Diso, held on the 11th of Deh in remembrance of the 
death of Zartasht or Zoroaster. 

Muktcut, held on the last ten days of the Zoroastrian year, including 
the last five days of the last month, and the five intercalary days called 
the OiUha Oahamhars, A clean place in the house is adorned with fruits 
and flowers, and silver or brass vessels filled witii water are placed there. 
Ceremonies are performed in hononr of the souls of the dead. 

AECHITECTURE 

RELiaiON has so great an influence upon architecture that we may 
most conveniently classify the different styles in India as Buddhist, 
Brahman, and Mohammedan. 

Buddhist. — Although Gautama preached 600 B.a, his religion made 
little progress before its adoption by the great Asoka, who reigned 
from 272 to 236 B.O. The palaces^ halls, and temples which may 
have existed before the time of Asoka were made of wood, and have 
perished. There was no stone architecture in India before Asoka, 
and all the monuments known to us for five or six centuries after his 
date are Buddhist. 

Every Buddhist locality was sanctified by the presence of relics, 
which were contained in dagobas, or topea Some topes were without 
relics, the oldest and simplest form of tope being a single pillar 
(sthambra) either regularly built, or carved out of one stone, in which 
case it was called a lat Where a tope had relics, they were con- 
tained in a sort of box or case at the summit of the tope, called a tee. 
Rails are found surrounding topes, or enclosing sacred trees, pillars, 
etc. Chaityas, assembly halls or temples, correspond to the churches 
of the Christian religion. Viharas are monasteries. 

The best known topes are those at Blulsa, Samath, and Buddh 
Qaya. There are also a number of them scattered over the ancient 
province of Gandara, the capital of which was Peshawar — especially at 
Manikyala. In Ceylon there are topes or dagobas at Anuradhapura 
and PoUonarua. The lats^ or pillars, stood in front of, or beside, each 
gateway of every tope, and in front of each chaitya hall. Asoka waa 
the great builder of pillars. Two of his are still in existence at 
Delhi, and a more complete specimen at Allahabad. The iron pillar 
'-^ the mosque at old Delhi is not Buddhist, but seems to be 



Introd, ARCHITBCTUBE Izi 

dedicated to Vishnn. The most interesting rcdU are at SancM and 
Baddh Gaya; the remains of the Bharhut rail are at Calcutta, and 
of the Amaravati rail in the British and Madras Museums. There are 
good examples of torans, or gateways, with the rail at Sanchi. 

Our knowledge of the chaitya halls or temples, and the Viharas 
(monasteries), is derived from the rock-cut examples. This method of 
working is much easier and leas expensive than the ordinary process 
of building. For a cave nothing but excavation is required ; while 
for a building the stone has to be quarried, transported — perhaps a 
long distance — ^and then carved and erected. According to Fergusson ^ 
the complete excavation of a temple, both externally as well as 
internally, would cost only about one-tenth of the expenditure 
necessary for building ; and the Buddhist caves were still cheaper, as 
the rock was not cut away externally, the interior chamber alone 
being excavated. Examples of Chaityas are to be found at Karli, 
Bhaja and Bedsa, Behar, Nassick, Ellora, Ajanta, and Kanhari. The 
vihara is a kind of court with cells, galleries two or three stories high, 
and richly carved pillars. The most notable specimens are at 
Udayagiri and ELhandagiri, Bhaja and Bedsa, Ajanta, Nassick, Bagh, 
Salsette, Dumnar, Ellora, Jamalgarhi, and Takht-i-bahi (near Peshawar). 

The architecture of the Buddhists proper was succeeded by that 
of the Jadns, who are the only followers of that religion remaining in 
India (excepting Ceylon). The Jains were great builders. Unlike 
the Buddhists they were not great cave-cutters, though some examples 
of their cave- work exist at Ellora. The characteristic Jain feature is the 
horizontal archway, which avoids the strain from the outward thrust 
of a true radiating arch. Indeed, with the exception, of some 
specimens of the time of Akbar, no radiating arch exists in any 
Buddhist, Jain, or Hindu temple in India up to the present day. 
Another Jain feature is the carved bracket form of capital, which, 
springing from the pillars at about two-thirds of their height, extends 
to the architraves, and forms a sort of diagonal strut to support them. 
The leading idea of the plan of a Jain temple was a number of 
columns arranged in squares. Their domes, like their arches, were 
built horizontally, on eight pjpllars forming an octagon, with four 
external pillars at the angles to form a square. The lateral pressure of 
a dome built on the radiating plan by the Roman, Byzantine, or Gothic 
architects prevents the use of elegant pillars, great cylinders with 
heavy abutments being necessary. The decoration of the Jain domes, 
being horizontal, allows of more variety than can be given to the 
vertical ribs of Roman or Gothic models, and has rendered some of 
the Indian domes 0ie most exqidsite specimens of elaborate roofing 
that can anywhere be seen. The Indian dome allows the use of 
pendants from the centre, which have a lightness and elegance never 
^ MiHory (tf Indian and EasUm ArdwUct¥/r^ 



Ixii ABGHITSCTDRE India 

even imagined in Gothic art. On the other hand they are necessarily 
small, and require large stones, while a dome on the radiating 
principle can be built of small bricks. The Jains built their temples 
in groups, or cities, of temples^ as at Palitana, Parasnatfa, Gimar, 
Mount Abu, Muktagiri, Khajurahu, and Gyraspore. Their love 
of the picturesque led them to build their cities sometimes on 
hill-tops, as at Mount Abu, sometimes in deep and secluded valleys, as 
at Muktagiri. The two towers of Fame and Victory at Ohittore are 
examples of Jain work, called sikras. Of modem Jain architecture 
the most notable specimens are at Sonagarh and Muktagiri ; the 
temple of Hathi Sing (a.d. 1848) at Ahmedabad ; and the temple at 
Delhi, about 100 years old. 

Brahman architecture is divided by Fergusson into the three styles 
of Dravidian, Ghalukyan, and Indo- Aryan. The Dravidian or 
Madras architecture is best seen at Tanjore, Trivalur, Sri Bangam, 
Chidambaram, Bameswaram, Madura, Tinnevelly, Conjeveram, Goim- 
batore, and Vijayanagar. *' There is nothing in Europe that can be 
compared with these Dravidian temples for grandeur and solemnity, 
and for parallels to them we must go back to ancient Egypt and 
Assyria" (Sir G. Birdwood). The temple itself, which is called the 
Vimana, is always square in plan, surmounted by a pyramidal roof of 
one or more stories ; a porch or Mantapa covers the door leading to 
the cell in which the image of the god is placed ; the gate pyramids 
or Gopuras are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures 
which, with numerous other buildings, surround the Vimanas. The 
chief Dravidian rock-cut temples, which, unlike the Buddhist caves, 
are excavated externally as well as internally, are at Mahabalipur and 
Ellora. The palaces exhibit Mohammedan influence, having the 
Moorish pointed arch. They are to be found at Madura, Tanjore, 
and Vijayanagar. 

The Ghaliikya/n style was at its best in the province of Mysore 
during the three centuries a.d. 1000 to 1300, when the Bellalas 
ruled there. They erected groups of temples at Somnathpur, Belur, 
and Hullabid. Other Ghalukyan examples are at Warangal and 
Hammoncondah. This style is remarkable for elegance of outline and 
elaboration of detail. The artistic combination of horizontal with 
vertical lines, and the play of outline and of light and shade, especially 
in the Hullabid example, far surpass anything in Gbthic art The 
animal friezes begin, as is usual in India, with elephants on the bottom 
line ; then Hons, then horses, then oxen, above which are pigeons. 

Examples of the Indo-Arycm, or Northern style, are at Bhuvanesh- 
war, Khajurahu, the black pagoda at Konarak, the temple of Jagannath 
at Puri, the Garuda pillar at Jajpur, the Teli-Ka-Mandir at Gwalior, 
the temple of Vriji at Chitor, the golden temple of Bishweshwar at 
Benares, the red temple at Bindraban, and the modem temple erected 



Introd, AROHITKOTUBE Ixiii 

hy Sindhia's mother at Gwalior. There are three rock-cut temples of 
this style at Badami, and the Dumar Lena at EUora. 

Of Brahman civil architecture the best specimens are the tombs 
of Sai^ram Sing and Amara Sing at Oodeypore, and of Bakhtawar 
Sii^ at Alwar. The latter shows the foliated arch which is so 
common in Mogul buildings ; and it also shows the Bengali curved 
cornices, whose origin was the bending of bamboos used as a support 
for the thatch or tiles. The finest Brahman palaces are at Oodeypore, 
Datia, Orchha, Amber, Dig, and the Man Sing Palace at. Gwalior. 
The beauty of Hindu architecture is greatly enhanced by the use of 
picturesque sites, either on hills, in valleys, or where the esthetic 
value of water may be utilised. At Bajsamundra, in Oodeypore, for 
example, the bund or dam of the artificial lake is covered with steps, 
which are broken by pavilions and kiosks^ interspersed with fountains 
and statues, the whole forming a fairy scene of architectural beauty. 

The chief styles of Mohommedcm architecture are the Patban and 
the MoguL The Pathans found in the colonnaded courts of the 
Jain temples nearly all that was required for a ready-made mosque. 
They had to remove the temple in its centre, and erect a new wall 
on the west side, adorned with niches — mihrabs — pointing towards 
Mecca ; and they added a screen of arches with rich and elaborate 
carvings. The best examples are at Delhi and Ajmere. Of the screen 
at the Kutub mosque, Delhi, Fergusson says that the carving is, 
without exception, the most exquisite specimen of its class known to 
exist anywhere. He says of the Minar that ''both in design and 
finish it far surpasses any building of its dass in the whole world *' ; 
and considers that Giotto's Campanile at Florence, " beautiful though 
it is, wants that poetry of design and exquisite finish of detail which 
marks every moulding of the minar." During the Pathan period 
tall minarets were not attached to the mosques. 

We have no examples of the Mogul style in the reigns of Babar 
or Humayun. Akbar was, in architecture as in religion, extremely 
tolerant, and his buildings exhibit marked Hindu features. The 
chief of them still in existence are the tomb of his father Humayun 
near Delhi, the town of Fatehpur-Sikri, the fort at Allahabad, the 
palace at Lahore, the tomb he began for himself at Sikandarah, and 
the red palace in the fort at Agra, which by some authorities, in 
spite of its Hindu features, is ascribed to Jehangir. The tomb of 
Anar Kali at Lahore was built by Jehangir, in whose reign the tomb 
of Itimad-ud-daulah at Agra was built. Shah Jehan, during w^hose 
Tei^jin the Mogul power was at its highest, was the greatest of all 
Indian builders. There is a great contrast between the manly vigour 
and exuberant originality of Akbar, and the extreme, almost efieminate, 
elegance of his grandson. Shah Jehan built the palace at Delhi, 
the fort and palace at Agra, and the famous Taj Mahal, perhaps 



Iziy ABIB India 

the most beautifdl building in the world. His son Aurangzeb was 
a religious fanatic, who has left little saye the mosque at Benares. 
The later examples of Mognl architecture at Lucknow show marked 
deterioration, which is partly attributable to European influence. 
Other notable examples of Mohammedan architecture are at Jaunpur, 
Mandu, Sarkhej, and Ahmedabad. 

In other styles should be mentioned the ruins at Martand in 
Cashmere, which bear eridence of classical influence ; and the modern 
Golden Temple of the Sikhs at Amritsar. 

The Bwrmeae pagoda, with its thin spire, has been evolyed from 
the solid hemispherical dome of the Buddhists. The best examples are 
at Prome, Pagan, Bangoon, Mandah&y, and the Shwemawdaw pagoda at 
Pegu. 

ARTS 

Fergusson says of Indian sculftwre, that when it " first dawns upon 
us in the rails at Buddh Gaya and Barhut, 250 to 200 B.O., it is 
thoroughly original, absolutely without a trace of foreign influence, 
but quite capable of expressing its ideas. Some animals, sucH as 
elephants, deer, and monkeys, are better represented there than in 
any sculptures known in any part of the world ; so, too, are some 
trees, and the architectural detaiLs are cut with an elegance and pre- 
cision which are very admirable.'' The highest perfection was 
attained in the 4th and 5th centuries a.d. Litde sculpture of any 
merit has been produced since that time. 

The excellence of Indian art production is to be found in its pottery, 
metal work, carving, jewellery, weaving, dyeing, and embroidery. In 
these directions the Indian artisan is remarkable for his patience, 
accuracy of detail, thoroughness, and artistic sense of both colour and 
form. The elaboration of ornament in the best Indian metal ware, 
or carving, the composition of colours in the best Indian carpets, or 
enamel, the form of the best Indian pottery, have seldom, if ever, been 
excelled. Much of the skill of the Indian handicraftsman is due to the 
hereditary nature of his occupation. The potter, the carpenter, the 
smith, the weaver, each belongs to a separate caste ; a son inevitably 
follows the trade of his father, and the force of custom, with generally 
a religious basis, impels him to imitate his father's work. The result 
is that the form and workmanship of artisan work is almost exactly 
the same now as it was thousands of years ago, and that the artisan, 
with great technical and imitative skill, has little creative power. 
The combined competition and prestige of Europe have created a 
tendency to imitate European methods. The best work used to be 
done, at leisure, to the order of the wealthy princes and nobles of an 
ostentatious native court Some of these courts have been aboliBhed% 



IfUrod, ARTS IXT 

while others have suffered in purchasing power and in influence. 
The authority of the trade guilds, and of caste, has heen relaxed 
under the freedom of British rule, and the importation of British 
goods has forced many artisans into agriculture and even domestic 
service. British supremacy, having produced peace, has almost 
destroyed the armourer's trade ; the fancy cheap cotton goods of 
America and Britain have displaced the muslins of Dacca ; aniline 
dyes, and jail work, have nearly killed the carpet industry. Whether 
the Schools of Art which the Gk>vemment has established all over 
India have hastened, or retarded, the process of degeneration which 
is everywhere so visible, is a much -disputed point Some trades 
which were dying out have been resuscitated by their efforts ; and 
the mania for imitating European designs is sometimes effectually 
diverted from the worst to the best examples. But a School which 
contains principally casts from the antique, and details of Italian and 
Gothic ornament, must inevitably destroy the purity of indigenous ideals, 
which is much to be deplored. To restrain rather than to strengthen 
the tendency to imitate the designs and methods of the dominant race, 
should be the aim of art education throughout the country. 

In the very slight sketch of Indian arts which follows, certain 
places are mentioned as being noted for particular work ; but it 
should be remembered that the small towns are gradually losing their 
specialities, the best workmen drifting steadily towards the larger 
centres. A visit is recommended to the Indian Museum at South 
Kensington, before leaving England. 

Nearly every Indian village has its potter, who is kept constantly 

at work making domestic utensils of baked clay — for in millions of 

households no earthen vessels can be used a second time — ^as well as 

images of the gods. The forms of the utensils which he makes are 

of great antiquity and beauty. The best glazed pottery is made in 

the Punjab, of blue and white ; and in Sind, of turquoise blue, 

copper green, dark purple, and golden brown, under an exquisitely 

transparent glaze. The usual ornament is a conventional flower 

pattern, pricked in from paper and dusted along the pricking. The 

Madura (Madras) pottery deserves mention for the elegance of its 

form, and richness of its colour. The Bombay School of Art produces 

imitations of Sind ware. In the Punjab and Sind, and especially 

at Tatta and Hyderabad, there are many good specimens of old 

Mohammedan mosques and tombs decorated with encaustic tiles. 

One of the finest examples is the mosque of Wazir Khan at Lahore. 

The Punjab has long been noted for its gold and silver work, and 
especially for parcel-gilt sarais, or water-vessels, of elegant shape and 
delicate tracery. The gold and silver ware of Cashmere, Cutch, 
XacknoWy Patna, Bombay, Ahmednagar, Cuttack, and Tanjore, is 
'worthy of mention. The hammered repouss^ silver work of Cutch 
[/?wim] e 



Ixvi ABTS India, 

is of Dutch origin. The embossed silver work of Madras, with 
Dravidiau figures in high relief, is called Swami ware. 

Domestic utensils in broM and copper are made all over India, the 
Hindus using the brass and the Mohammedans the copper. The brass 
is cleaned by scrubbing with sand or earth and water ; the copper 
periodically receives a lining of tin. The copper bazaar of Bombay 
is celebrated, and so is the brass ware of Moradabad. Benares is 
famous for cast and sculptured mythological images and emblems. 
Kansha plates are made at Burdwan and Midnapore. Other places 
noted for brass and copper ware are Nagpore, Ahmedabad, Nassick, 
Poona, Murshedabad, and Tanjore. The Cashmere and Peshawar 
ware has marked Persian features. 

The artisans of India were formerly very skilful in the use of iron 
and tied. Fergusson says of the iron pillar in the Kutub mosque at 
Old Delhi, to which he assigns the date of a.d. 400, that " it opens our 
eyes to an unsuspected state of affairs to find the Hindus at that c^ 
capable of forging a bar of iron larger than any that have been forged 
even in Europe up to a very late date, and not frequently even now. 
It is almost equally startling to find that, after an exposure for fourteen 
centuries, it is unrusted, and the capital and inscription are as clear 
and as sharp as when the pillar was first erected.'' Sir Qeorge 
Birdwood ^ says : " The blades of Damascus, which maintained their 
pre-eminence even after the blades of Toledo became celebrated, were 
in fact of Indian steeL" Indian cvrms are characterised by their 
superb, and sometimes excessive, ornamentation. But the modern 
work in iron, steel, and arms is not of much importance. 

Damascening is the art of encrusting one metal upon another. 
The best or true damascening is done by cutting the metal deep, and 
filling it with a thick wire of gold or silver. The more common 
process is to heat the metal to a blue colour, scratch the design upon 
it, conduct a gold or silver wire along the pattern, and then sink it 
carefully with a copper tooL The art comes from Damascus, hence 
its name. Damascening in gold is carried on chiefly in Cashmere, 
Gujrat, and Sialkot, and is called koft-work. In silver it is called 
bidri, from Bidar, in the Nizam's dominions. A cheap imitation of 
koft-work is made with gold leal 

Enamel is an artificial vitreous mass, ground fine, mixed witli 
gum water, applied with a brush, and fixed by fusion. In the 
champlev^ enamelling of Jeypore — the best in India, perhaps in the 
world — the colours are placed in depressions hollowed out of the 
metal, and are made to adhere by fire. The Jeypore artist is renowned 
for the purity and brilliance of his colours, and the. evenness with 
which they are applied. He is particularly famous for a fiery red, 
which is unique. For enamel on gold — besides Jeypore — ^Alwar, Delhi, 
^ TJie IndustriaZ Arts of India. 



Inifod. ABTB Ixvii 

and Benares should be mentioned ; on silver, Mooltan, Hyderabad 
(Sind), Karachi, Abbotabad, Gutch, Lahore, Kangra, and Cashmere ; 
on copper the Punjab and Cashmere. A quasi- enamel, the mode 
of preparation being kept secret, is made of green colour at Fertabghar, 
and of blue at Butlam. Glass was known in India at the time of 
the Mahabharata ; glass bangles and other ornaments are made all 
over the country. 

The splendour of Indian jewellery is due to the free use of diamonds, 
rubies, emeralds, and other gems, some of them mere scales, so light 
that they will float on water. A dazzling variety of rich and brilliant 
colours is produced by means of gems which are valueless except as 
points^ sparkles, and splashes of gorgeousness. Bings for the fingers 
and toes, nose and ears ; bracelets, armlets, anklets, nose studs, 
necklaces made up of chains of pearls and gems ; tires, aigrettes, 
and other ornaments for the head and forehead ; chains and zones 
of gold and silver for the waist — such are the personal ornaments 
in daily use amongst men and women, Mohammedans and Hindus. 
One reason for the great popularity of gold and silver jewellery is 
that it is portable wealth, easily preserved. The silver filigree work 
of Cuibtack and of Ceylon, generally with the design of a leaf, is 
remarkable for delicacy and finish. For gold and silver jewellery, 
Trichinopoly, Vizagapatam, and Ahmedabad are noted. The best 
enamelled jewellery comes from Delhi, Benares, and Hyderabad 
(Deccan). The old Delhi work in cut and gem -encrusted jade is 
highly prized. The pietra dura Madd work of Agra was originated 
in the Taj Mahal by Austin de Bordeaux. While Florentine in 
origin and style, the designs have a thoroughly local character. The 
wdi-known Bombay boxes are a variety of inlaid wood-work called 
piqn4 

Indian lacquer, so-called, is really Uic tv/mery. It is the surface 
obtained by pressii^ a stick of hard shellac to a rapidly revolving 
wooden object. The friction develops heat sufficient to make it 
adhere irregularly. Further friction with an oiled rag polishes the 
surface; The lac is obtained from the incrustations made by the 
female of an insect {coccub lacca) on the branches of certain trees. 
The numeral lac, signifying 100,000, is derived from the enormous 
number of these insects found on a small area. The chief consumption 
of lac in Europe is for sealing-wax and varnishes. All over India it 
is made into variegated marbles, walking-sticks, mats, bangles, and 
toys. Lac -turned wooden and papier- mach4 boxes and trays are 
made in Cashmere, Sind, Punjab, Bajputana, Bareilly, and Karnul 
(Madias). Of small objects, the mock ornaments for the idols, made 
of paper, should be noted at Ahmedabad and in most parts of India. 
Artificial flowers, and models of the temples, are made of the pith of 
the sola plant, hence the '^ solar topee," or sun-hat of pith. 



Ixviii ABTS India 

Skilful carving is done at Bombay in blackwood, for doors or 
fomiture, in a style derived from the Dutch. At Ahmedabad the 
blackwood is carved into vases, inkstands, and other small objectei 
Jackwood also is carved in rectangular forms at Bombay. Sandal- 
wood is carved at Bombay, Surat, Ahmedabad, Oanara, Mysore, and 
Travancore ; ebony at Bijnur (Rohilkund) ; ivory at Amritsar, Benares, 
and Yizagapatam. Silhet is noted for its ivory fans, Butlam for its 
ivory bracelets, and Yizagapatam for boxes of ivory and stag's horn. 
The beautiful carved ivory combs, which used to be found in every 
bazaar, are not now so common. Figures of animals, and of the gods, 
are carved in white marble at Ajmere, Jeypore, and Bajputana 
generally. Excellent building stone is found in Rajputana, where it 
is carved for architectural purposes. At Fatehpur-Sikri (Agra) models 
of the ruins are carved in soapstone. Models in clay of fruit and 
figures are admirably made at Lucknow, Poona, and Calcutta. 
In the cities of Guzerat, and wherever the houses are made of wood, 
their fronts are elaborately carved. 4fe^ 

India was the first of all countries that perfilcted weaving, sewing 
not being practised until after the Mohammedan invasion. The 
Greek name for coUon fetbrics, sindon, is etymologically the same as 
India or Sind. The word chintz is from the Hindu chhint, or 
variegated, while calico is from the place of its production, Calicut. In 
delicacy of texture, in purity and fastness of colour, in grace of design, 
Indian cottons may still hold their own against the world — but not in 
cheapness. The Dacca muslin, once so famous, one pound weight of 
which could be made to cover 250 miles, is now superseded by the cheap 
machine-made goods of Europe and America ; and European chintz 
now takes the place of the palampore, a kind of bed-cover of printed 
cotton, for which Masulipatam used to be celebrated. In the Punjab 
the weaver's trade still flourishes, but large quantities of the 
cheaper cottons are now made in India by machinery. Pure silk 
fabrics, striped, checked, and figured are made at Lahore, Agra, 
Benares, Hyderabad (Deccan), and Tanjore. Gold and silver brocaded 
silks, called kincobs, are made *at Benares, Murshedabad, and 
Ahmedabad. The printed silks which are worn by the Parsi 
women of Bombay are a speciality of Surat Bhawulpore is noted for 
its damasked silks. Most of the raw silk comes from China. The 
Mohammedans are forbidden by their religion to wear pure silk, but 
may wear it mixed with cotton. Gold and silver wire, thread lace, 
and foil are made all over the country, for trimming shoes and caps, 
for stamping muslins and chintzes, for embroidery and brocades. With 
such skill is the silver wire prepared that two shillings worth of silver 
can be drawn out to 800 yards. The best embroidery, remarkable for 
its subdued elegance and harmonious combination of brilliant coloixra, 
— -^es from Cashmere, Lahore, and Delhi. The patterns and colourc 



IfUrod. IRRIGATION Ixix 

diversify plane suifaces without destroying the impression of flatness. 
Much tinsel is used, but the result has not a tinselly appearance. The 
famous Cashmere shawls are made of the fine, flossy, silk-like wool 
obtained from the neck and underpart of the body of the goat of 
Ladak. Originally a speciality of Cashmere, they are now made 
in the Punjab also, especially at Amritsar. They have greatly 
deteriorated since the introduction of French designs and magenta 
dyes. The finest of the woollen stuffs called patu in Eangra and 
Cashmere, is made of camel's hair. A rough but remarkably 
durable patu is made from goat's hair. The shawls called Rampur 
chadars are made at Ludhiana, of Rampur wool. The intrinsic 
difference between Eastern and Western decorative art is revealed in 
Oriental carpetSj where the angular line is substituted for the flowing, 
classical " line of beauty." The Oriental carpet is also more artistically 
dyed, and is decorated according to the true principles of conventional 
design. As a rule the pile carpets of India and Persia are of floral 
design, while those of Central Asia, Western Afghanistan, and 
Baludiistan are geometric. In Persia and India the source of the 
majority of the patterns is the tree of life, shown as a beautiful 
flowering plant, or as a simple sprig of flowers. The dari is a carpet of 
eotton made chiefly in Bengal and Northern India ; but the most 
common cotton carpet is the shatrangi, made throughout India, but 
especially at Agra. The principal patterns are stripes of blue and 
'white, and red and white. In point of texture and workmanship the 
rugs from Ellore, Tai^ore, and Mysore are the best. Costly velvet 
carpets embroidered with gold are made at Benares and Murshedabad. 
The carpets of Malabar are now the only pile woollen carpets made 
of pure Hindu design. Fine carpets are made at Amritsar. Central 
Asian carpets are best purchased at Peshawar. 

IRRIGATION 

The history of irrigation in India stretches back into remote 
antiquity, many of the modem works being founded upon old native 
I works which have been restored and extended. The storage of water 
in tanks is very common in Southern India. The works are for the 
most part of native origin, but much has been done by the British in 
repairing old tanks and constructing new ones in Madras, the Bombay 
Deccan, and Ajmere. In many places the natives have made artiflcial 
kkes with dams, which are often of great architectural beauty. In 
tk more level tracts of the south every declivity is dammed up to 
gather the rain. Innumerable wells cover the whole country. And 
it is very usual for the native cultivator to make his own tiny irrigating 
•tream, carrying it along the brows of mountains, round steep declivities, 
and across yawning gulfs and deep valleys ; his primitive aqueducts 
being formed of stones and clay, the scooped-out trunks of palm trees 



Ixx THE MUTINT India 

and hollow bamboofi. To lift the water a bucket wheel is employed, 
worked by men, oxen, buffaloes, or elephants. A good part of the 
Punjab and the whole of Sind would be scarcely habitable without 
irrigation ; and it is practically indispensable also in the south-east of 
the Madras Presidency. 

The greatest British works have been in canal irrigation, the water 
being drawn directly fipom a river into either a "perennial" or an 
" inundation '' canaL The perennial canal is famished with permanent 
headworks and weirs, and is capable of irrigating large tracts through- 
out the year, independently of rainfall An example is the Ganges 
Canal, which has been in operation since 1 854, has cost Bx. 3,000,000, 
comprises 440 miles of main canal, and 2614 miles of distributaries, 
and in 1895-96 supplied water to 759,297 acres. In one place it 
is carried over a river 920 feet broad, and thence for nearly 3 
miles along the top of an embankment 30 feet high. The Sirhind 
Canal, completed in. 1887, is even lai^r. These two canals, for size 
and power, are without any rivals outside of India. The inunda- 
tion canals are simply earthen channels without masonry dams or 
sluices, and are supplied with water by the annual rise of the 
Indus and its a£Q[uents in the month of May. Both these classes 
of canals take off from the larger rivers, which, even in times of 
drought, can be depended upon for an unfailing supply of water. 

There are great differences in the financial results of the works, 
due to the variations in surface, soil, climate, the absence or presence* 
of laige rivers, and the character and habits of the people ; and the 
methods of assessing and collecting the revenue also vary considerably 
in different localities. If the rainfall is plentiful the cultivator will 
try to do without the irrigation water, and the receipts £eJL 

The capital outlay, direct and indirect, up to the end of the year 
1895-96, was Bx. 37,474,751 ; the gross receipts were Bx. 2,706,418 ; 
the working expenses Bx. 1,155,750 ; the net receipts Bx. 1,550,668 ; 
the percentage of net receipts on capital outlay was 4*1 ; and the area 
irrigated, with 14,000 miles of main canals and 26,000 miles of dis- 
tributaries — 40,000 miles altogether — ^was 10,308,990 acres. Besides 
this, however, it is calculated that something like 20,000,000 acres 
are irrigated by means of tanks, weUs, lakes, and the smaller native 
channels. Probably the area irrigated by one means or another in 
India is greater than in the whole of .the rest of the world. 

THE MUTINY OF 1867 

From 1764 to 1857 the history of British rule in India is marked 
by frequent mutinies among the native troops or sepoys. Ever since 
the days of Dupleix and dive, aepoys, led by European officers, have 
been the main instrument for European aggression in India. They 



Inirod, the mutiny Ixxi 

have hired themselves out to fight against their own countrymen for 
the sake of two kinds of reward, pay and prestige. Whenever their 
expectations on either of these points have been threatened they have 
been ready to mutiny, and have generally found a religious excuse for 
their disaffection. The first serious mutiny, in 1764, was for an 
increase of pay. It was promptly suppressed by Hector Munro, who 
refused the higher pay, and ordered the twenty-four ringleaders to be 
blown from guns. There was a more extensive rising throughout 
Madras in 1806. It began at Vellore, where the British officers were 
murdered, but Gillespie galloped from Arcot, eight miles off, and 
recaptured the fort, killing or dispersing the mutineers. On this 
occasion the complaint of the sepoys was that orders had been issued 
forbidding the use of earrings, or caste marks, or beards, and that the 
new hat had a leather cockade made from the skin either of the 
detested pig, or of the holy cow. The Mohammedan princes of Mysore, 
who had been dethroned by the British, lived with numerous 
attendants in the fortress of Vellore. They told the sepoys that the 
new regulations were intended to deprive them of their caste, and 
force them to become Christians ; and the report was spread that the 
British power had been extinguished by Napoleon. The mutinous 
spirit had extended throughout Madras before it was finally quenched. 
The Home Government declared that the mutinies were due to the 
fear of being Christianised, to the residence of dethroned princes at 
Vellore, to the annexations of Lord Wellesley which had shaken 
confidence in British moderation and good faith, and to a loss of 
authority by British officers over their men. The analogy between 
Vellore in 1806, and Meerut in 1857, is very striking, the chief 
variation being that the sepoys had greater causes of discontent in 
1857, and that at Meerut there was no Colonel Gillespie. The 
religion of the sepoys seemed to them to be in greater danger than 
ever ; the capital of India, Delhi, was the home of the dethroned 
descendant of the MohEimmedan Moguls ; Lord Dalhousie's annexations 
had far exceeded those of Lord Wellesley, and were evidently intended 
to be still further pursued ; the discipline of native regiments was 
disturbed by the encouragements held out to their British officers to 
seek employment on the General Staff ; and Eussia in the Crimea was 
supposed to have destroyed British power more . effectively even than 
Napoleon. And yet Vellore had been so completely forgotten, that 
Sir Henry Lawrence was the only prominent Englishman in India 
who foresaw the Meerut rising, or understood what it meant In aU 
quarters there Was touching faith in the loyalty of the sepoys, a faith, 
in the case of the British officers of native regiments, that was only 
extinguished by the hand of the sepoy assassin. 

The eight years from 1848-56, when Lord Dalhousie was Govemor- 
G^eral, will long be remembered in India. They form a period of 



Ixxii THE MUTINY India 

large social and material reforms, and are also particularly remarkable 
for British annexations of native territory. After a severe struggle 
with the warlike Sikhs the Punjab was conquered and annexed in 
1849. Lower Burma followed in 1862, and Oudh, without conquest^ 
in 1856. By a new doctrine, the territory of a native prince who died 
without an heir of the body, was treated as lapsed to the British, an 
adopted heir not being recognised. Under this rule we became 
possessed of the principalities of Sattarah, Jhansi, Nagpore, and others. 
It was also decided that the stipends which had been paid to those native 
princes who had been deprived of their territories in former years, 
should not be continued to their successors. Among others of less 
importance, the Nana Sahib, the heir of the Peishwa of Poona, the 
nominal head of the Marathas, was refused the pension of £80,000 
per annum which the Peishwa had enjoyed during his life. The* 
descendant of the Moguls, Bahadur Shah, was informed that his son 
would not be allowed to live at Delhi, or to retain the regal title. 
And when the territory of the loyal king of Oudh was annexed, 
owing to his persistent misgovernment, the surplus revenues of the 
State, after payment of a substantial pension to the king, were 
gathered into the coffers of the British Government. All this looked 
like a policy of unjust and high-handed aggression. The natives 
understand annexation after conquest, and the conquered provinces 
of Punjab and Lower Burma remained loyal throughout the 
Mutiny. But now every native prince feared for his domiuion, as 
the British seemed determined to absorb all their territory, either 
by conquest, or on the plea of misgovernment, or by the new rule 
excluding adopted heirs; and this policy of greed seemed to be 
further evidenced by the resumption of pensions, and the confiscation 
of the surplus revenue of Oudh. Of the chiefs directly affected the 
Mogul and the king of Oudh were Mohammedans, a race which 
considers itself as the natural ruler of India and likely to profit by the 
ejection of the British ; the Ranee of Jhansi and the Nana Sahib were 
Maratha Hindus, and the Marathas had practically conquered the 
Mohammedans when the British intervened. The leaders of the two 
most warlike and aggressive races in India, and of the two religions, 
complained of harsh treatment at the hands of the British. They 
determined, if possible, to rouse the sepoys, a portion of whom were 
already in an insubordinate condition. 

In 1856 one of the first innovations of the new Governor-General, 
Lord Canning, was the General Service Enlistment Act, by which all 
future recruits in Bengal were made liable for service outside the 
Company's dominions without extra pay. This had always been the 
rule with the sepoys of the Madras and Bombay armies. But the 
Bengal sepoy was a man of high caste, and entitled to privileges. 
He was now threatened with the loss of his caste by being taken 



Introd. THE MUTINY Ixxiii 

over the sea (the " black water ") to serve in Burma. He considered 
that he alone had conquered India for the Company, and believed 
that he was now to be used for further conquests, without any increase 
of pay, in regions far from his home. Moreover, the new regulations 
would confine all future enlistment to low caste men, and thus 
deprive the Bengalee of his monopoly of military service. His pay, 
his prestige, and his caste were thus attacked. The agitators im- 
pressed upon his superstitious and credulous mind, that the railways 
and telegraphs which had recently been introduced, were a kind of 
magic designed to oppress him ; and that the new rule, made by Lord 
Canning, which permitted the re-marriage of Hindu widows, and the 
new zeal for education, were deliberate attacks upon his religion. 
The sepoys knew also that while the British troops had been reduced 
by drafts sent to the Crimea, and to Persia, the native army had been 
increased for the purpose of garrisoning the recently acquired territories, 
the British force being now only 40,000 to 240,000 sepoys. The 
prestige of England had been shaken by the disasters of the Afghan war ; 
it was believed that the British had been beaten in the Crimea; and an 
old prophecy was revived which foretold that the Company's reign 
would end in 1857, one hundred years after the battle of Plassey. 
At this critical moment, with Mogul and Maratha, Mohammedan and 
Hindu, Princes violently aroused against the British ; with an army 
of high caste soldiers farmed concerning their pay, their privileges, 
and their religion ; with the British force reduced to insignificance, 
there occurred the famous cartridge incident A new type of rifle 
having been issued to the sepoys, the hideous blunder was perpetrated 
of smearing the cartridge with a composition of the fat of the cow, the 
sacred animal of the Hindus. On complaints being made British 
officers honestly, but ignorantly, declared that no cow's fat had been 
used, an answer which the sepoys knew to be false, and which only 
doubled their suspicions of British motives. Here, then, was the 
positive, clear proof of the sinister intentions of the British. 

The first regiment to mutiny was the 34th Native Infantry at 
Barrackpore, near Calcutta, in February 1857, which was followed in 
March by the 19th at Berhampore, in the same neighbourhood. 
Both these regiments were disbanded, and the 84 th (British) was 
brought over from Burma to Barrackpore. But nothing else was 
done. ^' Allahabad and Delhi, the two chief fortresses, arsenals, and 
strategical positions of the North Western Provinces, were still 
without the protection of British garrisons, and no steps, such as the 
collection of supplies and carriage, had been taken anywhere for the 
prompt movement or mobilisation of British troops '' (McLeod Innes). 
On the 3rd May the 7th Oudh Irregulars mutinied at Lucknow, and 
were disarmed by Sir Henry Lawrence. Then on the 10th came the 
great outbreak at Meerut, forty miles from Delhi The sepoys after 



Ixxiv THE MUTINY In 



liberating some of their comrades, who had been imprisoned 
insubordination, made off for Delhi ; arrived there they declared 
Mogul as the ruler of India. 

Probably this forward move of the Mogul party aroused the jealo 
of the other rival conspirators. For three weeks there was no ot 
mutiny. But when the natives found that days and weeks pae ^ 
without any punishment being inflicted upon them, they began 
think that the British power was really at an end. On the 30th 1 
the 71st Native Infantry mutinied at Lucknow, and from this c 
there was a general rising. In some cases British officers, women, i 
children were all murdered ; in others the men alone were killed, ; 
in still others they were all spared, and even escorted by the mutiny 
out of harm's way. As each regiment rose, it made for I^€ i^" 
Oawnpore, or Lucknow, which became the centres of the confl: 
Delhi, the Home of Asia, was in the hands of the rebels ; at Cawnp ^. 
Sir Hugh Wheeler with a mere handful of soldiers was surrouii 
by overwhelming numbers ; and at Lucknow, a garrison undcir 
Henry Lawrence was closely invested. Belief could come from tl 
quarters. Lord Canning was at Calcutta ; General Anson, i 
Commander-in-Chief, at Simla ; and Sir John Lawrence in 
Punjab. 

Between Calcutta and Meerut, a distance of 900 miles, til ^ 
were only three British regiments, — ^the 14th at Dinapore, the 
at Lucknow, and a Company's Begiment, the 3rd Europeans, at 
L&rd Cannmg made energetic efforts to obtain reinforcements. 
Madras Fusiliers, under Colonel Neill, arrived at Calcutta oni 
23rd May ; the 64th and 70th from Persia early in June ; i 
other British troops from Burma, Ceylon, and Singapore, and I J^^J^ 
sepoys from Madras soon followed. A force which was on its ; r^SjL! 
to China was, with the consent of Lord Elgin, diverted to Calcif 
several regiments were despatched from the Cape Colony, and ui ^ 
requests for additional troops were sent to England. The meais r 
transport were very indifferent. The railway from Calcutta " 
been completed only as far as Banigunj, a distance of 120 mi y 
and there was difficulty in procuring the bullock carts and Jn (^ 
vehicles which had to be employed. So it happened that the ti ^ 

from Calcutta were only just in time to secure Benares and AUaha s ^ 

and it was not till the 7th July that General Havelock was abl J^ 
advance from Allahabad with an inadequate force of 2000 i ^>S^ 
General Anson, on receiving the Meerut news at Simla, at once collj j-v^ 
the British and Gurkha regiments which were in the hills, and b| 
to move on Delhi, but his progress was slow owing to lack of trami 

^ A more detailed account of the events at these important places 
found on pp. 183, 261, and 239. The sequence of events will best be 
consulting the chronology, p. Ixzziii. 



W>«m-^i 





BUTION OF 



ti 



REFElLEHCr JfOTE 

Bmrmti TftooPS coloohed fffo 

ii/A7t¥£ TROOPS COLOt/BED BLUE 

pAVALRY JtE&lJMENT «■ DETACHMENT 
•?^ ^ |«FANTRV RE61MENT * MUTTNIED 

NFAHTRY {H>Mf*ANY ^ DFfiARMEO 

« AIL WAV 




t Street., i 



.MUH, =}^Ai,olamn,3tCojabg 



Ifdrod, THE MUTINY IxxV 

and commissariat. The important arsenals at Philloor and Ferozepur 
were secured. On the 27th May Anson died of cholera. The attack 
upon Delhi did not begin until the 8th June, when Sir H. Barnard, 
with the troops collected by Anson, amounting to 3800 men, defeated 
^a rebel army of 30,000 men at Badli-ka-serai, and thus obtained 
possession ot the famous ridge overlooking the walls of Delhi Barnard 
died of cholera on the 5th July, and was succeeded by Beed, who re- 
signed on the 17 th owing to ill-health, handing oyer the command to 
Archdale Wilson. The natives had purposely timed their rising for 
the begiiKning of the hot weather, knowing how debilitating active 
operations are at that period to all Europeans. For some time the 
British, while affecting to invest Delhi, were themselves hotly be- 
sieged on the ridge. In the Punjab Sir John Lawrence was ably sup- 
ported by such men as Nicholson, Edwardes, Chamberlain, and Mont- 
gomery, who energetically suppressed, by disarmament, the local 
mutinies or threats of mutiny at Peshawar, Nowshera, Mooltan, 
Meean Meer, and Ferozepur. A movable column was formed under 
^ command of Nicholson, to suppress any further risings in the 
Punjab, and then to march on Delhi l^Le value of Nicholson's 
courage and decision can hardly be over-estimated. The Punjab was 
in a restless condition. With his small force, moving from place to 
place, disarming or dispersing the mutineers, he kept that province 
from rising. But it was not until the 14th August, three months 
after the Meerut outbreak, that he was able to leave the Punjab and 
join the British force at Delhi. No move could be made there 
until, on the 6th September, the siege guns arrived from Ferozepur, 
which opened on the walls on the 11th, and prepared the way for the 
storming of the works on the 14th, and the final capture of Delhi on 
the 20th. It came not a day too soon. Sir John Lawrence had 
emptied his province of British troops, sending every possible man to 
Delhi ; and the Sikhs and Punjabees, who had hitherto been loyal, 
were becoming agitated with the idea that the British would never 
regain their position. If these troops had turned against us we should 
have had to begin again the conquest of India. 

Meanwhile, the British between Calcutta and Delhi were in sore 
straits. At Agra the sepoys were disarmed on the 31st May, but 
although the Maharaja Scindia, of Gwalior, was himself loyal, his 
fine body of disciplined troops only awaited an opportimity to march 
on A^ra. At Cawnpore- Sir H. Wheelei^s small garrison capitulated 
on the 26th June, and were massacred next day, but the women and 
children were made prisoners. At Lucknow a small British force 
was holding out against enormous numbers of the enemy. 

Ha/odock advanced to their assistance with 1400 British and 
600 Sikh troops, leaving Allahabad on the 7th July. The line 
between Calcutta and Allahabad was disturbed, the communi- 



Ixxvi THas MUTINT India 

cations threatened, and Havelock obtained no substantial rein- 
forcements till tbe middle of September. When he had marched 
for five days from Allahabad he defeated a large force of mutineers 
and Maral^as at Fatehpore, and fought two other successful battles 
on the 16th of July at Aong and Pandoo Nuddee. On the evening of 
that day, being then 22 miles from Cawnpore, he learned that the 
British women and children of Wheeler's garrison were still alive, and 
tired as his men were, he marched them 14 miles that night, defeated 
the Nana Sahib next day in three separate actions, and rested his 
weary troops on the outskirts of Cawnpore on the evening of the 16th. 
The heat was so intense that many of his men died from sunstroke or 
exhaustion. The women and children were murdered by the orders 
of the Nana on the 15th, when Havelock had started on his last 
desperate effort to save them. On the 17th he occupied Cawnpore. 
On the 20th, leaving 300 men there under Neill, he began the 
crossing of the Qanges with 1600 men. On the 29th he defeated the 
rebels at Oonao and Busherut Gunge, but finding immense numbers 
of mutineers still between him and Lucknow, while his own force had 
been reduced to 850 effectives, he had no alternative but to retire 
to Cawnpore. On the 4th August he marched out of Cawnpore a 
second time with 1400 men; on the 5th he again defeated the rebels 
at Busherut Gunge, but his losses from disease, as well as battle, had 
been so great that it was hopeless to proceed further, and he fell back 
once more, reaching Cawnpore on the 13th. On the 16th he attacked 
and defeated 4000 sepoys at Bithoor. He had now only 1000 effectives. 
In his front towards Lucknow were some 30,000 rebels ; at Furruck- 
abad were probably as many more ; he was threatened on both flanks ; 
and had to face on the south the Gwalior contingent, and many 
other smaller bodies. Yet he courageously determined to keep his 
position at Cawnpore instead of falling back upon Allahabad. The 
relief of Lucknow was, of course, out of the question until reinforce- 
ments had arrived. These continued to dribble in during the next 
month, but there was mischievous delay between Calcutta and 
Allahabad, some 6000 men, who might have been sent on to Have- 
lock, being detained to suppress local disturbances. On the 16th 
September Sir James Outram arrived to supersede Havelock. In 
the most generous and chivalrous manner, he gave up the command 
to Havelock, and thus left the honour of relieving Lucknow to 
the man who had already made such able and gallant efforts to that 
end. At length, on the 19th September, Havelock crossed the Ganges 
with 3000 men. He defeated the rebels at Mungalwar on the 2l8t, 
and on the 23rd, 24th, and 25th, was gradually fighting his way in 
to Lucknow ; and finally effected a junction with the garrison late in 
the evening of the 25th, though with a loss of 700 out of his 3000 
men. Outram then took command of the old and the new garrisonB 



Irdrod. the mutiny Ixxvii 

at Lucknow. Delhi having fallen to the British between the 14th 
and 20th, the mutineers from that place were arriving at Lucknow, 
and Otttram found it impossible to fight his way out taking with him 
the women, children, and sick of the old garrison. He remained on 
the defensive, closely invested, until the final relief of Lucknow two 
months later. 

The dangerous period of the mutiny ended with the capture of 
Delhi and the reinforcement of Lucknow towards the end of September. 
From this time the British position was assured by the arrival of rein- 
forcements from England. The first of them was Sir GoUn Gamphell, 
the newly -appointed Commander -in -Chief in India, who reached 
Calcutta on the 17 th August. As reinforcements were now steadily 
arriving, his first care was to arrange that regular batches should be 
forwarded with all speed. Then he started for the seat of war, and 
reached Cawnpore early in November. Leaving 1000 men under 
Windham at Cawnpore, he advanced on Lucknow with 5000, peached 
the Alum Bagh on the 12th ; left a garrison there ; marched upon the 
rebels with 4200 men on the 16th ; and effected a junction with Outram's 
beleaguered force on the 17th, though with a loss of nearly 500 men. 
The original Lucknow garrison, who had been closely invested since 
the 2nd July, a period of more than four months, were thus finally 
relieved. But Sir Colin found the rebels so numerous, and the 
difficulty of escorting the women, children, and sick safely out of 
Lucknow so great, that he felt himself unable to hold Lucknow in 
addition, and accordingly evacuated it, leaving Outram at the Alum 
Bagh with 4000 men to maintain the appearance of British authority, 
Havelock died of dysentery on the 24th November. When Sir 
Colin reached Cawnpore with his precious human freight, he found 
that Windham had been defeated by a Maratha named Tantia Topi, 
and had been gradually forced out of the city of Cawnpore into his 
entrenchments on the banks of the Ganges. On the 3rd December 
the families and sick were sent on to Allahabad, and then Sir Colin 
attacked Tantia Topi, captured his artillery, and dispersed his army. 
Beyond clearing the Doab, the country between . the Ganges and 
Jumna, little was done in the next three months except the collection 
of reinforcements. On the 2nd March Sir Colin joined Outram at the 
Alum Bagh with a force which the constant streams from Calcutta 
had now raised to 19,000 men with 120 guns. To this was shortly 
added a brigade under (Jeneral Franks, and a contingent of Nepalese 
under Jung Bahadur, which brought the army up to the respectable 
total of 31,000 men and 164 guns. The mutineers in Lucknow 
numbered 90,000 trained men, and a large force of irregulars, and 
they had employed their respite in erecting three strong lines of defences 
around their position. Sir Colin's attack began on the 7 th March, 
and he finally drove off the enemy and captured Lucknow on the 15th. 



Ixxviii THE KUTINT India 

On the 20th Lord Canning issued the Confiscation Proclamation, 
by which the estates of all the important chiefs in Oudh were con- 
fiscated. Most of them, although certainly not loyal, had abstained 
from active participation in the revolt They now rose, and were 
joined by other princes who feared that they would be treated in like 
manner, and that they had nothing to lose, but everything to gain by 
opposing the BritisL Thus it happened that although the sepoys 
were dispersed, only small bands of them still remaining in the field, 
new enemies sprang up who were not subdued until the end of the 
year 1868, by which time there were 100,000 British troops in India. 
Of the various British brigades which operated in different parts of the 
country, the most important was that under Sir Hugh Bose (afterwards 
Lord Strathnaim) in Central India. On the 8th January 1858, Bose 
left Mhow with a Bombay force, and marching northwards captured the 
fortresses of Ratgarh on the 28 th, and Garrakota on the 13th February. 
After several successful battles he arrived before the walls of Jhansi on 
the 21st March. On the 1st April he totally defeated Tantia Topi 
who was marching to the relief of Jhansi with 22,000 men ; and he 
storxned and captured Jhansi on the 4th. The Ranee fled with her 
defeated troops towards Ealpee where Tantia Topi was collecting 
another army. Bose marched out of* Jhansi on the 25 th April, 
defeated Tantia Topi on the 6th May, and captured Ealpee on the 
23rd. The Banee then fled to QwaJior, where she was joined by 
the Maharaja's troops, and thus obtained possession of the strong 
fortress. In spite of the great heat Bose marched upon Gwalior, and 
captured it on the 24th. The Banee, dressed as a mau, was killed in 
battle. On the 21st Sir Bobert Napier (afterwards Lord Napier of 
Magdala) attacked and defeated Tantia Topi at AHpore Jowra. From 
this date the wily Maratha was incessantly hunted throughout Central 
India ; he had covered 3000 miles in his flight before he was betrayed 
on the 7th April 1859, ten months later. He was tried, and hanged. 
Meanwhile the rebellion in Oudh and the North West Provinces, 
which had now assumed the character of a popular rising, had been 
gradually suppressed ; and the Nana had been driven into the Nepal 
jungle, where he died of fever. 

The prophet who had announced that the Company's rule would 
end in 1857, a hundred years after the battle of Plassey, was not far 
out in his reckoning. On the 1st November 1858, at a grand darbar 
at Allahabad, Lord Canning announced that the Company's possessions 
in India were transferred to the British Crown. Since the mutiny 
there has been a great change in British policy. The British 
troops, in 1857 one -sixth of the native, are now more than one 
hal£ All the strong fortresses, magazines, and arsenals are garrisoned 
by British soldiers ; there are no batteries of native artillery 
of any importance ; and the modem preparations for transport^ com- 



Introd, REMABEABLE EVENTS Ixxiz 

misaariat, and mobilisation, combined with the railway system, ensure 
the speedy movement of British troops on any given spot The high 
caste sepoy has been to a considerable extent replaced by a less exact- 
ing soldier, and the danger of a groundless religious panic thereby 
lessened. The right of adoption, for which many of the chiefs fought, 
has been conceded. The policy of annexation in India has been 
abandoned. The pay of the sepoy has been raised, whether on service 
in his own country or in foreign districts. And the British officers of 
native regiments are no longer encouraged to leave their men for the 
attractions of civil or staff employment Both races have learned their 
lesson. The best proof is that whereas formerly sepoy mutinies were 
of frequent occurrence, no single example has since occurred to revive 
memories of the great tragedy of 1857. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH 
EUROPE 

DATES 

Vasco da Gama sails to Calicut round the Cape of Good Hope . . 1498 

The Portuguese Viceroy, Albuquerque, captures Goa .... 1510 
Bassein, Salsette, and Bombay ceded to the Portuguese by the Raja 

ofGuzerat 1534 

Thomas Stephens, of New College, Oxford, becomes rector of the 

Jesuits' coUege at Salsette 1579 

Charter from Queen Elizabeth to **The Governor and Company of 

Merchants of London trading to the East Indies " . . . . 1601 

The Dutch East India Company formed 1602 

The first French East India Company formed 1604 

The Dutch occupy Pulicat (near Madras) 1609 

The Mogul, Jehangir, issues a proclamation permitting the English to 

estabUsh factories at Surat, Ahmedabad, Cambay, and Gogo . . 1611 

The &8t Danish East India Company formed 1612 

Captain Best defeats the Portuguese s<juadron at Swally . . . . 1612 
Sir Tliomas Roe, ambassador to Jehangir, obtains favourable concessions 

for English trade . . . . . ... . 1615 

An English factory founded at Armagaon 1626 

An English factory founded at Masulipatam 1682 

The English Company allowed to trade in Bengal .... 1634 

Fort St. George founded at Madras by Francis Day .... 1689 
Gabriel Broughton, surgeon of the Hopewdl, obtains from the Mogul, 

Shah Jehan, exclusive privileges of trading in Bengal for the 

English Company, as a reward for his professional services to the 

Mo^ul and the Raja of Bengal 1645 

The Dutch take Negapatam from the Portuguese .... 1660 
Bombay ceded to England by the Portuguese as part of the Infanta 

Catherina's dower on her marriage with Charles II. ... 1661 

French settlement established at Pondicherry 1674 

A new English Company formed, with a capital of £2,000,000 , .1698 

The old Company buys the site of Calcutta 1700 

Death of the Mogul, Anrangzeb, and decline of the Mogul power . 1707 
Through the arbitration of Lord Godolphin the two English Companies 

are amalgamated «... 1709 



/ 

/ 

X REMARKABIiB EVENTS India 

DATXS 

<j Austrian Emperor Charles VI. grants a charter to the Ostend 

Company 1723 

England and France at war in Europe 1743 

A French fleet under La Bourdonnais captures Madras . 1746 

An English fleet under Admiral Boscawen besieges Fondicherry, but is 
repulsed. The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle restores Madras to the 

English . • 1748 

Duplets places nominees of his own on the throne at Hyderabad and 
Aroot. The English support Muhammad Ali for Arcot. War 
between the English and French in the Camatic .... 1749 
Capture and subsequent defence of Arcot by dive .... 1751 

The French capitulate at Trichinopoly 1752 

Clive returns to England 1753 

Dupleix superseded. Treaty of peace between the English and French 

signed at Pondicherry 1754 

Clive returns to India 1755 

Suraj-ud-daulah, Nawab of Bengal, captures Calcutta. 20th June. 
— ^The tragedy of the Black Hole. The English prisoners, 146 in 
number, are confined in a room 18 feet square, with only two small 
windows. Next morning only 23 remain alive .... 1756 
Recapture of Calcutta by Clive. 23rd June. — Battle of Plassey. Clive 
with 1000 Europeans, 2000 sepoys, and 8 guns, defeats Suraj-ud- 
daulah and 35,000 men, 15,000 horse, and 50 guns. War with 

France renewed in the Camatic 1757 

Lally arrives with a French fleet. He takes Arcot. Clive is appointed 
the first Governor of the Company's settlements in Bengal . . 1758 

Clive defeats the Dutch . . 1759 

Eyre Coote totally defeats Lally at the battle of Wandiwash . . 1759 
AJrcot taken by the English. Clive sails for England . . . 1760 

Pondicherry capitulates to the English. Fall of the French power in 

the Deccan 1761 

Pondicherry restored to the French by the treaty of Paris. The ^t 
sepoy mutiny in the English camp is suppressed by Hector Munro. 
Munro defeats the Nawab of Bengal at tlxe decisive battle of Buxar. 

Dupleix dies in poverty in Paris 1764 

Lord Clive arrives at Calcutta as Governor-General. The revenues of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa granted to the Company by the Mogul, 

ShahAlamlL 1765 

The Northern Circars ceded to the English. Clive prohibits the 
servants of the Company from engaging in private trade or accept- 
ing presents, and increases their salaries. Lally is executed at Paris 1766 
Clive leaves India. The Nizam and Haidar Ali attack the English . 1767 

The Nizam cedes the Camatic 1768 

Terrible famine in Bengal 1770 

Warren Hastings, Governor-General 1772 

Supreme Court established at Calcutta. The Dutch expelled from 

Negapatam by the English 1773 

The Rohilla chiefs defeated by the English. Salsette and Bassein 
taken by the Bombay troops. Clive commits suicide in England . 1774 

The Nawab of Gudh cedes Benares 1775 

Chandernagore, Masulipatam, Karikal, and Pondicherry taken from 

the French • 1777 

The first Maratha War begins. General Goddard's celebrated march 

across India. Convention of Wargaon 1779 

Haidar Ali takes Arcot. Captain Popham captures Gwalior. Warren 
Hastings wounds Sir Philip Francis f Junius) in a duel . . . 1780 



Introd. REMARKABLE EVENTS Ixxxi 

]>ATE8 

Sir Eyre Ooote defeats Haidar Ali at Porto Novo. The English capture 
the Dutch Dorts of Pulicat and Sadras 1781 

Death of Haidar AIL The French assist Tipu, his son . . . 1782 

The captured French possessions restored to them by the treaty of 
Versailles 1783 

Peace with Tipu ; the conquests on both sides restored. Pitt's Bill 
establishes a Board of Control 1784 

13th February. — ^Warren Hastings impeached by the House of Commons, 
before the House of Lords, for corruption and oppression . . 1788 

Tipu ravages part of Travancore 1790 

Lord Comwallis leads the British army against Tipu in person. Takes 
Bangalore. Is joined by Nizam Ali and the Peishwa . . . 1791 

The alHes storm the redoubts at Seringapatam. Tipu yields one-half 
of his dominions, to be divided between the Nizam, the Peishwa, 
and the English ; and agrees to pay £3,000,000 .... 1792 

Regular Civil Courts established in Bengal. The revenue settlement 
of Lord Comwallis in Bengal, by which the Zamindars, who had 
been the revenue agents of the Mogul, were declared to be the land- 
owners, is made permanent. Pondicherry taken from the French . 
for the third time 1798 

23rd ApriL — Warren Hastings is acquitted after a trial lasting seven 
years. The Company grant him £4000 a year for life . . 1796 

The Dutch settlements in Ceylon, and the Cape, taken . . . 1796 

Seringapatam stormed, and Tipu slain. His dominions divided be- 
tween the Nizam and the English 1799 

The Nizam gives up his share of Mysore in consideration of English 
protection 1800 

The Nawab of the Carnatio cedes Nellore, North and South Arcot, 
Trichinopoly, and Tinnevelly. The Nawab- Wazir of Oudh cedes 
Rohilkund and the Doab. deylon made a Crown Colony . . 1801 

Treaty of Bassein, by which the foreign relations of the Peishwa are 
supervised by the British 1802 

Maratha War. Battle of Assaye, 23rd September ; Wellesley (after- 
wards the Duke of Wellington) with 4600 men defeats 60,000 Marathas 
under Sindhia and the Raja of Nagpur. Lake defeats the Marathas 
at Aligarh, and captures Delhi and Agn. Cession of the greater part 
of what are now the North- West ^evinces. The Mogul king of 
Delhi becomes the pensioner of the British. Conquest of Cuttack . 1803 

Konson's advance into Holkar's territory, and disastrous retreat. 

Capture of Indore. Holkar's attack on Delhi defeated . . . 1804 

Lake abandons the siege of Bhurtpore. Holkar cedes Bundelkund . 1805 

Mutiny of sepoys at Vellore. Suppressed by Colonel Gillespie , . 1806 

Rise of Runjeet Singh in the Punjab 1807 

War declared against Nepal. Repulse of the British 

Ochterlony defeats the Ghurkas at Maloun 

Treaty of Segowlie. Cession of hill stations 

Operations against the Pindharis, bands of freebooters. 
Battle of Khirki: defeat of the Peishwa and capture of Poona. 
Battle of Sitabuldi: defeat of the R^ja of Nagpur. Battle of 
Mehidpore : defeat of Holkar. Cession of Ajmere by Sindhia . 1817 

Defence of Korygaum by 800 sepoys, with ten British oflBoers, against 
25,000 Marathas. Holkar cedes territory. The dominions of the 
Peishwa annexed 1818 

Burmese War .... 1824 

Gaptore of Bhurtpore, hitherto deemed impregnable. Treaty of Yan- 
aaboo ; oesiion oy the Burmese of Assam, Arraoan, and Tenasserim 1826 
[India] / 



1814 
1815 
1816 
Maratha War. 



Ixxxii REMARRABLB EVENTS India 

DATES 

Sati, or widow - burning, declared "culpable homicide" by Lord 
William Bcntinck 1829 

Renewal of the Company's charter, on condition that the Company 
abandons its monopoly of the China trade, and acknowledges the 
right of Europeans to reside in India and acquire land . . .1833 

Annexation of Coorg 1834 

Lord William Bentinok leaves India, having abolished sati, suppressed 
(with the aid of Sir W. Sleeman) Thuggee, reformed the judicial 
administration, restored the use of the vernacular language in all 
courts, extended education, effected the revenue settlement of the 
North- West Provinces (with the aid of Robert Bird), given the 
natiyes a share in the government, restored the finances, and pro- 
moted steam communication vid Suez 1885 

Efforts to eradicate female infanticide. The freedom of the Press 
established. Ranjit Singh seizes Peshawur 1835 

Dost Muhammad, Ameer of Afghanistan, receives a Russian mission. 
Lord Auckland declares war 1838 

Capture of Kandahar and Chazni, and occupation of Kabul. Shah 
Shuja made Ameer. Death of Ranjit Singh. Capture of Aden . 1839 

2nd November. — Murder of Sir A. Burnes at Kabul. 23rd December. 

—Murder of Sir W. Macnaghten 1841 

Retreat of British army of 4500 men (the renmants of a force of 15,000) 
from Kabul, of whom one only, Dr. Brydon, reaches Jellallabad 
alive. Pollock forces the Khyber and joins Sale's garrison at 
Jellallabad. Murder of Shah Shuja at Kabul and accession of 
Akbar Khan. Pollock defeats the Afghans at Tezeen, and re- 
occupies Kabul. Lady Sale and the Kabul prisoners ransomed. 
Return of the British army to India 1842 

Sir Charles Napier defeats the Sind armies at Miani and Hyderabad. 
Annexation of Sind 1843 

First Sikh War. Gough fights an indecisive action at Moodki. Assault 
on the Sikh entrenchment at Ferozeshah, which is captured on the 
second day after an obstinate struggle. The Sikhs lose 74 guns, 
and the British 2400 killed and wounded 1845 

Sir Henry Smith defeats the Sikhs at Aliwal. Gough fights a 
desperate battle at Sobraon, which ends in the rout of the Sikh army. 
Jaramu and Kashmir sold to Gholab Singh for £750,000 . . . 1846 

Murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson at Mooltan. Second Sikh War. 
Unsuccessful siege of Mooltan . 1848 

Mooltan stormed by General Wlush. Gough fights an indecisive action 
at Chilianwallah ; both armies retire ; British loss of 2400 men, 4 
guns, and 3 colours. Gough defeats the Sikhs at Gujrat ; they lay 
down their arms. Annexation of the Punjab. Annexation of 
Sattarah by lapse 1849 

Burmese War. Annexation of Pegu 1862 

Annexation of Jhansi by lapse 1863 

Annexation of Nagpur by lapse. Competitive system for civil appoint- 
ments introduced . . 1864 

7th February. — Annexation of Oudh, owing to persistent misrule. 
Lord Dalhousie leaves India, having opened the first railway for 
traflSc, formed a department of public works, introduced cheap 
postage, constructed telegraphs, opened the Ganges Canal, and 
established an education department with the three universities of 
Cidcutta, Madras, and Bombay. 29th February. — ^Arrival of Lord 
Canning. The General Service Enlistment Act .... 1856 

famaptjee Jeejeebhoy, a philanthropic Pars!, made a Baronet. The 



Introd, REMARKABLE EVENTS Ixxxili 

DATSe 

Mutiny, February. Mutinies at Barraokpore and Berhampore. 
The sepoys refuse to use the new cartridges which were greased with 
the fat of beef and pork. 3rd May. Sir Henry Lawrence suppresses 
a mutiny of the 7tn Oudh Irregulars at Lucknow. 9th May. At 
Meerut eijghty-five sepoys refuse to use even the old cartridges, and 
are imprisoned in irons. 10th May. Rising of the sepoys at 
Meerut ; they release their comrades from jail, burn the cantonment, 
and make for Delhi. 11th May. The mutineers reach Delhi ; 
murder the Europeans ; and proclaim the Mogul as Ruler of India. 
30th May. Mutiny in the cantonment near Lucknow. 4th June. 
Mutinies at Benares and Allahabad, and slaughter of Europeans. 
5th June. Mutiny at Jhansi. Massacre of the Europeans who had 
surrendered on a promise of their lives. Mutiny at Cawnpore. 6th 
June. Attack upon Sir Hugh Wheeler in the entrenchment at 
Cawnpore. 8th June. Battle of Badli-ka-serai, near Delhi. Defeat 
of the rebels and occcupation of the Ridge. 11th June. Arrival of 
Neill with the Madras Fusiliers at Allahabad. 28rd June. This 
being the anniversary of the battle of Plassey, the mutineers make a 
determined assault on the Ridge at Delhi. 26th June. Capitula- 
tion of Sir H. "Wheeler at Cawnpore on a promise from the Nana 
Sahib that the lives of all will be spared. 27th June. Massacre of 
the males of the garrison at Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 2nd 
July. Investment of the Residency buildings at Lucknow. Sir H. 
Lawrence mortally wounded by a shell. 7th July. Havelock 
advances from Allahabad with 2000 men. 16th July. Murder of the 
British women and children at Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 
17th July. Havelock retakes Cawnpore. 14tii August. Arrival of 
Nicholson's column at the Ridge, Delhi. 6th September. Battering 
train amves at the Ridge. 14th to 20th September. Delhi stormed 
with a loss to the British of 1200 men. Nicholson mortally 
wounded. 25th September. Havelock and Outram fight their way 
into Lucknow, and are shut in. Death of Neill. 17th November. 
Sir Colin Campbell relieves Lucknow. 22nd November. Lucknow 
evacuated. 24th November. Death of Havelock. 27th November. 
Windham driven into his entrenchments by the Gwalior rebels, who 
plunder Cawnpore. 6th December. Sir Colin Campbell defeats the 

Gwalior rebels 1857 

Sir Colin Campbell reconquers Lucknow. Sir Hugh Rose captures 
Jhansi and Gwalior. Sir Robert Napier (Lord Napier of Magdala) 
defeats Tantia Topi. Loyalty of Dost Muhammad, Ameer of Afghani- 
stan, and Jung Bahadar (of Nepal) throughout the Mutiny. 1st 
November. The Government of India transferred from the Company 
to the British Crown, represented by a Viceroy .... 1858 

The income tax imposed . 1860 

Legislative Councils established in the three Presidencies . , , 1861 
Death from famine of one-fourth of the population of Orissa . . 1866 

Samarkand taken by the Russians 1868 

Assassination of Lord Mayo, the Viceroy, while on a visit to the con- 
vict settlement in the Andaman Islands 1872 

The Russians, under General Kauffmann, take Khiva .... 1873 
Famine in Behar. Government expenditure of £7,000,000 . . . 1874 

Visit of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 1875-6 

Famine. Government expenditure of £8,000,000. Increase of 5,000,000 

deaths. British subsCTiption of half a million sterling . . .1876-8 
Ist January. — Hr M. the Queen proclaimed Empress of India at Delhi 1877 
Shcre All, Ameer of Afghanistan, receives a Russian but not a British 



Izxxiv BSMARKABLB BTBNTB India 

DATEB 

mission. Three British coltunns move on Afghanistan. Captiire of 
Ali Musjid. Roberts storms the Peiwar EotiJ. Flight of Shere Ali 
to Turkestan, and accession of his son Yaknb Khan. Despatch of 
native troops to Malta 1878 

Death of Shere Ali. Treaty of Gundamok. Sir Louis Gavaguari 
is received at Kabul as British representative, but murdei-ea six 
weeks after his arrival. Roberts advances ; carries the heights of 
Charasiab, takes Sherpur, and enters Kabul. Abdication of Yakub 
Khan 1879 

Ayub Khan defeats General Burrows at Maiwand, with a loss to the 
British of 1000 men killed out of 2500 engaged. Brilliant march 
by Roberts with 10,000 men to the relief of Kandahar, 813 miles 
in twenty -one days. Roberts completely routs Ayub Khan. The 
British nominate Abddr Rahman as Ameer. The British forces re- 
turn to India 1880 

Skobeleff defeats the Tekke Turkomans and captures Geok Teppe . 1881 

Further advance of the Russians. Death of skobeleff. Lord Ripon 
extends local self-government with some powers of election. Aboli- 
tion of customs duties on all articles except intoxicants and arms. 
A contingent of the native army is sent to Egypt .... 1882 

The Ilbert Bill proposes to '* invest native magistrates in the interior 
with powers over European British subjects." Bitter race animosities 
aroused. Compromise adopted by which Europeans are entitled to 
a jury of which one-half at least are of their own race . . 1883 

Occupation of Merv and Sarakhs by the Russians . . . 1884 

A. Russian force attacks the Afghans at Fanjdeh. The Ameer meets 
Lord Dufferin at Rawul Pindi, and is given money and munitions 
of war 1885 

King Thebau, of Mandalay, having made overtures to France and 
refused to receive a British envoy, is deposed. Annexation of Upper 
Burma. The National Congress of natives commences its annual 
meetings. Delimitation of the northern boundary of Afghanistan by 
an Anglo-Russian Commission ,,.,.. 1886 

16th February. The Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress 
celebrated with great manifestations of native loyalty . . . 1887 

Formation of Imperial Service Troops in Native States 1888 

Completion of the Afghan Frontier Railway and Defences . 1889 

Murder of British officers at Manipur. Capture and execution of the 
leaders. Visit of the Cesarewitch, now tne Czar .... 1891 

The Indian Councils Act introduces an elective element into the 
Legislative Councils • . 1892 

The Mints closed to the free coinage of silver ; the value of the rupee 
fixed, for Government purposes, at Is. 4d. Compensation given to 
officials on account of depreciation of rupee 1898 

Visit of Sirdar Nasrullah Khan, second son of the Ameer, to England. 
Final delimitation of the Pamir Boundary. Chitral Campaign. 
Storming of the Malakhand Pass^ and relief of the British force in 
Chitral. Imposition of import duties 1895 

Cholera and plague at Bombay. The boundaries of Beluchistan laid 
down 1896 

Plague and Famine. British subscription of more than half a million 
sterling. Severe earthquake in Bengal and Assam. Insubordination 
of tribes on N.W. frontier. Punitive expedition .... 1897 



TfUrod, * INDIAN TERMS IzZXY 



SOME NATIVE TERMS USED IN THIS BOOK 

[A. signiilefl Arabic ; H. Hlndilst&ni or Hindi ; E. Kanarese ; Mai. Malay&lam ; M. Mardtihi ; 
My. Malay ; P. Persiaii ; & Sanscrit ; Tel. Teluga ; Tor. Turkish ; T. Tamil.] 

AmIb (Ameer), A. ''commander," a title of prinoes and nobles, as the Amirs 

ofSindh. 
ksA. (Anna), H. the 16th part of a rupee. 
BabtSl, a. title Aoaoia arabica tree. 

BAHisuB, P. ''brave," "ohiTalrio,'' a title of honour amon^ Mohammedans. 
BiTNOALOW, H. (bangla) a thatched house ; the name usually applied to the 

houses of the English in India, and to the rest-houses for travellers built 

bv Government on the public roads. 
BAoiIf trough of water, at a spring, hence a well. 
BiLzAB, P. a market or marketplace ; a street of shops. 
Beoam (Begum), Tur. a lady of rank ; a queen or princess. 
BhJLtA (Batta), H. additional allowance to public servants or soldiers em- 
ployed on special duty. 
BrAhman, S. a Hindu of the first, or priestly caste. 
BuppHiST, S. a worshij^r of Buddh, or Sakya Muni, who died b.o. 543. 
Caste, class ; sect ; corruption of the Portuguese ectsta or race. 
Catamaran, T. kaifu, "to bind/' maramf "a tree," a log-raft on which 

the natives of Madras paddle through the surf. 
ChIwadi, TeL a native rest-house for travellers. 
CHOTTLTkiB, an English corruption of Chawadi, q,v, 
Chunam, S. an English corruption of H. cMmd, from S. cMmah, lime, a plaster oi 

mortar sometimes made of shells of a remarkable whiteness and brilliance. 
CoMPOUKD, probably My. an enclosure. A corruption of the Malay word 

JSjafnpang. 
Daqhopa, Daqoba, S. deh, " the body," gup, " to hide," a circular structure 

inside Buddhistic cave temples, supposed to contain the ashes or relics of 

Buddha, and occupying the plaice of our altars. 
Dak, Post Dak-Bun^ow (or Muzafari Bungalow) a Best-house for travellers. 
DabbAb (Durbar), P. a royal oourt ; an audience or levee. 
DHARAMsAiii., S. dharma, ** justice," "piety," a,nd sMld, " a hall," a place 

of accommodation for travellers and pilgrims. 
DiwAN, P. '* aroyal court," "a minister," especially the chief financial minister. 
FakIb, a. "poor," a reUgious man, who has taken the vow of poverty. 
GhXt (GhauQ, S. ghaffa, "a landing-place," "steps on a river side," a 

moTintain pass ; any narrow passage. 
G0FD2LA, H. the ^te of a Pagoda. 
GsAKTHi, Sanscrit written in the Tamil character. 
GumAshtah, p. an agent 
CrTTMBAZ, a cupola ; a dome. 

EamhAl, a. a bearer of a palki, in Bombay an indoor servant 
Harim (Haram), a sanctuary ; ladies' apartments. 

Hayaldab, H. an officer in native regiments corresponding to our sergeant. 
ftiriLKAH (Hookah), A. a native pipe. 

HirxtrB, A. the royal presence, a respectful term applied to high officials. 
JioiB, P. a tenure by which the public revenues of an estate or district were 

granted to an individual, with powers to collect them, and administer 

the general affairs of the estate. 
Jim'asj^, A. a native officer next to a Siibahdar, and corresponding to our 

lieatenant 
Jooi, a Hindn devotee, as Fakir is a Mohammedan. 



Ixxxvi INDIAN TBRMs India 

Eacheri or EaohhXri, H.M. a court or office for public business. 

Khan, A. a Mohammedan title of nobility answering to oui* "lord." 

Khas, special Diwan-i-Kha8=Hall of special audience. 

KUBBAH, A. a tomb. 

KiTLf (Cooly), T. and Tur. a day labourer. 

tiAKH (Lac), S. the number 100,000. 

MXlI, S. a garland. 

Man (Maund), H. a weight, varying in different parts of India. In Bombay 

it is 25 lbs. ; in Bengal, since 1883, 80 lbs. 
Mandapam, S. an open pavilion or porch in front of a temple. 
Massulah, T. a boat sewed together, used for crossing the surf at Madras. 
MiHBAB, the recess in the wall of a mosque — on the side nearest Mecca — to 

which Mohammedans turn at prayer. 
MiMBAR, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Monsoon, A. a corruption of the A. mausim^ **a season;'* applied now to 

the periodical rains in India which fall during the S.W. Monsoon. 
MttnshI (Moonshee), A. a writer ; a secretary ; a teacher of languages. 
MUNSIF, A. a native judge. 
NAiK, S. an officer in native armies corresponding to a corporal ; an ancient 

title. 
Ni.ucH (Nach), S. a dance ; an exhibition of dancing-girls. 
Nattbat khana, a. the guard-room ; the chamber over a gateway, where a 

band is stationed. 
NAwAb, a. this word means lit. ** deputies," being the plural of nd'ib, "a 

deputy." It is now a title of governors and other hign officials. 
NizAm, a. an arranger ; an administrator ; a title of the prince whose capital 

is Hyderabad in the Deccan. 
Nulla,* properly Nala, "watercourse." 
Paooda, p. an Anglican corruption of the P. word hvi-kadahj '*an idol 

temple"; also a coin = 3i rupees, called by the natives Mn, but de- 
riving its appellation of pagoda from its showing a temple on one face ; 

there are other derivations. 
PAl-al, T. the priests of the Tuda tribe, lit. "milkmen." 
PAleoAr (Polygar), T. Tel. a shareholder ; a landed proprietor. A title of 

persons in the Madras Presidency who correspond to Zamindars in other 

parts of India. 
Palanquben, H. an Anglican corruption of the word jwfZK, a vehicle in which 

persons of rank are carried on men's shoulders. 
PAn, S. the leaf of the betel creeper. Pan-supari is ar6ca nut rolled in thin 

leaf for chewing. 
PArsis, p. a sect wno worship the Deity under the emblem fire. 
Pb-kovil, T. '* devil-temple, a hut dedicated to the worship of the spirits 

of dead men. 
Peons, from the Portuguese pecu)^ Spanish peon, but sometimes thought an 

Anglican corruption of the H. vtoidi piyddah, "footman." 
PeshkArs, F. an agent. In Bengal, the native officer under a judge, next to 

the SarisMaddr in rank. 
PeshwA, p. the prime ministers of the Rajas of Satara ; Brahmans who after- 
wards became the supreme chiefs of the Maratha nation. 
PhatbmAr, M. lit, "a letter carrier," a fast-sailing vessel common on the W. 

coast of India. 
Phins, T. the Tuda name for the stone circles on the Nilgiri Hills. 
PiOE, H. a corruption of the word paisd, a copper coin, of which 64 go to a 

rupee. 
PiR, P. old, a Mohammedan saint. 
]^t/ fl « Tiind^kiiiff or prince. 

"ft of a K^i^i ^ queeii or princess. 



Tntrod. 



HINDU WORDS 



Ixxxvii 



Rath, S. a cbariot. 

BisAJiAHdAb, a. a native captain of a troop of horse. 

Rtot, a. an Anglican corruption of the A. word r*aiyat, a subject, a peasant. 

Sads AnfN, A. a native judge. 

Sadr 'AdAlat, a. formerly the Supreme Court of Justice in India for trying 

appeals. 
SIhib, a. lord ; a title applied to English gentlemen in India. 
SarAi, a rest-house for travellers ; a caravansarai. 
Sati (Suttee), S. the burning of a widow with her deceased husband. 
ShAh, p. a king ; a title usually applied to the King of Persia. 
ShanIes, T. a tribe in Tinnevelly and the extreme S. of India, who are palm- 
tree climbers by profession. 
Shankh, S. a shell ; the large shells which are blown as horns by the Hindfis 

during religious ceremonies. 
Shola, T. a patch of jungle, a wooded dell. 
SipAhI (Sepoy), P. a native soldier, one of a sipdh or army. 
S^basdAh, a. a governor of a province ; a native military officer corresponding 

to a oaptain. 
Tahzil, a division of Zilla (see below), equivalent to Taluk. 
Tahsildar, a. a native collector of revenue, who is also a magistrate. 
Taj, P. a crown. 

Taluk, or more properly to'aWw^«A, a district ; a division of a province. 
TappAl, H. in Bombay the nost ; delivery of letters ; a relay of horses. 
Tatti, M. matting ; a mat shade. 
Teppa Kulam, South India, a tank surrounded by steps with usually a 

temple in the centre. 
TiTDAS, T. a remarkable tribe on the Nlgiri Hills. 

VAman (or Waman) S. the 6th incarnation of Vishnu, in the shape of a dwarf. 
. Vazir, a. a prime miuister. 
VihAra, S. a cell, an apartment in a monastery or cave. 
VimInah, S. a sacred vehicle or shrine. 
ZamindAr, p. a landed proprietor, a person who receives a percentage of 

Government rents. 
ZiATt.AT -A 8. burial~nlace 
Zil'a (Zniah), A. a province or tract, constituting the jurisdiction of a circuit 

judge. 

A Few Hindu Words 



Enqlish. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 



Nine 

Ten 

Eleven 

Twelve 

Thirteen 

Fourteen 

Fifteen 

Sixteen 



Hindu. 

Ek 

Do 

Tin 

Char 

Pdnch 

Chhal. 

Sat 

Ath 

Nau 

Das 

Igarah 

Barah 

Terah 

Chaudah 

Pandrah 

Solah 



English. 


Hindu. 


Seventeen 


Satrah 


Eighteen 


Athdrah 


Nineteen 


Uiiis 


Twenty 


Bis 


Twenty-one 


Ikis 


Twenl7-t\vo 


Bais 


Twenly-three 


Teis 


Twenly-four 


Chaubis 


Twenty-five 


Pachis 


Twenly-six 


Chhabbis 


Twenty-seven 


Satd'is 


Twenty-eight 


Atha'fs 


Twenty-nine 


Untis 


Thirty 


Tis 


Thirty-one 


Iktis 


Thirty-two 


Battis 



Izzxviii 

Enolibb. 

Thirty-three 

Thirty-fonr 

Thirty-five 

Thirty-aix 

Thirty-seyen 

Thirty-eight 

Thirty-nine 

Forty 

Forty-one 

Forty-two 

Forty-three 

Forty-fonr 

Forty-five 

Forty-six 

Forty-seven 

Forty-eight 

Foriy-nine 

Fifty 

Fifty-one 

Fifty-two 

Fifty-three 

Fifty-fonr 

Fifty-five 

Fifty-six 

Fifty-seven 

Fifty-eight 

Fifty-nine 

Six^ 

Sixty-one 

Sixty-two 

Sixty-three 

Sixty-four 

Sixty-five 

Sixty-six 

Sixty-seven 

Sixty-eight 

Sixty-nine 

Seventy 

Seventy-one 

Seventy-two 

Seventy-three 

Seventy-four 

Seventy-five 

Seventy-six 

Seventy-seven 

Seventy-eight 

Seventy-nine 

Eighty 

Eighty-one 

Eighty-two 

Eighty-three 

Eighty-four 

Eighly-five 



Hnmv WORDS 


IndM 


Hindu. 


Enqlibh. 


Hindu. 


Tet(8 


Eighty-six 


Chhi&sf 


ChAutis 


Eighly-seven 


Satibi 


Paintfs 


Eighty-eight 


Athdsf 


Chhattfs 


Eighty-nine 


Nku^ 


Samt(8 


Ninety 


Nauwe 


Athtls 


Nine^-one 


Ikinawe 


VnchHiB 


Ninety-two 


B4nawe 


Chalfs 


Ninely-three 


TirAnawe 


IktAlis 


Ninety-four 


Chaurdnawe 


Be'^ 


Ninety-five 


Pachinawe 


Tet411s 


Ninety-six 


ChivAnawe 
Satanawe 


Ohau*^Uis 


Ninety-seven 


Paint&lis 


Ninety-eight 


Athanawe 


ChhiyAlis 


Ninety-nine 


Nminawe 


Saintilis 


A hundred 


Sau 


Athtdlls 


Two hundred 


Do sau 


XJnchAs 


Three hundred 


Tfnsau 


Pachds 


Four hundred 


Chirsau 


Ikiwan 


Five hundred 


Pdnch sau 


Biwan 


Six hundred 


Chhah sau 


Tirpan 


Seven hundred 


Sdtsau 


Chauwan 


Eight hundred 


Athsan 


Paohpan 


Nine hundred 


Nau sau 


Chhapan 


A thousand 


Hazdr 


Satawan 


Ten thousand 


Dashazdr 


Athawan 


A hundred thou- 


Ukh 


Uiisath 


sand 




SAth' 


A million 


Das Ukh 


Ik^th 


Ten millions 


Kror 


Bdsath 


A quarter 
A half 


P4o 


Tirsath 


£au 


Chausath 


Three-quarters 
One and a quarter 


PaonA, tin pdo^ 


PainsAth 


Tiwd 


Chhiy^ath 


One and a half 


Derh 
P&one do 


Satsath 


One and three- 


Athstha 


quarters 




Unhattar 


Two and a quarter 


Sawddo 


Sattar 


Two and a half 


ArUi 


Ikhattar 


Two and three- 


P4one tin 


Bahattar 


quarters 




Tihattar 


Three and a 


Sawdtfn 


Chauhattar 


quarter 




Pachhattar 


Three and a half 


Sdirhetfn 


Chhihattar 


Three and three- 


Pdone char 


Sathattar 


quarters 




Athhattar 


Four and a quarter Sawa chdr 


Uidsi 


Four and a half 


S4rhe char 


Assi 


Four and three- 


P4one p&nch 


Ikdsf 


quarters 
A third 




Be'&si 


Tfsrdhissan 


Tirdsi 


Two-thirds 


Dotisrd'liiassh 


Chaurdsf 


A fifth 


P&nchwdn h'i'ssah 


Panchisl 


A sixth 


Chhathan higsnh 



1 A quarter leas than, pdon$; a half more than, tirht. 



Introd. INDIAN coiNAGB Ixxxix 



Ekolish. 

A seyenth 
An eighth 
A tenth 

Months, 

January 

February 

March 

'April 

May 

'Jane 

July 

August 

September 

October 



INDIAN GOINAOB 




Hindu. 


English. 


Hindu. 


Sdtwdn hissah 


November 


Kirtik 


Athwdn hissah 


December 


AgbftTi 


Daswdn hissah 








Days. 


Bdr. 


Mahine,^ 


Sunday 


EtwAr 




Monday 


Sombdr 


Pus 


Tuesday 


Mangal 


Md^h 


Wednesday 


Budh 


Baisakh 


Thursday 


Brih 


Friday 
Saturday 


Juma 

Sanichra 


Jeth 






Asarh 


East 


Piirab 


Sdwan 


West 


Pachhim 


^hddon 


North 


Uttar 


Asan 


South 


Dakhin 



Indian Coinage 
SUver Coins — 

The BuFEE (sixteen annas) is assumed to be equal to 28., but its 
value in gold has sunk as low as Is. 2^d. 

Half Rxtpeb = eight annas. 

Quarter Rupee = four annas. 

One Eighth of a Rupee =^ two annas. 

Copper Coins — 

One Anna = four pice = twelve pie. 
Half Anna = two pice = six pie. 
Quarter Anna = one pice = three pie. 

The pollowino Abbreviations are used in the Routes oivbn in 
this Book. 



T^ » j Dak Bungalow, a rest- 

\ house for travellers. 

div. Division of the army. 

E.I. C. East India Company, 

E. East. 

n. Feet. 

E. Hotel 

in. Inch. 

I. Left hand. 

June Junction. 

m. Mile. 

N. North. 

P Page. 



p, Post-office. 

r. I. b River left bank. 

r. b Right bank. 

IL Refreshment' 'Room. 

Ji.ir. Rest-house. 

rly Railway. 

rs Rupees. 

Jioy. As. Soc. Royal Asiatic Society. 

r. <Ss rt Right hand. 

8ta Station. 

S, South. 

W. West. 

yds. Yards. 



3^ This sign in the text appended to a name indicates that further informa- 
tion relating to the subject is to be found in the Iitdex and Directory at the 
end. 



1 The Indian months begin about the 15th of the English month ; thus Ptlis is tb« 
latter half of January and the first half of February, and so with all the othsr months. 



INDIA 
BURMA AND CEYLON 



1901-1902. 

IMPORTANT INFOEMATION FOR TRAVELLERS 
IN INDLA.. 



CALOirrrA to Bombay (shqrtbst 

roitte). 

(See Boutes 1 and 8). 

Now that the Bengal Nagpur Rail- 
way has a direct entry into Calcutta, 
via Khargpur, the distance between 
that city and Bombay has been short- 
ened to 1221 miles, and the journey is 
accomplished in 44| hours. 

The Grand Circular Toitr of 
India. 

Travellers should note that with the 
opening of through direct railway 
communication between Calcutta and 
Madras, lately effected, and with the 
establishment of an ** overland" service 
six days a week between Madras and 
Colombo, it is now possible to make a 
grand circular railway tour through 
India, beginning at Bombay and ending 
at Colombo, or vice versd, and visiting 
en rovXe all places of interest in South- 
em, Northern, and Western India. 



SKELETON ROUTE. 
Calcutta to Madras, 1031 miles, 

BY THE BeNGAL-NaGPUR AND MADRAS 

Railways, via Midnapur (Kharg- 
pur), Balasore, Cuttack (and Puri), 
Chilka Lake, Vizagapatam, Cooan- 

ADA, AND BeZWADA. 

'^'mtta, see p. 62 (see also Rte. 21). 
1. Kola Oliaut (R.) Here the 
r crosses the Roopnarain River, 
3 tidal river flowing into the 
^'hly, at its junction with which 
:ne fSunous James and Mary sands, 
scene of so many wrecks in the 
ghly. The bridge over this river, 
t \ mile in length, is a very fine 
' ''"'^m the engineering diffi- 



culties met with in constructing it, it 
ranks as one of the most important 
bridges in India. 

72 m. Khargpur (R.) An important 
station, being the junction of the trans- 

geninsular line to Bombay, and of the 
oast line to Madras. There is also a 
short branch line to the big town of 
Midnapur, an old East India Company 
settlement, 8 miles distant, and 
another line is now under construction, 
which will run north-westwards to 
Bankura and the Jherriah coalfields. 

144 m. Balasore (R.) (D.B.) Head- 
quarters of Civil District Government 
and an Ordinance station for testing 
shells and guns. The o^en sea makes 
it a favourite resort, and it promises to 
become in the near future a large 
watering place. The delicious pomfret 
fish is procurable and is finding its way 
into the Calcutta market. There are 
large Roman Catholic and Baptist 
Missions in the town. The place was 
once of great commercial importance, 
and both the Dutch and the Danes had 
factories here. There are two curious 
old Dutch tombs, dated 1688, built 
like three-sided pyramids about 20 feet 
high in a small secluded enclosure near 
the native part of the town. 

202 m. Jajpur Boad. This is the 
station for Jajpur, the ancient capital 
of Orissa. (For description, see p. 290 
et seq, of Handbook, Fourth Edition.) 

253 m. Cuttack (R.) (D.B.) [For 
description, see pp. 288, 289 of Hand- 
book, Fourth Emtion.] 

Within 11 miles north and south of 
Cuttack the railway line is carried over 
no less than five big bridges, the whole 
section comprising the most difficult 
piece of riverine engineering to be seen 
anywhere in India. 



IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO TRAVELLERS IN INDIA 



iTidia 



270 m. BhuTaneshwar. [See pp. 
283 et seq. of Handbook, Fourth 
Edition.] 

282 m. Khurda Bead (R.) Junction 
for Puri (Jagannath) 28 miles distant. 
[See pp. 278 et seq.] 

331. m. Borcool. Situated on the 
shores of the beautiful Chilka Lake, 
the frontier station between Madras 
and Bengal Presidencies. [See under 
Eambha below.] 

344 m. Bamblia. [See p. 353 of 
Handbook, Fourth Edition. The last 
sentence should read: — "It subse- 
quently became the property of Mr 
Minchin, proprietor of a Distillery and 
Sugar Factorj at Aska, in the interior 
of the District ; and now belongs to 
the Rajah of KaUikotah and Atgada."] 

361 m. Hiimma. The site of the 
large Government Salt Factory, the 
salt being manufactiu*ed from sea- water 
by evaporation in " salt-pans," which 
can be seen between the railway and 
the sea. 

866 m. Ganjam. [See under Humma, 
p. 353 of Handbook, Fourth Edition.] 
360 m. Chatrapur. [See p. 353.] 
374 m. Berhampur. [See pp. 352, 
353.] 
420 m. Palasa (R.) [See p. 353.] 
466 m. Cliicacole Boad. [See p. 353.] 
508 m. Viziaiiagraiii (R.) [See pp. 
852, 363.] 

546 m. Waltair (R.) The junction 
between the Bengal-Nagpur Railway 
and the Madras Railway systems. 
[See pp. 352.] 
548 m. Vizagapatam. [See p. 352.] 
606 m. Tuni (R). [See p. 362.] 
639 m. Samalkot Junction (R.) [See 
p. 362.] 

670 m. BaJalimundiy(R.) [See p. 
352.] 

671 m. Oodavery. The site of the 
huge Havelock bridge (56 spans of 150 
feet) over the Godavery River. 

726 m. EUore (R.) [See p. 352.] 
763 m. Bezwada Jonctio a (R. ) (D. B. ) 
An important station, the junction of 
tVirPfi lines : the Madras Railway (East 



Coast Une) ; the Nizam's Railway, 
running due west via Hyderabad and 
Secunderabad to Bombay; and the 
Southern Mahratta Railway (Bellary- 
Kistna line) running south-west to 
Guntakal Junction. [See pp. 358, 359 
and 360.] 

809 m. Bapatla (R.) 

849. m. Ongole (R.) Important 
station of American Baptist Mission. 

900 m. Bitragunta (R.) 

921 m. Nellore. Head-quarters of a 
Civil District of the same name. The 
scene of a massacre of French soldiers 
in 1758, under orders of Najib-ulla, 
who subsequently submitted to the 
British. Tne town contains an old 
fort, now in the District Magistrate's 
OflBce, and an old cemetery with graves 
dating back to 1785. [See p. 334.] 

945 m. Gudur Junction. Junction 
for the South Indian Railway branch 
line to Renigunta Junction (on the 
Madras Railway north-west line), Pak- 
ala, and Katpadi (Vellore) Junction 
(on the Madras Railway south-west 
line). 

1009 m. Fonneri(R.) 

1021 m. Emiiir. On a spacious 
backwater. Formerly a suburban 
resort much frequented by people from 
Madras. The site of a large Salt 
Factory. 

1031 m. Madras (Beach Station). 
[For description of Madras, see p. 336 
et seq.] 

Madras to Colombo (Overlani) 
Route). 

[See Route 31. The title of this 
route should be altered] : — Madras to 
Colombo via Villupueam (for Pon- 
dicheery), Tanjore Trichinopoly, 
Madura and Tutioorin. The de- 
scription up to p. 407 may be followed 
until ' * 425 m. Maniyachi " is - i, 

when it should continue thu£ 

426 m. Maniyachi Junctit-. re 

a branch line runs to Tinnevellj d 
Palamcotta. [For descriptio- -' se 
see pp. 407 and 408.] 

443 m. Taticorin (R.) Tht n 

terminus of the Railway, le 

embarking place for Colombo 



IMPORTANT INFOEMATION TO TKAVBLLBRS IN INDIA 



3 



Historical. — Tuticorin was originally 
a Portuguese settlement, and was 
founded about 1540. In 1658 it was 
captured by the Dutch, and in 1782 
by the English. It was restored to 
the Dutch in 1786 and again taken by 
the English in 1795. During the 
PoUgar war of 1801, it was held for a 
short time by the Pqligar of Panchal- 
amkurichi, and was ceded to the Dutch 
in 1818. It was finally handed over 
to the English in 1825. 

Objects of Interest.— The old Dutch 
cemetery containing several tombstones, 



on which are carved armorial bearings 
and raised inscriptions, is worthy of a 
visit. Twenty miles south of Tuticorin 
on the sea lies the village of Trichen- 
dur, which contains a large and impor- 
tant temple dedicated to Subramanya, 
the God of war, and second son of Siva. 
The temple contains some excellent 
sculpture and several inscriptions. A 
few miles further south is a group of 
16 columns each bearing^ an inscription. 
There is a good road to Trichendur, and 
carts can be hired for the journey there 
from Tuticorin at Rs. 5 each. 



TUTICORIN (B.) 

Hotel : British India H. , 
immediately opposite the 
. station, has accommoda- 
tion for three first-class and 
two second-class visitors. 
The charge for board and 
lodging is — 

First class, Rs. 4-8-0 ) per 
Second „ „ 8-0-0 f diem 
Road Conveyance : 
Carriages and jutluis are 
nsually procurable at the 
station, the fares being 8 
and 2 annas per mile, re- 
spectively. Bullock-carts 
can be hired in the town, 
the charge being 2 annas 
per mile. 

Railway Facilities: 
First and second class car- 
riages are run to and from 
the pier in connection with 
the departure and arrival of 
the luiil steamers to and 
from Colombo. Waiting 
accommodation is provided 
at the station for ladies and 
gentlemen, and there is 
also a Refireshment Room 
under the management of 
Messrs Spencer & Co. The 
butler in charge has usually 
a few copies of the Mad/ras 
Mail and Madras Times for 
sale, as well as a small 
stock of travellers' requis- 
ites. In case of the late 
;he Colombo 
srs Spencer & 
;enerally arrange 
bkfast in the 
and aerated 
urried by all 
ine Mail trains dur- 
" journeys, and can 
lased at the rates 
' * " "^•"'^any's 

inge- 



mentS: A British India 
Steam Navigation Com- 
pany's steamer leaves daily 
(Sundays excepted) at 6 
P.M. for Colombo, and one 
arrives from Ceylon daily 
(Mons. excepted) at about 8 
A.M., the passage occupying 
about 16 hours. The jour- 
ney between the pier and 
steamer is made in a steam 
laimch belonging to the 
British India Steamer 
Agents at Tuticorin, and 
occupies about three-quar- 
ters of an hour. For fur- 
ther particulars, in con- 
nection with the launch 
service, the Company's 
Guide should be consulted. 
The British India Com- 
pany's coasting steamers 
between Calcutta and 
Bombay touch at Tuticorin 
once a week and their 
other vessels as occasion 
offers. The Asiatic Com- 
pany's steamers and those 
of the Japanese line also 
call at the port. A large 
number of sailing boats of 
20 tons burden are always 
procurable on an average 
payment of Rs. 12.8 per 
trip to steamer and back. 
The pier belongs to Govern- 
ment, and is under the 
control of the Port OflScer. 
There are also several pri- 
vate jetties belonging to 
the various mercantile 
firms. 

Local Mannfactnrers 
and Products: There is 
a large Government salt 
factory about a mile-and-a- 
half from the station, with 
which it is connected by a 
siding. In the town are 
several cotton presses and 



an important Spinning 
Mill. Tuticorin is the 
centre of very ancient 
pearl and conch shell fish- 
eries, but since the deep- 
ening of the Pamban Chan- 
nel between India and 
Ceylon, the yield has 
greatly decreased. The 
Manaar pearl, which is not 
of good colour, is usually 
fished for in March, April 
and May, under Govern- 
ment management. 

Local Offldals: The 
ofiScials having offices at 
Tuticorin are the Sub- 
Collector, Deputy Tahsil- 
dar, Sub-Registrar, Assis- 
tant Superintendent and 
Inspector of Police, Assis- 
tant Commissioner of Salt 
and Abkari, Customs Sup- 
erintendent, and the Port 
Officer, who is also the 
Superintendent of Pearl 
Fisheries. The Bank of 
Madras and National Bank 
of India have branches, 
and British India and Asi- 
atic Steam Navigation 
Companies, Agencies in the 
town. 

Missions, Churches, 
etc. : The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel 
maintains a training school, 
and a College named after 
the late Bishop Caldwell. 
Within easy reach of the 
station are a Protestant 
and two Roman Catholic 
Churches. The native 
fishing conmiunity profess 
Christianity to a large 
extent, and are almost 
entirely Roman Catholics. 

Club: A Club for Eur- 
peans is situated on tl 
sea front. 



IMPOKTANT INFORMATION TO TRAYELLSBS IN INDIA 



India 



P. Ixxxix. — Silver Coins, — ^The value 
of the Rupee in gold is now fixed at 1/4. 

P. 289, line 34— "The launches . . 
Calcutta. " — This is not required now 
that through railway conmiunication 
is opened from Calcutta to Madras. 

P. 818, ooL 1, line 10.— For about 
40 hours read 32 hours. 

P. 366, col. 2, line 2 from bottom— 
Cannannore. — A railway S. along 
the coast, via Tellicherry, to Calicut 
is about to be opened (1901) and 
eventually it is to be continued N. to 
Mangalore, p. 365. 

P. 369, col. 1, line 10 from bottom- 
Cochin. — A railway to Shoran on the 
Madras Bailway (Ualicut line) is now 
(1901) beiag constructed, and will 
shortly be opened. 

P. 405, col. 1, line 14.— Madura.— 

A railway is now (1901) being con- 
structed from here to Paunben (Rames- 
waram, pp. 371 and 400), which will 
probably take the place of Tuticorin as 
the starting place for steamers for 
Colombo, deep water allowing vessels 
to get close in shore, whereas at Tuti- 



corin they have to lie several miles 
out. 

P. 376, col. 1, line 4 from bottom.— 
Bowringpet.— The Kolar Gold Mines 
are well worthy of a visit, over 60,000 
miners are employed. Since 1881 the 
yield has been £12,000,000. It is 
proposed to work the mines by elec- 
trici^ to be generated by the force of 
the Cauvery Falls (p. 279). 

P. 388, col. 1, last line— Mettapal- 
aiyam. — ^This is the terminus of the 
broad-guage line, and the junction with 
the NUgiri Mountain Railway, which 
runs as far as Coonoor, 17 miles, and 
which is eventually to be continued to 
Ootacamund, 12 miles further. The 
Nilgiri Railway is the metre gauge, 
and on the mountain gradient is fur- 
nished with a central rack rail, enabling 
it to ascend 1 in 12. The scenery is 
magnificent, and the journey up, in 
the course of which the line ascends 
6000 feet, occupies 3^ hrs., the journey 
down occupyins( 2J hrs. From Coonoor 
to Ootacamund the journey is done in 
pair-horse curricles (tongas) provided 
by the Railway Company, which under- 
takes through booking for passengers 
and luggage. 



BOMBAY 3«ci AND ENVIRONS. 



CONTENTS. 



I Cemetery 
terj', Parell . 
ies . 
1 Groimd . 

iits', Malabar Hill 



pycnlla 

■Scotland 
f Church 
lotch Presbyterian ^ 



lid Directory). 



tince's, Sassoon, Vic. 
, Herewether . 



_ s for Parsi Ladies 
M High School , 

iSchool for Girls 

s High School 



t College 



t Kanbari 



[on of Bombay 
"ion 
», Malabar Point, 



PAGE 

18 

7 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

9 
10 
10 

2 

7 
2 

8,9 

7 

18 
18 
IS 
18 
12 
12 
18 
12 
18 



18 
26 
25 
22 
25 
26 
22 
8 
1 
, Parell 6 



I and Directory). 
1 Manufactures 
ritable and otherwise, 



le, Colaba 



Institutions, etc. — 

European Qeheral Hospital . . 18 

Gokaldas Hospital .... IS 

Grant Medical College .... 14 

House of Correction .... 15 

Incurable Hospital .... 14 

Jamshidji Dharmsala .... 14 

„ Hospital .... 14 

Motlebai Obstetric Hospital . . 14 

Ophthalmic Hospital . . . 14 

Parsi Almshouse 15 

„ Dharmsala 14 

Pestonji Kama, for Women and Children 18 

PinjraPol 15 

Sailors' Home .18 

St. George's Hospital .... 18 
Sir Jamshidji Jijibhai's Pars! Benevo- 
lent Institution .... 14 
Sir D. M. Petit Hospital ... 14 

Workhouse .16 

Institutions— Literary and Scientific — 

Anthropological Society ... 15 

Asiatic Society 16 

Mechanics' or Sassoon Institute . . 15 

Natural History Society ... 15 

Landing and landing-places ... 2 

Lighthouses — Kennery, Prong . . 9 

Markets — 

Cotton Market, Colaba ... 17 

Crawford „ ..... 16 

Nul „ 17 

Missions 10 

Municipal Buildings .... 7 

Museum and Victoria Gardens . 16 

Native Quarter 17 

Observatory at Colaba .... 7 
Public Offices- 
Courts of Justice 4 

Mint ... ... 6 

Post Office 6 

Presidential Secretariat ... 4 

Public Works' Secretariat ... 6 

Telegraph Office 5 

Town Hall 6 

University Library and Clock Tower . 4 

University Hall 4 

Shooting 18 

Shops (see Index and Directory). 

Statues .... . . 15 

Suburbs— Breach Candy, By cull «, Mala- 
bar Hill, Mazagon, Parell ... 8 

Temples— Hindu 18 

Victoria Railway Station ... 6 



' Bombay is sitnatcd in 
[long. 72** 62'. It is one 

ands which were at one 
I from the mainland and 



from one another by very narrow chan- 
nels, some of which have now been filled 
up. They are : 1. Bassein ; 2. Dravi ; 3. 
Yersova ; 4. Salsette ; 5. Trombay, in 

implies that ftirther information is to be found in the Index and Direetozy 



BOMBAY AND XNVIB0N8 






which the hill called the Neat's Tongue, 
900 ft high, is a conspicuous mark ; 
6. Bombay ; 7. Old Woman's Island ; 
8. Colaba ; 9. Elephanta ; 10. Butcher's 
Island; 11. Gibbet Island; 12. Kar- 
anja. 

Bombay Island is 11} m. long from 
the S. extremity of Colaba to Sion 
Causeway, over which the railway passes 
to the larger island of Salsette, ana from 
S to 4 m. broad in that portion which 
lies to the N. of the Esplanade. It is 
difficult to estimate its area, but it 
may be put down as about 22 sq. m. 
The last, census (1891) of the city is 
821,764, viz.: 



Hindu . . 543,201 
Mohsmmed^ng 154.247 
rauristians . 45,810 
BaddhiBU 190 

Jains . . 25,225 



Panli . . 47,458 
Jews . . 5,021 
Atheists, otb<>r 
than Buddhists 
And Jains • SS 



Limiting the area of Calcutta to the 
municipality, and excluding the 
suburbs, Bombay ranks as the second 
most populous city in 'the British 
Empire. Most of its population is 
crowded into an area of about 4 
sq. m. From the 8th August 1896 
to the 30th June 1897, there were 
27,597 deaths in Bombay of plague, 
or bubonic fever. Of those attacked 
60 p. c. died. The epidemic was of 
a comparatively mild form, but re- 
sulted in great loss to business men, 
owing to the world-wide quarantine 
imposed upon all vessels from Bombay. 

dimate. — The average temperature 
of Bombay is 79 2° F. It is neither 
so hot in summer nor so cold in winter 
as many places in the interior. The 
coolest months are from November tUl 
March. The S.W. monsoon begins 
about the second week in June, and the 
rains continue till the^nd of September. 
The average rainfall is 70*30 in. 

Bombay Harbour.— On approaching 
Bombay from the W. there is little to 
strike the eye. The coast of the island 
is low, the highest point, MtJabar 
Hill, being only 180 ft. above the sea. 
But on entering the harbour a stranger 
#ui*4 be imx^resBod with the pictur- 



esqueness of the scone. To tlie W. 
the shore is crowded with baHdinga, i 
some of them, as Colaba Church and | 
the Tower of the University, very lofty 
and well proportioned. To the N. and 
£. are numerous islands, and on tho 
mainland hills rising to an altitude of 
from 1000 to 2000 ft Pre-emineit 
amongst these is the remarkable Mil 
of Bawa Malang, otherwise called Mai- 
langadh. on the top of which is an 
enormous mass of rock with perpen- 
dicular sides, crowned with a fort now 
in ruins. On the plateau below the 
scarp was a strong fortress which, in 
1780, was captured by Captain Abing- 
ton, who, however, found the upper 
fort quite impregnable. (See Grant 
Duff, vol. ii. p. 41.) 

The port is crowded with vessels of 
all nations, and conspicuous amoQ||;|ifc 
them are 2 monitors, for the defence of 
the Harbour. These are called tlii 
Abyssinia and the Magdala, and tm 
armed with 8-inch guns in 2 turrets 
There are also 2 torpedo catcfaem^, 
and 6 fast torpedo boats. The maDll 
defences, remodelled and armed witi^ 
the newest and heaviest guns, consid 
of batteries on the islands in th« 
harbour. The fort most to the S. ii 
called the Oyster Eock; that on th^ 
Middle Gfround shoal is in the mid<Hil 
of the anchorage. The third defenei 
is on Cross Island, at the N. end of th^ 
anchorage. The higher part of thii 
island has been cut down and arme^ 
with a battery, in addition to whiel 
there are 3 large batteries on the maia 
land. 

Landing and Landing - places^ -^ 

Passengers are landed at the Ballaa 
Pier in launches. The Custom-Hom 
officers come on board for the inspef 
tion of personal baggage, but heav 
boxes are more conveniently pasae 
through at the Custom House. Ti 
hotel authorities and Messrs. T. Coo 
& Son generally send representativii 
to meet passengers by each stcanaoi 
It is convenient for travellers to entrin 
their baggage to one of them, or 1 
their private native servant, if tin 
have engaged one beforehand and hai 
instructed him to meet them on boan 



OOaiSBAL DSSCaiFTlON 



8 



If the itoamw arriTei at nif^ti it Is 
idviwible to remam on board until the 
Boming. The P. & 0. steamer, after 
hnding the mail and most of the pas- 
sengers, proceeds about 1 m. N. up 
the harbour to the docks. Though 
4ke new tariff of 1894 has increased the 
Bomber of articles dutiable, those which 

eVe trouble are firearms only. If these 
ive not been in India before, or 
hxve not been in India for a year, a 
jagh. ad valorem duty is levied on them, 
md they cannot be removed from the 
Ciutoin House nnlil the duty is paid, 
or a certificate given that a full year has 
not elapsed since the owner left India. 
Travellers who have not been in the 
East before will be struck by the pic- 
toresqueness of the scene on landing in 
Bombay. The quaint native craft at 
the quay ; the crowds of people dressed 
in the most brilliant and varied cos- 
tames ; the Hindus of different castes ; 
fhe Mohammedans, Jews, and Parsis, 
irith a sprinkling from other national- 
ities; the gaily painted bullock -carts, 
nd other sights of equal novelty, corn- 
tine to make a lasting impression on 
fte stranger's mind. 

General Deeciiptioii of Bombay and 
tnbarbs. — The Apollo Bandar, where the 
livelier used to land, is in the modem 
ftropean quarter. As he stands facing 
[J., tne narrow promontory of Colaba 
n behind him to the S.E. ; on his right 
■ the Yacht Club ; and before him 
netches the main thoroughfare of the 
my, passing through * * The Fort, " with 
m business quarter on the rt., and the 
grand array of Public Buildings — the 
|dde of modem Bombay— on the 1. 
[uoagh other modem cities may boast 
|l finer individual buildings, none can 
tpnpare with these m general arrange^ 
imt and unity of effect, "conceived 
'ftr the most part with a happy inspira- 
which blends the Gothic and the 
schools of architecture. "1 On 
futher aide W. they face Back Bay. 
ding H. the promontory upon 
Bombay stands widens. On the 
B right are the docks and dock- 
on tiie left the bay trends away 
and 3. to Malabar Hill and Malabar 
I Sir SdwinAznold'ft India £et>irite2. 




Point. In the centro, at the junotioQ 
of two thoroughfares, are Yiotoria Sta- 
tion and the new Municipal Offices, 
the largest and most elaborate build- 
ings in Bombay, with the Crawford 
Market beyond ; and then commences 
the densely populated native city, which 
extends N. for 2 m. to the suDurbs of 
Mazagon and Byculla, and to the foot 
of Malabar and Camballa Hills. 

The best suburb is Malabar HiU 
(about 3i m. from the Fort), which 
affords the highest and healthiest situa- 
tion, and is covered with charming villas 
and bungalows surrounded by gajxlena. 
These chiefly belong to wealthy natives, 
but are for the most part inhabited by 
Europeans and Parsis. Unfortunately 
the best and highest position of all 
is occupied by the gardens attached 
to the Towers of Silence (see below). 
Along the top of the same ridge is 
the Ladies' Gymkhana — a favourite 
resort in the evenings (see Index), 
and the little Church of All Sainta. 
At Malabar Point, at the extreme 
S. W., is Government House, and 
close to it the Temple of Walkesh- 
war, in an unhealthy depression. To 
the N.E. is Camballa Hill and 
Breach Candy, overlooking the Indian 
Ocean, where there are numbers 
of pleasant bungalows and villas. 
To the "N. is Parell, where are the 
old Government House and the Vic* 
toria Gai*dens ; and to the W. the 
suburbs of Byculla and Mazagon, which 
include many cotton and other manu- 
factories and warehouses. At Mazagon 
are some of the docks, including those 
of the P. & 0. Company. 



Public Offices. 

One of the most conspicuous features 
in Bombay is the impressive line of 
government buildings which face Back 
Bay and succeed one another in the fol- 
lowing order, from S.to N. : the Govern- 
ment Secretariat, close to Watson's 
Hotel on the Esplanade, Univer^ty 
Hall, Library and Clock Tower, Law 
Courts, Public Works* Secretariat, Post 
Office and Telegraph Offices. There 
ia a building to the N.E. of Uie Tel»9 



BOMBAY AND ENVIBONS 



M 



graph Offices which is nsed for the 
accommodation of the employ^ of the 
telegraph department 

The Preudential Secretariat is 443 
ft. long, with two wings 81 ft. long. 
In the first floor are the Council Hall, 
50 ft long, Committee Rooms, Private 
Rooms for the Governor and Members 
of Council, and the Offices of the 
Revenue Department The second 
floor contains the Offices of the Judicial 
and Military Departments. The style 
is Venetian Gothic, and the designer 
was Col. Wilkins, R.E. The carving 
is by native artists. The staircase is 
lighted by the great window, 00 ft. 
high, over which rises the tower to 170 
ft. At the entrance are the arms of Sir 
B. Frere (who was Governor when the 
plans were formulated for erecting 
Public Buildings, and to whom Bom- 
bay owes many of its improvements) 
imd Sir S. Fitzgerald, ana there is a 
very handsome armoire made of teak, 
inlaid with black wood, all the work 
of native artisans. • 

The nniversity Library and Clock 
Tower form a grand pile, designed by 
Sir Gilbert Scott in the style of 14th- 
century Gothic. The Library is a long 
low room adorned with carving and the 
Great University or Rajabai Tower on 
the W. side forms part of it, and is from 
its height the most conspicuous building 
in Bombay. It is 260 ft. high, and 
was built at the expense of Mr. Prem- 
chand Raichand, in memory of his 
mother, Rajabai. It cost 300,000 rs. 
He also gave 100,000 rs. for the Library ; 
and these sums with accumulations 
more than sufficed to complete the two 
buildings. The Tower, from the top of 
which there is a fine view of Bombay, 
is divided into 6 stories, and is sur- 
mounted by an octagonal lantern spire, 
with figures in niches at the angles. 
There are 24 figures in all upon the 
tower represenlang the castes of W. 
India. The first floor forms part of 
the upper room of the Library, and the 
second contains a study for the Regis- 
trar. There is an opening several feet 
square in the centre of each floor, so 
that one can look up 115 ft to the 



ceiling of the Dial Room. Thefou 
floor is for the great clock. Under t 
dials outside are 4 small galleries, wi 
stone balustrades. 

University Hall.— This fine buildii 
in the French Decorated style of 1 
15th cent, is 104 ft long, 44 ft. bro 
and 63 ft high to the apex of 
groined ceiling, with an apse separa 
from the Hall by a grand arch, an 
gallery, 8 ft broad, round three sic 
The painted glass windows have 
excellent effect, and are also most i 
fill in tempering the fierceness of 
Indian sun. The Hall, design ed by 
GUbert Scott, R.A., is called after 
Cowaqee Jehangir, who coatribt 
100,000 rs. towards the cost of «recfe 
It was completed in 1874. 

The Courts of Justice.— This 
mense building, 562 ft long, wil 
tower 175 ft. nigh, was designed 
Gen. J. A. Fuller, R.E., is said to 1 
cost £100,000, and was opened in 1 
The style is Early Imglish. 
principad entrance is under a 1 
arched porch in the W. fii^ade, 
either side of which is an octagon t< 
120 ft. high, with pinnacles of \i 
Porbandar stone, and surmountet 
statues of Justice and Mercy, 
main staircase is on the £. side, ai 
approached by a noble groined con 
in rorbandar stone, which mns tht* 
the building. The offices of the 1 
Court are on the first and third v 
floors. The Appellate and Orij 
Courts are on the second floor. 
Criminal Court is in the centre o1 
building, above the main con 
and has a carved teak gallery fo 
pnbUc running round 3 sides, 
ceiling is of dark polished tea 
panels, with a carved centre -j 
The floor is Italian mosaic. Fror 
windows of the tower fine view; 
obtained. On the E. are the har 
fringed with islands. Modi Bay, an 
Fort ; and to the W. are Malabar 
Back Bay, and S. Colaba Point. 

Separated from the Post Office 
broad road which leads E. to the 
by Church Gate Road, and W. t 
Church Gate station of the B. B, 



PUBLIO OFFICES 



CI. Hallway, is the Pnblic Works' 
geeretariat, with a fa9ade 288 ft. long ; 
the central part haying 6 stories. 

The Railway, Irrigation, etc. De- 
partments are in this office. 

The Post Office has 3 floors, and is 
242 ft longi with wings on the N. side. 
It is in the mediaeval style (architect, 
^bfihawe). The stone used is the 
ttme as. that of the Telegraph Offices ; 
the arrangement is ezceUent in point 
of convenience. 

The Telegraph Office, in modem 
Gothic style, has a fa9ade 182 ft long. 
jUhe facing is of coursed rubble stone 
'ifom Coork in Salsette, and the columns 
are of blue basalt 

The State Record Office and Patent 
jiMRce occupy the W. wing of the 
Iphinstone College, close to the 
lechanics' Institute. Amongst the 
ords are preserved the oldest docu- 
it relating to the Indian Empire, a 
from Surat, 1630 ; and the letter 
f the Duke of Wellington announcing 
lie victory at Assaye. 

The Town Hall, in the Elphinstone 
Srcle, designed by Col. T. Cowper, was 
Itened in 1835, and cost about £60,000, 
qr far the larger portion being defrayed 
y the £. I. Comp. The building has 
i colonnade in front, and the fa9ade 
1260 ft. long. The pillars in front, 
Hd the external character of the 
ififice, are Doric ; the interior is Cor- 
iihian. 

On the ground floor are : the Medical 
ijoard oliices, in which are four hand- 

lonio pillars, copied from those 
If a temple on the banks of the Ilyssus ; 
•dthe office of the Military Auditor- 
C^nJ, and some of the weightier 
Mriontles of the Asiatic Society. In 
[i^ upper story is the Grand As- 
► •aWy Room, 100 ft square, in which 
I^Uie meetings and ballR arc held ; 
we Asaembly Room of the Bombay 
' * ac Society ; and the Library of 

Society, founded by Sir James 
Juckintoah, containing about 100,000 
■^urnes. A stranger can have gratui- 
toaa access to the rooms for a month by 



an order from one of the members of 
the Society. The Levee Booms of the 
Governor and the Commander-in-Chief, 
the Council Room, etc., are no longer 
used for their original purposes. 'Die 
place of honour in the Grand Assembly 
Rooms is occupied by a statue of the 
distinguished Governor Mountstuart 
Elphinstone, executed by Chantrey, as 
are also those of Sir J. Malcolm and 
Sir C. Forbes. At the head of the 
staircase, on one side, is a fine statue 
of Lord Elphinstone, the Governor 
during the Mutiny, and on the other 
side is a statue of Sir Bartle Frere, an 
excellent likeness. Between the cir-. 
cular flights of stairs is the statue of 
Sir Jamshidji Jijibhai. 

The Council Room contains pictures, 
by Mr. Wales, of Baji Rao Peahwa, 
(whose adopted son, Nana Dhondu 
Pant, will be ever infamous as the 
author of the massacre at Cawnpore) ; 
of Baji Rao's celebrated minister. Nana 
Farnavis ; and of Mahadaji Sindia. 
In the Asiatic Society's Library are 
busts of Sir James Carnac by Chantrey 
and Sir J. Mackintosh. The Greo- 
graphical Room contains pictures of 
Sir A. Burnes, and Sir C. Malcolm 
and Captain Ross, the two first Presi- 
dents of the Geographical Society; 
also a very fine collection of maps. 

The Mint is close to the Town Hall, 
but farther back, having a tank in front 
of it. It is a plain building, with an 
Ionic portico, designed by Major J. 
Hawkins, and completed in 1829. It 
stands upon reclaimed land, where con- 
siderable difficulty was experienced in 
laying the foundations : tne cost was 
in consequence very great Author- 
ity was granted to the Company by 
the Crown to establish a mint so early 
as 1676. In the Bullion Room there 
are sometimes from £100,000 to 
£200,000 of silver in London bars, 
weighing 80 lbs. each, and San Fran- 
cisco bars, weighing 100 lbs. It is 
unnecessary to describe the working 
of the mint which resembles that of 
similar institutions. Forty specimens 
of false coins are exhibited, one of 
which has been a good coin, but all 
the silver has been scooped out and 



BOMBAY aKB XKVIBONS 



Ifulut 



lead sabstittited. These coins hare 
iMen collected since September 1872. 
Adjoining the Mint, on the Ballard 
Rofid, are the administrative offices of 
the Fort Troft, an imposing building. 

Gotvnunent Bonae at Malabar 
Point. — It is a pleasant drive of about 
4 m. from the Fort along the seaside, 
skirting Back Bay, which on account 
of the sea-breeze is cooler, though less 
interesting, than through the hot and 
crowded bazaars. At about 3 m. from 
the Fort the road begins to ascend a 
ftpar of Malabar Hill Near the top 
on the 1. are the entrance gates to 
the drive, which in less than ) m. 
through a shady grove of trees by the 
sea-shore leads to Government House. 
It is a building of no architectural pre- 
tensioins, but is simply a bungalow, or 
rather a series of bungalows, with large 
Cool rooms and deep verandahs over- 
looking the sea, ana a pleasant view 
across Back Bay to the city of Bombay 
en the farther side. Some of the de- 
tached bungalows aro for the Governor's 
staff and for guests, all being from 80 
to 100 ft. above the sea. Below them 
at the extreme point is a battery, which 
could sweep the sea approach. Not 
for off to the N. a large ship, the 
Diamond, was wrecked and 80 pas- 
sengers were drowned. Sir Evan Nepean 
wals thb first Governor to reside at Mala- 
bar Point. He went there in 1813, as 
the cool sea-breeze was indispensable to 
his health, and built an additional room 
to the Sergeants' quarters, which was 
the only house existing in the neigh- 
bourhood. In 1819-20, Mr. Elphin- 
stone added a public breakfast-room, 
and a detached sleeping bungalow on 
a small scale. In 1828 Sir John Mal- 
colm gave up, for public offices, the 
Government House in the Fort and the 
Secretary's office in Apollo Street, and 
considerably enlarging the residence at 
Malabar Point, regularly constituted it 
a Government House. Close by is the 
picturesque temple of Walkeshwar (see 
oelow). The drive from Malabar Point, 
and thence along the sea by Breach 
Candy, is one of the most beauti- 
ful in the island, and is thronged 
with carriages and equestrians every 



evening. Finer still is that recently 
opened up by Gibbs Road, contmniog 
the Ridge Road through a gardens 
ferns and crotons to Camballa fiill. 

OoYttnmdnt House at PareU was a 

Portuguese place of worship and mon- 
astery, confiscated by the EngM 
government on account of the traitor- 
ous conduct of the Jesuits in 1720. 
Governor Hornby was the first who 
took up his residence there, between 
1771-80. 

To supply the required accommoda- 
tion Mr. Elphinstone built the right 
and left wings. The public rooms an 
in the centre facing the W. The 
drawing-room or ballroom above the 
dining-room occupies the place of the 
old Portuguese chapel. On the staircase : 
there is a bust, and in the ballroom a 
portrait, of the Duke of WeUington. 
At the end of the ballroom is what is 
called the Darbar Room. From the S. 
corridor steps descend to a platform in 
the garden, where the band plays, j 
The garden of Parell is pretty, and| 
has at its W. extremity a tank, and ooi 
its margin a terrace, which rises about 
10 ft. above the water and the grounds. 

Since 1880 the Governors have hved 
principally at Malabar Point, and Parefl 
House has been only used by the Gover- 
nor occasionally for garden-parties is 
the winter. 

The Victoria Station, terminus of 
the Great Indian Peninsular Railway^ 
stands in a conspicuous place, in tw 
angle between the Esplanade Market 
Road and the Boree Bandar Road, within 
a few minutes walk of the Fort. It ia 
a vast building, elaborately ornamented 
with sculpture and surmounted by t 
large central dome ; at the same time 
its arrangements are found to be pradd' 
cally most convenient. The architect 
was F. W. Stevens, CLE. ; the styh 
is Italian Gothic, with certain Orienta 
modifications in the domes. It coart 
the Rly. Com p. £300,000, and w» 
completed in 1888. It is one of th< 
handsomest buildings in Bombay, aiM 
the finest rly. sta. in India, if not ii 
any country. 




i Victorift MoAeanL 
I Gowalfw Tajik. 
aHire Theatre. 

Chriflt Church. 

Free Church High Bchool. 
, EuTopi^att and Motiainniurlaii Jlnryin^r 

BTunrirlf?. 
I Crokaliljis HoatnUL 
, St* Javier CollegB. 

SclitHjl of Art 



St^jJbr^Cieg^E&ta^L^idan 



11. Marl Tit" liaLlalli.ici Linrss, 

l± Ctttiaty aiul Xr>VL'lt> Tliealt«s» 

13. European General lIoa^ijrtaL 

14. MlTlt. 

15. Town llalL 

ll3t SL Androw'a Church 

17, Li anal-it Aiiyliiin. 

1,S. Er5;;]Tsli Comtilnry. 

1!>, Wi]»uii Culleg4\ 

SIX Kl[)htnstonii Reclanuitiun, 



1?SE CtJStOM HOUSE — THE DOCKYARD 



T' 



Tlie Municipal Buildings (architect, 
F. W. Steyens, CLE.) occupy the angle 
between the Hornby and Cruicksbank 
Boads, opposite the Yictoria Rly. Sta. 
l^e Oriental feeling introduced into 
the Gothic architecture has a pleasing 
e£fect. The tower, 255 ft. high, and 
sarmounted by a masonry dome, can 
be seen from all parts of Bombay. The 
central gable terminates in a statue 13 
ft. high representiug "Urbs prima in 
lodis." The grand staircase is also 
crowned by an imposing dome. 

Between the Mint and the Custom 
House are the remains of the Castle, 
ooYering 800 sq. ft. Only the walls 
&cing the harbour remain. There is 
a flagstaff here from which signals are 
made to ships, and also a clock tower, 
where a time signal-ball, connected by 
an electric wire with the Observatory 
at Colaba, in which are valuable 
arrangements for magnetic and other 
observations, falls at 1 p.m. 

Adjoining the Castle is the Arsenal 
(order for admittance must be obtained 
from the Inspector-General of Ordnance 
at Poona). Besides the usual warlike 
materials, harness, tents, and other 
inch necessaries for army equipment 
are made here ; and here also is an 
interesting collection of ancient arms 
and old native weapons of various 
descriptions. 

The Custom House is a large, ugly 
old building, a little to the S. of the 
Town Hall and Cathedral. It was a 
Portuguese barrack in 1665, and then a 
quarter for civil servants. Forbes in 
nis Oriental Memoirs says that in 1770 
he was there and could get no supper 
or candles, so he sat on the roof read- 
ing Shakespeare by moonlight It be- 
came a Custom House in 1802. The 
landing- place E. is called the Town 
Bandar. The Dockyard extends hence 
to the Apollo Gate, with a sea-face of 
■early 700 yds. 
- The Dodcyard."— So early as 1678 
the East India Company had been 
compelled to build ships of war to 
protect their merchantmen from the 
attacks of the Maratha and Malabar 
pintes. Surat, however, was the 
ehief station for building vessels, and 
up to 1735 there were no docks in ex- 



istence at Bombay. In that yoaar • 
vessel was built at Surat for the Oom^ 
pany, and an officer despatched from 
Bombay to inspect it Being toneli 
pleased with the skill and intelUgeuee 
of the Pars! foreman, Lowji Naushir- 
wanji, and knowing that the (Govern- 
ment was desirous of establishing a 
building-yard at Bombay, this offioea* 
endeavoured to persuade him to leave 
Surat and take charge of it. The Parsi, 
however, had too much honesty to 
accept this advantageous offer witnont 
permission from his master to whom he 
was engaged. On its being granted, he 
proceeded to Bombay with a few arti- 
ficers, and selected a site for the docks. 
Next year Lowji was sent to the N. to 
procure timber, and on his return he 
brought his family with him. Froifi 
that day to this the superintendence 
of the docks has been wholly in Lowji'a 
family ; or, as it is well expressed by 
a well-known writer, **The history of 
the dockyard is that of the rise of a 
respectable, honest, and hard-working 
Parsi family." Up to this time the 
king's ships had been hove down for 
repairs at Hog Island. About 1767 
it became necessary to enlarge the yard. 
In 1771 two grandsons of Lowji — 
Framji Manikji and Jamshidji Bahm-* 
anji — entered the dockyard, working 
as common carpenters at 12 rs. a 
month. In 1774 Lowji died, leaving 
only a house and a sum of money undet 
£3000. He bequeathed, however, to 
his family a more precious legacy, 
— the remembrance and prestige of 
his character for spotless integrit^^ 
Manikji succeeded him as master- 
builder, and Bahmanji was appointed 
his assistant, the two managing the 
docks with increased success. They 
built two fine ship of 900 tons, and 
the men-of-war crippled in the severe 
actions between Sir Edward Hughes 
and Admiral Suffrein were docked at 
Bombay. Bahmanji died in 1790, in 
debt, and Manikji two years afterwards^ 
leaving but a scanty sum to his fanfily. 
Their sons succeeded them. Jam- 
shidji in 1802 built the ComwalUs 
frigate for the East India Compan3fr 
and his success determined the Home 
Government to order the constmction 



8 



BOMBAY AND BNYIRONS 



Ifdia 



of ships for the Royal Navy at Bombay. 
la consequence of his talents, he was 
pennitted to have the sole supervision 
as master builder. In 1805 the dock- 
yard was enlarged ; and in 1820 the 
Mindenf 74, built entirely by Parsis, 
was launched, and about the same time 
the Comtoallia, 74, of 1767 tons. Subse- 
quently the WeHesley^ 74, of 1745 tons ; 
' tne MalabaTf 74 ; the SerijtgapcUam, and 
many other ships of war were built ; in- 
cluding the Ganges, 84 ; the Oaleiuia, 
86 ; and the Miani, of 86 guns. All 
these vessels were made of teak, and 
have sufficiently proved the lasting 
quality of that wood. It has been said 
tnat a teak ship will last from four 
to fives times as long as one of English 
oak. The old Loivji Cctstle, a merchant- 
man of about 1000 tons, is known to 
have made voyages for nearly three- 
quarters of a century. Although the 
dockyard has been of late years much 
enlarged and furnished with the best 
and newest machinery, no large ships 
are built here. The enclosure contains 
about 200 acres. There are 5 graving 
docks, 3 of which together make one 
large dock ; the Bombay Dock, 648 ft. 
long, 57 ft. broad at top, and 34 ft. at 
bottom, and with 12 ft. perpendicular 
depth ; the other 2 graving docks 
make a single dock, 550 ft. long, 68 ft. 
broad at top, and 46 ft. at bottom, and 
with 26 ft perpendicular depth. There 
are also 4 building-slips opposite the 
Apollo Pier, and on the S.E. side of 
the enclosure. Bombay is the only 
important place near the open sea in 
Inaia where the rise of the tide is suffi- 
cient to permit docks on a large scale. 
At Bombay the highest spring tides 
reach to 17 ft. ; but the usual height 
is 14 ft. The dockyard is lighted by 
electricity, so that work can be carriea 
on by night if necessary. 

The Duncan Graving Dock, origin- 
ally constructed in 1807, can be divided 
into two by means of a steel- floating 
caisson ; its total length is 630 feet and 
depfh 26 feet at spring tides. The 
Oovemment Wet Basin, constructed 
in 1891-3,. has an area of 4^ acres, and 
was designed for the use of Government 
^ips ; its depth is 25 feet at spring tides. 
..-.The Sassoou Dock at Colaba is a 



wet dock for the discharge of cargo 
which has been purchased by Govem- 
ment. The Bombay, Baroda, andC. I. 
Railway runs to the S. of the dock, 
and a siding is carried under the very 
warehouses, so that in the monsoon 
the goods are not wetted. The Bom- 
bay, Baroda, and C. I. Rly. joins 
the G. I. P. at Dadar, so that, practi- 
cally, both railways join the docks. 
The Sassoon Dock, the first wet dock 
made in India, is 650 ft. long, with an 
average breadth of 250 ft. The denth 
is 19 ft at high water at neap tides, 
and 22 ft. at spring tides. In one of 
the warehouses at the W. end are 6 
hydraulic cotton presses, which exert 
a pressure of 800 tons on each bale. 
They can press from 125 to 150 bales 
a day. A bale weighs more than 
deal but less than teak of the same 
dimensions. 

Prince's Dock was commenced dar- 
ing the Prince of Wales's visit in 1875- 
76. In excavating it the remains of 
a submerged forest were found at a 
depth of about 10 ft. About 100 trees 
from 10 to 20 ft long were exhumed ; 
the wood is red and very hard. The 
dock extends over 30 acres, and 
is capable of containing 80 ocean 
steamers. On the IN.W. of this dock 
is the ^Merewethar (Grovemment) 
Dock. Adjacent to the docks is a 
whole street of warehouses and offices. 

The Victoria Dock, S. of the Prince's 
Dock and conuectedwith it, occupies the 
space formerly taken up by the Musjid 
and Nicol basins. It covers 25 acres, and 
has an entrance 80 feet in width. 

Both these docks are excavated on 
the estate known as the ElphinstoiM 
Reclamation, which has taken in from 
the sea 276 acres, and has raised and 
improved 110 acres. The Mody Bay 
Reclamation is S. of the Elphinstone 
estate. These two groups of work 
have transformed the eastern foreshore 
of the island from a' mud swamp to a 
busy mercantile quarter worthy of the 
capital of Western India. 

Several hours might be spent in visit- 
ing these vast reclamation works on 
the E. shore of Bombay Island, from 
the Custom House to Sewri on the N. 
On these works and on those at Colaba 



LIGHTHOUSES — OHUBOHSS 



and Back Bay £5,000,000 sterling have 
been expended. 

The Dockyard of the P. & O. (Com- 
pany is in the saburb of Mazagon. 
The office is situated in the Mazagon 
Dock Road, in a garden with a profusion 
of flowering shrubs. The works were 
finished in 1866. The dockyard covers- 
12 acres, and there are iron sheds for 
18,000 tons of coal. The dock is 420 
ft. long, and capable of receiving 
vessels of deep draught On its left, 
looking towards the pier, is the Ice 
Manu^ctory. 

Lighthouses. 

The Kennery Lighthouse, which is 
12 m. to the S. of Bombay, has a 
fixed first-class cata-dioptric light in a 
tower 161 ft. above hign-water mark. 
It cost about 2 lakhs. There are 2 
32-pounders on the island for signalling. 
The foundation-stone was laid by Sir 
Bartle Frere in 1867, and the light was 
first shown the following year. 

A ridge or causeway, which com- 
mences a little S. of the Colaba Ceme- 
tery, and is 3600 ft. long, leads to the 
New or Prong Lighthouse, from the 
Old Lighthouse, extinguished* 1874. 
This ridge is dry at low water for 4 
days before and 4 days after full moon. 
Near the Old Lighthouse and at Colaba 
Point are two modem batteries, and N. 
of it are the lines of the artillery and the 
headquarters wing of a European regi- 
ment. The Prone Lighthouse is 150 
ft high, with walls 17 ft. thick at the 
lowest story, and cost £60,000. The 
revolving gear has to be wound up every 
45 minutes, which employs 2 men. In 
storms the waves rise 50 ft. up the sides, 
and the tower vibrates. Before this 
lighthouse was built dreadful ship- 
wrecks took place here, and many of 
the bodies of those drowned are interred 
in Colaba Cemetery. It is interesting 
to watch the liffht from the shore of 
Back Bay as it flashes into full splen- 
dour and then in a few seconds fades 
into darkness. The light can be seen 
to the distance of 18 m., and beyond 
the lighthouse the shoal water extends 
for a mile. It flashes every 10 seconds. 
Another lighthouse takes the place 
of the old Inner Light vessel 



Churches. 

The Cathedral of St. Thomas stands 
in the Fort, close to Elphinstone Circle. 
It was buUt as a garrison church in 
1718, and made a cathedral on the 
establishment of the See of Bombay 
in 1833, on which occasion the low 
belfry was converted into a high tower. 
It is simple in plan, and a mixture of 
the classical and Gothic in style. The 
chancel, added 1865, is a satisfactory 
specimen of modem Early English. 
There are some monuments here which 
deserve attention, — one by Bacon to 
Jonathan Duncan, Governor for sixteen 
years. It represents him receiving the 
blessings of young Hindus. This had 
reference to his successful efforts in 
suppressing infanticide in certain dis- 
tricts near Benares, and afterwards in 
Kattywar, through the zealous and 
able agency of Colonel Walker. 

Amongst other monuments to be 
noticed are that to Cap. G. N. Hardinge, 
R.N., who died in 1808, in a brilliant 
engagement when he took the frigate 
La Fiedmontiare ; that to Col. Burr, 
who commanded at the battle of Kirkee ; 
and a third to Major Pottinger, who dis- 
tinguished himself in the defence of 
Hirat The fountain in front of the 
Cathedral was erected by Sir Cowasjee 
Jehangir Readymoney, at a cost of 
7000 rs. 

The Afghan Memorial Church of St. 
John the Evangelist o^ Colaba, conse- 
crated in 1858, consists of nave and 
aisles 138 ft. long, with a chancel 50 ft. 
long, and a tower and spire 198 ft. high, 
conspicuous for some dis tance at sea. As 
in the great church of Antioch in early 
ages, and in St. Peter's at Rome, the 
altar is at the W. end. The effect on 
entering is good, owing to the length 
and height of the building, the simpli- 
city of 9ie arcMtecture, and the * * dim 
religious light" diffused through the 
stained-glass windows. The roof h 
of teak. The first object remarked on 
entering is the illuminated metal screen, 
light and elegantly designed, and sur- 
mounted by a gilt cross. S. of the main 
entrance is the Baptistery, with a 
large font and triplet window erected 
by the congregation in memory of the 



w 



BOkteAt AND fc^VlROltS 



tniia 



Bey. Philip Anderson, author of Tfui 
English in Western India. About ith 
of the cost of the spire was contributed 
by Mr. Oowasjee Jehangir in 1864, a 
smking instance of Parsi liberality 
and of the good feeling between Parsis 
and Europeans. 

At the W. end of the N. aisle is a 
triplet window, erected to the memory 
of (reneral David Barr, 

The arch of the chancel is 65 ft. high. 
The pulpit was given by a member of 
the congregation, the desk by the 
officers of H. M.'s 28th Regt on leaving 
the country in 1864, in memory of 
seven brother officers. 

The brass altar candlesticks were 
made in the School of Art at Bombay. 
Behind the lectern is the Litany sfool, 
inscribed, "A Thank Offering from the 
R. W. Fusiliers, 1869 a.d.*' The choir 
desks are supported by vnrought-iron 
stands, illuminated, and made in the 
School of Art. The "memorial mar- 
bles,** are of alternate colours of white, 
red, yellow, and blue ; and beneath 
them there runs the followinff inscrip- 
tion, painted on a blue ground : — 

This Church was built in Memory ol the 
Officers whose names are written above, and 
of the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private 
Soldiers, too many to be so recorded, who fell, 
mindful of their duty, by sickness ot by the 
sword, in the Campaigns of Sind and Afghan- 
istan, A.D. 1838-1848. 

All Saints', the Ridge, Malabar Hill. 

Christ Church, Byculla, was conse- 
crated by Bishop Wilson in 1835. It 
holds 500 people. There are here several 
monuments and tombs of interest and 
some monumental brasses. 

St. Peter's Church, Maza^on, has a 
memorial window to the officers and 
men drowned in the S.S. CamaMc. 

St. Nicholas Church, at the docks, is 
for the use of seamen. 

St. Andrew's Eirk, in Marine Street, 
was built in 1818. In 1826 the steeple 
was thrown down by lightning, and 
rebuilt by, John Caldecott. 

The new Free Church stands in 
Wandby Road, near the Esplanade. 

The Roman Catholic Church, in 
Medow Street, dates from the begin- 
ning of last century. There is a bread- 
froit tree in the inner quadrangle. 



Missions. 

The S.P.G., with Church in Eamati- 
pura Eoad, has 4 missionary dergyin 
the town, and a branch of the Ladies* 
Association working in the zenanas. 

The O.M.8. (estabd. in Bombay since 
1820), has a Church and large SchadU 
for boys and girls at Girgaon. 

The Mission Priests of St. John the 
Evanfi^elist (Cowley Fathers) serve the 
Ch. of St. Peter's, Mazagon, and have 
a Mission House and Schools for boys 
and mrls near it: also a native Mission 
and Orphanage in Babula Tank Boad. 

The "All Saints'" Sisters (from Mar- \ 
garet St.) have been working in Bombay 
since 1878, and nurse the following 
Hospitals: European General, Jam- 
shidji, Pestonji Kama. They have 2 
High Schools for Girls, with Boarding 
Schools : one in Elphinstone Ciide | 
called the Cathedral Girls' School, the ! 
other near St. Peter's, Mazagon. Also 
St. John's Orphanage for natives 
(mostly foundlings) at iJmer Khadi 

The Atrverican Presbyterian Board of .| 
Foreign Missions or MaraZha Mission 
has a considerable staff. The United 
Free Church of Scotland has a strong 
body of missionaries connected with the 
Wilson Mission College (p. 13) affiliated 
to the University. 

Cehxtsries. 

The European Cemetery, at PareU^ 
formerly a Botanical Garden, opened in 
1830, is a sheltered spot under Flacstaff 
Hill, with trees on either side, and was 
turned intb a cemetery about 1867. 

The ColalMi Cemetery, beyond the 
church, at the extreme point of the 
promontory, is tolerably well kept, but 
is no longer used. 

The Girgaon Cemeteries facing Bade 
Bay. The most northerly is the old 
European cemetery, where was buried 
the celebrated French naturalist sjmI 
traveller Jacquemout. His remains 
were eventually removed to France. 
Neither this nor the adjacent Moham- 
medan buryinvi-ground are now in use. 

To the S. is the gromid for Mindu 
Cremations. Europeans who desire are 
allowed to enter. To the S.E. is the 
Scotch Cemetery, now closed. 

The five Towers of Silence stand upon 



TOWERS OF SIL&NGl! 



11 



the yglittt pc^t of Malabat Jaili, 100 
It. above the sea. In order to see them 
permission must be obtained from the 
secretary to the Parsi Panchayati Sir 
Jamdii^ji J\jibhai, at his own expense, 
made the road which leads to the 
Towesfs on the K. side, and gave 
100,000 aq. yds. of land on the N. and 
K sides of the Towers. They are best 
apraroaohed by Gibbs Road. 

Within the gateway of an outer 
enclosore a flight of 80 steps mounts 
up to a gateway in an inner wall. 
i^m this point the visitor is accom- 
panied by an official of the Panchayat, 
and taming to the rt. comes to a 
stone building, where, during funerals, 
prayer is offered. From this point one 
of file finest views of Bombay may be 
obtained. To the 1. are Sion, Sewri, 
and Mazagon HiUs, and between them 
some 20 lofty chimneys of cotton mills 
and other high buildings. Below, at 
the foot of the hill, stretches a vast 
grove of palms, in which no human 
habitation is visible, though many ai'e 
concealed by the broad palm leaves. On 
the Tt. are seen in succession the new 
Monicipal Buildings, Victoria Sta., Ca- 
thedral, Government Offices, Memorial 
Church at Colaba, and the Prong Light- 
house. Probably while the traveller is 
looking at the view, a funeral will take 
place. A bier will be seen carried up 
the steps by 4 Kasr Salars, or ** Carriers 
of the Dead," with 2 bearded men 
following them closely, and perhaps 
100 Parsis in white robes walking 2 and 
2 m proceshion. The bearded men who 
eorae next the corpse are the only 
persons who enter the Tower. They 
wear gloves, and when they touch the 
bones it is with tongs. On leaving the 
Tower, after depositing the corpse on 
the grating within, they proceed to 
the puntying place, where they wash 
and leave tho clothes they have worn 
in a tower built for that express pur- 
pose. The Parsis who walk in proces- 
sion alter the bier have their clothes 
linked, in which there is a mystic 
meaning. There is a model of one of 
the Towers which was exhibited to the 
Prince of Wales, and is produced to 
viators. The tx)wers are 5 in num- 
ber» GEjrlindrical in shape, and white- 



washed. The largest cost £30,000, 
while the other 4 on an average 
cost £20,000 each. The largest tower 
is 276 ft round and 25 ft. high. At 
8 ft from the ground is an aperture 
in the encircling wall about 6i ft sq., 
to which the carriers of the dead ascend 
by a flight of steps. Inside, the plan 
of the building resembles a circular 
gridii'on, gi'aduall^ depressed towards 
the centre, in which is a well 5 ft in 
diameter. Besides the circular wall 
which incloses this well there are 2 
other circular walls between it and the 
outside, with footpaths running upon 
them ; the spaces between them are 
divided into compartments by radiating 
walls from an imaginary centre. The 
bodies of adult m^es are laid in the 
outer series of compartments thus 
formed, the women in tne middle series, 
and the children in that nearest the 
well. They are placed in these grooves 
quite naked, and in half an hour the 
flesh is so. completely devoured by the 
numerous vultm*es that inhabit the 
trees around, that nothing but the 
skeleton remains. This is left to bleach 
in sun and wind till it becomes per- 
fectly dry. Then the carriers of the 
dead, gloved and with tongs, remove 
the bones from the grooves and cast 
them into the well. Here they crumble 
into dust. Round the well are perfora- 
tions which allow the rain-water or 
other moisture to escape into 4 deep 
drains at the bottom of the Tower, and 
the fluid then passes through charcoal 
and becomes disinfected and inodorous 
before it passes into the sea. There is 
a ladder in the weU by which the 
carriers of the dead descend if it be 
requisite to remove obstructions from 
the perforations. The dust in the well 
accumulates so slowly that in 40 years 
it rose only 5 ft. This method of inter- 
ment originates from the veneration 
the Parsis pay to the elements, and their 
zealous endeavours not to pollute these. 
Parsis respect the dead, but consider 
corpses most unclean, and the carriers 
are a separate and peculiar class who 
are not allowed to mix in social inter- 
course with other Parsis. Yet even 
these men wear gloves and use tongs 
in touching the remains of a deceasBd 



12 



fiOMBAT AND BNVtBONS 



Ifdia 



person^ and purify themselves and cast 
away their garments after every visit 
to a tower. Fire is too much venerated 
by Parsis for them to allow it to be 
polluted by burning the dead. Water 
IS almost equallv respected, and so is 
earth ; hence this singular mode of 
interment has been devised. There 
is, however, another reason. Zartasht 
said that rich and poor must meet 
in death ; and this saying has been 
literally interpreted and carried out 
by the contiivance of the well, which 
is a common receptacle for the dust 
of all Parsis, of Sir Jamshid\ji and 
other millionaires and of the poor 
inmates of the Parsi Asylum. In 
the arrangements of the vast area 
which surrounds the Towers nothing 
has been omitted which could foster 
calm and pleasing meditation. You at 
once arrive at the house of prayer, and 
around is a beautiful garden full of 
flowers and flowering shrubs. Here 
under the shade of fine trees relatives 
of the deceased can sit and meditate. 
The height of the hill and the proximity 
of the sea ensure always a cool breeze ; 
and the view to the W. and S. over 
the waters, and to the E. and N. over 
the city, the islands in the harbour 
and the distant mountains beyond, is 
enchanting. The massive gray towers 
and the thick woods about them are 
very picturesque. Even the cypresses, 
as the Parsis themselves say, tapering 
upwards, point the way to heaven ; ana 
it is certain that the Parsis follow out 
that thought and are firm believers in 
the resurrection and the re-assemblage 
of the atoms, here dispersed, in a 
glorified and incorruptible body. 

Educational Institutions. 
Elphinstone College, removed from 
Byculla in 1890, now occupies a large 
building close to the Mechanics' In- 
stitute, from which it is separated by a 
narrow street. This building is called 
after Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Ready- 
money, in recognition of his having 
given a couple of lakhs for the pur- 
pose of building the original institu- 
tion. The Elphinstone Institution 
was founded as a memorial to the 
Sfifi* Mountstuart Elphinstone, the 



Governor of Bombay. In 1866 it was 
divided into a Hiffh School (see below) 
and this College for the higher educa- 
tion of natives, who contributed up- 
wards of 2 lakhs to endow professorships 
in English, and the Arts, Sciences, and 
Literature of Europe. The sum accumu- 
lated to about 4 lakhs and a half, and 
Government augments the interest by 
an. annual subscription of 22,000 rs. 
There are 16 senior scholarships, and 
29 junior are competed for annually. 
A certain number of undergraduates 
who cannot pay the College fee are ad- 
mitted free. In 1862 Sir Alexander 
Grant, Bart., was Principal of the Col- 
lege, and some distinguished scholan 
have filled Professorships, as, for in- 
stance, Mirza Hairat, who translated 
Malcolm*s Bistory of Persia into Persian. 
The building is in the mediaeval style, 
and contains lecture-rooms, library (in 
which is a portrait of Elphinstone by 
Lawrence), a room for the Principal, 
with one for the Professors, and dormi- 
tories above for the resident students. 
The W. wing is the Record Office. 

The New Elphinstone High School 
is in Esplanade Cross Road, in front of 
the W. face of St. Xavier's College. 
Sir Albert Sassoon contributed £1500 , 
towards the cost of the building. It 
is the great public school of Bombay, 
and retained possession of the original 
buildings on the Esplanade when the 
College Department was separated to 
form the Elphinstone College. 

** The object of this school is to fur- 
nish a high-class and liberal education 
up to the standard of the University 
entrance examination, at fees within 
the reach of the middle-class people of 
Bombay and the Mufassil. It has 
classes for the study of English, Mar- 
athi, Guzerati, Sanscrit, Latin, and 
Persian." There are 28 class-rooms, 
a hall on the first floor measuring 
62 X 86 ft., and a Library. The build- 
ing was designed by G. T. Molecey. 

St. Xavier's (College, near the W. 
end of the Esplanade Road. This 
Jesuit institution, which serves the 
purpose of schpol as well as coUege, 
grew out of the development of St. 
Mary's Institution and the European 
R. C. Orphanage. The site for the 



EDUOATIONAL INSTITDTIONS — HOSPITALS, ETO. 



13 



College WB8 granted by GoTsmment in 
1857. 

The Wilson College'(nained after Rev. 
Dr. J. Wilson, F.R.S., Oriental scholar 
and Scottish missionary), for the 
education of young men, is a fine 
building near Chami Road Station. 
It cost a lakh and a half of rupees, and 
is the largest coUege for natives in 
"Western India. 

The Alexandra (College for Parsi 
Ladies, in Kansji Patel Street in the 
Fort, was founded by the late Mr. 
Manikji Khurshidji, who was amongst 
the first of the Parsi gentlemen to 
travel in Europe. It was opened in 
1863. The girls remain in some cases 
to the age of 24, and are extremely 
well instructed in history and geo- 
graphy and the English and Gujarati 
languages. They also embroider and 
do needle-work exceedingly well. Per- 
sons desirous of visiting the institution 
could no doubt obtain permission. 

Two High Schools for Girls, with 
Boarding Schools (kept by the All 
Saints' Sisters : one in Elphinstone Cir- 
cle, called the Cathedral Girls' School, 
the other near St. Peter's, Mazagon. 

The Mission High School at Ambroli, 
together with the church, cost £5000, 
and is being further extended. There 
is adjacent a college for youths, where 
Sanscrit and Persian are well taught. 

The Sehool of Art was first opened 
for pupils in 1857. In 1877 a hand- 
some new building was erected on 
the W. side of the Esplanade, near the 
Gokaldas Hospital. Excellent draw- 
ings and designs are made here, as well 
as good pottery, arms, artistic work in 
silver and copper, and decorative carving 
in wood and stone. The buildings in 
Western India owe much of their 
beauty to the work of students of this 
institution. 

150 yds. off, in sheds set apart for 
the purpose, are the Art Pottery Works, 
where some beautiful designs purely 
Indian in form and ornament have been 
euried out 

The Anjnxniui-i-lBl&m School is a 
Hohammedan School in Hornby Row, 
0^ Yictoria Tenninus ; erected by the 
eo-operation of Government, which gave 
the site, valued at 158,000 rs., with a 



money-grant of 88,000 rs., while the 
Mohanmiedans subscribed 10,000 rs. : 
the building was opened by Lord Harris 
in 1893. The erection of this school 
marks an epoch in the history of the 
Mohammedan community. The build- 
ing, which is of most pleasing appear- 
ance, was designed by Mr. J. Willcocks 
of the Public Works Dept. 

Institutions—charitable and 
otherwise. 

The Royal Alfred Sailors' Home, a 
very solid-looking building in a con- 
spicuous position close to the Apollo 
Bandar, has accommodation for. 20 
officers, 58 seamen, and it is stated 
that in case of emergency it could con- 
tain 100 inmates. Officers have separ- 
ate and superior quarters. Each man 
pays 14 annas a day, for which he gets 
breakfast, dinner, tea, with hot meat, 
at 6 P.M., and supper, and the use of 
the reading-room. The sculpture in the 
front gable, representing Neptune with 
nymphs and sea-horses, was executed 
in Bath stone by Mr. Bolton of Chel- 
tenham. His late Highness Khande 
Rao Gaekwar gave 200,000 rs. towards 
the cost of the building, to commemor- 
ate the Duke of Edinburgh's visit, and 
the foundation-stone was laid in 1870 
by the Duke. 

The European General Hospital,* is 
at the entrance to Boree Bandar Road, 
close to Victoria Rly. Sta. Should 
the traveller fall ill in Bombay, he 
cannot do better than go to this hos- 
pital, where he will receive the best 
medical treatment. Close beyond in 
connection with this is the new St. 
George's Hospital. 

The Pestonji Kama Hospital* for 
Women and Children, a Gothic build- 
ing in Cruikshank Road, is an institu- 
tion worthy of attention. 

Gokaldas Hospital, in Esplanade 
Cross Road, can contain 126 patients, 
and is generally full. The history of 
this hospital is rather curious. Mr. 
Rustamji Jamshidji had offered to give 
£15,000 if Government would give a 
site for a native hospital and contribute 
£10,000 more, and if the municipality 
would undertake to support the Institu- 

* Nursed by the " AU Saints' " Sisters. 



14 



BOMBAY A9D BKYIBOVS 



tioii. Tl^xicaiQ0th»moiiotarycriiifiB 
Bombay, and the affair wauld probably 
have been suspended indefinitely, had 
not Mr. Arthur Crawford, C.S., 
obtained from Gokaldas, then in his 
last illness, a cheque for £15,000, and 
induced Government to adhere to their 
former intention. The value of the 
institution is now acknowledged. 

The Jamahidji HospitaL*— This in- 
stittttion adjoins the Grant Medical 
College. It has Parell Road to the W. , 
and Babula Tank Road to the S. It 
consists of a long low building with 2 
wings, and contains 14 wurds, holding 
14 to 16 patients each. At Sir Jam- 
shidji's request, one ward has been 
assigned to Parsis ; in the others all 
castes, Brahmans, Dherhs, and Moham- 
medans, are found together. They get 
their food from separate cooks, but 
Parsis and Mohammedans will take 
it from a Christian cook, provided that 
fowls, etc., are not strangled, but killed 
in the Mohammedan fashion. In the 
hall is a bronze statue of Sir Jamshic^^i, 
a copy of one in the Town Hall. To 
the W. of this hospital are the Ophthal- 
mic Hospital^ the Hospital for inowr- 
ableSf and huts for infectious diseases. 
Disease is said to be more prevalent in 
the cold weather than in the hot. A 
large number of cases of accidents from 
machinery in the mills are brought to 
the Jamahidji Hospital every year. 

The Grant Medical College, in Parell 
Road, was established in 1845, in 
memory of Sir Robert Grant, Governor 
of Bombay. The Principal is subordin- 
ate to the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion. There are 9 Professors, besides 
4 teachers, who lecture in Marathi 
and Guzerati. There are 10 scholar- 
ships, besides funds for medals. In 
the class of the Professor of Materia 
Medica there are sometimes as manv as 
130 students. The Museum is full of 
curious things, Ivmis natura, snakes, 
and other reptiles. The grounds cover 
2 acres, and are made instructive by 
planting in them all kinds of useful 
trees and shrubs. This College turns 
oat a number of Indian physicians and 
surgeons, who are gradually overspread- 
ing India, and find lucrative employ- 

* J&ttised by the <' All Sainte' " Sisten. 



meat in tbt B4tiv« «tat«s. Th» 
knowledge of medicine thus difloaed 
ia one of the greatest blesaiBgB India 
haa derived from England. 

A Convalescent Home in Colaba wu 
established by Mr. Merwanji Fran^i, a 
benevolent rarsi gentleman, whose 
name ia inscribed on every pillar of the 
building. 

Other useful hospitals are the Bm 
Motlebai Obstetric Hospital, the SirD. 
M. Petit Hospital for the diseases of 
women and cnildren, and the Allbleap 
Hospital. 

Sir Jamahidji JlJibhai'a Paral 
Benevolent Institution, in Bamparl; 
Road, facing the Esplanade, was founded 
in 1849 by Sir Jamshidji, who, with 
Lady Avabai, his wife, set apart for the 
purpose 3 lakhs of rupees and 25 ahares 
m the Bank of Bengal, to which the 
Pars! Panchayat addeid 35 shares morew 
The Government of India are tlui 
trustees, and pay interest at 6 per oent 
on the 3 lakhs. The income ia divided 
into '400 shares, of which 180 go for 
the Boys' and Girls' Schools in Bon^bay, 
70 for those in Surat, and 150 for 
charities for the poor. 

The Jamahidji Dhannsala, not v^ry 
far off, contains about 200 small rooms 
for families or individuals. There ia no 
light or ventilation, except through the 
doorway and a hole in the roof about 
6 in. sq. There is a Leper Hos^tal 
attached to the institution. 

Pand Dhajmaala^ in the Gam Devi 
Road, is passed on the approach to the 
Towers of Silence from the S, It ia 
intended for poor Persian Parsis. The 
building is a good and clean one, and 
stands in an extensive garden, in which 
is a tank. In this Irani Dharmaala 
are sometimes as many as 200 men, 
women, and children. In the morning 
they have tea and bread, at 11 ▲.](. rioe 
and, curry, and at 5.30 p.m. a dinner 
of meat and vegetables gratis. The 
children are taught by a Persian 
Munshi. Close to the dining-room is 
a well of clear water, and a large airy 
sleeping -room for men. A similar 
dharmsala close by was erected at U^e 
expense of Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Ready- 
money, C.S.|., in commemoration of hia 
maternal grandfather in 1812. 



LITERARY AKD SCIENTIFIC IKSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



Id 



At the aK foot of the hill on which 
am the Towers of Silence \a an Alms- 
hOQM for decayed Parsis of both sexes, 
erected by the sons of the late Far- 
dunji Sorabji Parak, Esq., in com- 
memoration of their mother. Some of 
the inmates are blind. In the centre 
of the quadrangle are flowering shrubs, 
and outside is a very large garden full 
of fruit. The ghi and other comestibles 
are kept in gigantic Chinese jars, big 
enough to hold *Ali Baba's thieves. 
These jars cost 2000 rs. The whole 
charity does much credit to the muni- 
ficence of the Parsis. 

The Workhonse adjoins the jail ; 
there are sometimes as many as 20 
Europeans in it. They sleep in an 
open shed, and are permitted to go out 
in search of work. 

House of Correction, the principal 
prison in Bombay, is in the Clare Road, 
Byculla. Sailors who refuse to work on 
board their ships, and soldiers who 
have committed civU offences are con- 
fined here. 

Pinjrapol, or Infirmary for Animals, 
in the centre of the native quarter. 
This curious institution covers several 
acres. In the 1st division are diseased 
and aged cattle. In the 2nd division 
are goats, sheep, and asses. In the 
3rd are bufifaloes, and in the 4th dogs, 
some of which are in a horrid state of 
maage. The animals are all quiet 
enough, except the dogs, who keep up a 
considerable noise. This place is in the 
Quarter called Bholesh war, "Lord of the 
simple " ; and the temple of the deity 
ao called, a form of Shiva, is within the 
enclosure. 

LiTBBABT AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITU- 
TIONS. 

The Bombay Asiatic Society (in the 
Town Hall), instituted in 1804 for the 
investigation and encouragement of 
Oriental Arts, Sciences, and Literature. 
The Bombay Geographical Society has 
been amalgainatea with it. 

The Anthropological Society, estab- 
Uahed in 1886 for the purpose of in- 
vestlgating and recording facts relating 
to the physical, intellectual, and moral 
development of man, and more especi- 



ally of the various races inhabiting th« 
Indian Empire. 

The Natural History Society (Offices 
and Museum at 6 Apollo Street),, 
formed in 1883 for the purpose of pro- 
moting the study of Natural History 
in all its branches. 

Clubs i^ ^ 

The Byculla Club, Byculla. 

The Bombay Club, 26 Esplanade 
Road. 

The Tacht Club, Apollo Bandar. 

The Mechanics' or Sassoou Institute, 
in Rampart Row, founded by David 
Sassoou and his son Sir Albert in 1870, 
cost £15,000. Lectures are delivered 
and prize medals awai-ded. Life-mem« 
bers pay 150 rs., and members 6 rs. 
per quarter. In the entrance-hall is a 
statue of David Sassoon, by Woolner.. 
There is also a good Library, a^c 

The Victoria Technical Institute 
occupies the old building of the Elphin- 
stone College in Byculla, opposite the 
Victoria Gardens. 

Statues, Fountains, Museums, etc. 

The^^o^t^ of Qtieen Victoria, by Noble, 
near the Telegraph Office, is an object 
of constant interest to the natives. It 
is of white marble, and cost 182,443 rs., 
of which large sum 165,000 rs. was 
given by H.H. the late Khande Rao 
Gaekwar. The statue was uncovered 
by Lord Northbrook in 1872. Iler 
Majesty is represented seated. The 
Royal Arms are in front of the pedes- 
tal, and in the centre of the cano]^ is 
the Star of India, and above the Rose 
of England and Lotus of India, with 
the mottoes "God and my Right" 
and "Heaven's Light our Guide" in- 
scribed in four languages. 

There is also an equestricm statue of 
the PriTice of Wales in bronze, on a 
gray granite pedestal, by Sir Edgar 
Boehm, opposite the Sassoon Institute. 
It cost £11,000, and was presented by 
Sir A. Sassoon to the city of Bombay. 

Between it and the Queen's statue is 
the Frere Fountain, a fine work, which 
cost £9000. 

In the garden of the Elphinstone 

1 3^ For farther particulars, see lui^SiX and 
Directory at the end. 



16 



BOMBAY AND ENVIRONS 



India 



Circle, facing the Town Hall, are statues 
of Lord ComtaalliSf under a cupola, and 
of Lord Wellesley, by Bacon, much 
injured by the effects of the weather. 

On the edge of the Maidan and close 
to the Public Works' Secretariat are 
statues of Sir Richard Temple and 
Lord Beay. 

The Mnsenm, on the Farell Road, a 
handsome building, stands about 100 
yds. back from the road. Until 1867 
the collection, which is not an import- 
ant one, was kept in the Fort Barracks, 
but on Sir G. Bird wood being appointed 
curator by Lord Elphinstone, he raised 
a subscription of a lakh for building 
this Museum. Sir B. Frere laid the 
first stone in 1862, and Government 
completed the building in 1871. The 
Clock Tower in front of it wm erected 
by Sir Albert Sassoon. There is a fine 
statue of Prince Albert here bv Noble. 
The Victoria Gardens, in which the 
Museum stands, have an area of 84 
acres, and are prettily laid out. The 
beautiful Bougainvillea is very con- 
spicuous. VV^ithin the grounds are a 
Menagerie and Deer Park. The band 
plays nere twice a week, and it is a great 
resort for the citizens. The municipal- 
ity keep up the gardens at a cost of 
10,000 rs. yearly. 

Markets. 

The best time for visiting the Markets 
is early in the morning, about 7 o'clock, 
when they are thronged with all sorts 
and conditions of men and women in 
the brightest and most picturesque cos- 
tumes. 

The Crawford Market stands in 
Market Road, which is approached from 
Hornby Row, and is about 1 J m. N. of 
Watson's HoteL This market' was 
founded by Mr. Arthur Crawford, C.S., 
Municipal Commissioner from 1865 
to 1871. (This able officer got the 
Slaughter Houses, which at the com- 
mencement of his term of office were 
near the market, removed to Bandora 
in Saisette. ) The market consists of a 
Central Hall, in which is a drinking- 
fountain given by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
Beadymoney, surmounted by a Clock 
Tower, 128 ft. high. To the right is 
a wing, 150 ft. by 100 ft, in which are 



fruit and flowers, and on the left is 
another wing, 350 ft by 100 ft, for 
spices and vegetables. The whole is 
covered with a double iron roof. The 
ground is paved with flag-stones from 
Caithness. ''In that collection of 
handsome and spacious halls . . . fish, 
flesh, vegetables, flowers, fruit, and 
general commodities are vended in 
separate buildings all kept in admir- 
able order and cleanliness, and all open- 
ing upon green and shady gardens" 
(Mwin Arnold). The stalls in which 
the leaves of the Piper betel are sold 
should be noticed. These leaves are 
called jMin, and the betel-nut is called 
supari. The leaves are spread with 
lime, and the fruit of the Areca palm 
is wrapped in them. These leaves are 
chewed by the natives, and make the 
lips and the saliva red and the teeth 
black. There are many kinds of plan- 
tains or bananas, but the best are snort, 
thick, and yellow. The best oranges 
are those, from Nagpur, and the best 
grapes are from Aurangabad. The black 
grape, called Hdbshi (the Abyssinian), is 
the most delicious, and the best white 
grape is the Sahibi. The mangoes come 
in in May, and are amongst the finest 
fruit in the world : two or three iced 
form a delicious adjunct for breakfast. 
The best are grown about Mazagon ; 
the kind most esteemed is called the 
** Alphonse " ; large numbers of an in- 
ferior quality come from Goa. The 
Pummelow, the Citrus decumana, is 
particularly fine in Bombay, very cool- 
ing and wholesome, but somewhat 
astringent The Bombay onions are 
famous. The Beef Market is built of 
iron. The paving-stones were brought 
from Yorkshire. The Fish Market is 
at the end of the Mutton Market. The 
turtles come from Karachi in Sind. 
The oysters are of moderate size and 
well flavoured. The Palla fish, gener- 
ally about 2 ft. long, the salmon of 
India, is excellent Its flesh is light 
coloured, and has many troublesome 
bones. The best fish of all is the pom- 
flet, or pomfret, called Sarguialij tibe 
black kind being called Hahoa, This 
is a flat fish, about the size of a large 
flounder. The best are caught at Vera- 
wal ; they are very cheap and whole- 



INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND MANtJFAOTURES, ETC. 



17 



Some. The Sv/rma, with projecting 
knoba, are not equal to the English 
flounder. The Bhui MachMiiy or 
mullet, are fairly good. The guard- 
fish, DaUbk, long and very thin, are 
excellent, but the flesh has a greenish 
colour. The Bombil, called by the 
English BommeU) and Bombay duck, 
is a glutinous fish, very nice when 
fresh, and much used when salted and 
dried. Near the fountain, with its 
beautiful shrubs, are seats for loungers. 
There is also a Coffee House, where 
servants congregate, and which clears 
1200 rs. a year. On the S. side is the 
Poultry Market, where fowls, ducks 
turkeys, snipe, curlew, teal, and occa- 
sionally florican may be purchased 
when in season, — the last excellent. 
This market cost over 1,100,000 rs. 
The crowd in the Meat and Fish Mar- 
kets early in the morning is dense and 
the hubbub deafening. 

The Cotton Market is held near the 
tramway terminus at Colaba. It is a 
sight worth seeing. 4, 000,000 cwts. are 
annhally exported, and half that amount 
is made use of in the Bombay spinning- 
mills, which number nearly a hundred. 

The Ntd Market, between Parell and 
Duncan Road, supplies a large part of 
Bombay, and is generally immensely 
crowded. M en and women may be seen 
purchasing opium, and the women ad- 
roit that they give it to their infants. 

The Pedder Markets at Mazagon are 
in the middle of a garden. 

Indtjstrial Arts and Manu- 
factures. 

In Bombay there are nearly 3000 
jewellers of the different Indian nation- 
alities of the Presidency who find con- 
stant and lucrative employment. One of 
the most active industries is the manu- 
facture of brass and copper pots and 
other utensils. " The Copper Bazaar, 
opposite the Mombadevi Tank, is the 
Inuiest and noisiest, and one of the 
most delightful streets. " ^ The black- 
wood carving of Bombay is famous, 
asd sandal -wood and other carving is 
chiefly carried on here, also inlay 

1 Sir G. Birdwood's Industrial ArU of India, 
which see for (tirther particulars. 
[India 



work; indeed the term "Bombay 
Boxes" includes sandal-wood carviDff 
as well as inlay work. Tortoise-shell 
carving is a spedaliU, also lacquered 
turnery. Gold and silver thread is 
manufactured and used for lace, and 
Bombay embroidery is much prized. 
The Bombay School of Pottery (ser 
above) we owe to the exertions of Mr. 
Geo. Terry, who has developed two 
original varieties of glazed pottery there. 

Cotton, — The development of cotton- 
spinning during the last 30 years is 
remarkable. In 1870 there were 10 
mills in the Island of Bombay, em- 
ploying some 8000 hands ; there are 
now 101 employing more than 110,000 
hands. 

The traveller who is at all fond of 
the picturesque is strongly recom- 
mended not to leave Bombay without 
visiting the Native Quarter. The 
streets and bazaars are narrow and 
tortuous, but clean and bright in the 
extreme. Some of the houses are 
remarkably fine as works of art, and 
display imdoubted Portuguese influ- 
ence. Their fronts are covered with 
carving, and in some cases they have 
projecting stories supported upon ela- 
borately sculptured corbels. Here and 
there are mosaues and Hindu temples 
gaudiljr painted. The streets teem with 
life. Sir Edwin Arnold writes of them : 
" A tide of Asiatic humanity ebbs and 
flows up and down the Bhendi bazaar, 
and through the chief mercantile 
thoroughfares. Nowhere could be seen 
a play of livelier hues, a busier and 
brighter cit^ life. Besides the endless 
crowds of Hmdu, Guzerati, and Maratha 
people coming and going — some in gay 
dresses, but most with next to none 
at all — between rows of grotesquely 
painted houses and temples, there are 
to be studied here specimens of every 
race and nation of the East: Arabs 
from Muscat, Persians from the Gulf, 
Afghans from the northern frontier, 
black, shaggy Beluchis, negroes of 
Zanzibar, islanders from the Maldives 
and Laccadives, Malagashes, Malays, 
and Chinese throng and jostle with 
Parsis in their sloping hats, with 
Jews, Lascars, fishermen, Rajpoots, 
Fakirs, Europeans, Sepoys and Sahibs.' 
C 



18 



BOMBAY ANB ENVIRONS 



India 



Id tlie Bliendi Bazaar are the Arab 
Stables, well worth a visit in the early 
momlDg, not only for the sake of seeing 
some of the finest horses in the East, 
but to see the Arabs themselves who 
bring them to Bombay for sale. 

For the most part the Hindu Temples 
in Bombay are quite modem ; but at 
the same time thej are picturesque and 
particularly strikmg to a stranger who 
has not been in Bombay before. Of 
these the most important is 

The temnle of Walkeshwar '' Sand 
Lord/* on tne W. side of Malabar Hill, 
close to Malabar Point. Throngs of 
Hindus will be met coming from it, 
their foreheads newly coloured with 
the sectarial mark. The legend says 
that Rama, on his way from Ayodhya 
(Oudh) to Lanka (CeyloD), to recover 
his bride Sita, carried oft' by Ravana, 
halted here for the night Lakshman 
provided his brother Rama with a new 
Lingam direct from Benares every 
night. This night he failed to arrive 
at the expected time, and the im- 

Eitient Rama made for ' himself a 
ingam of the sand at the spot When 
the one from Benares arrived it was 
set up in the temple, while the one 
which Rama had made, in after ages, 
on the arrival of the Portuguese, sprang 
into the sea from horror of the bar- 
barians. There is a small but verv 
Sicturesque tank here, adorned with 
ights of steps, and surrounded by 
Brahmans' houses and shrines. This 
spot well deserves a visit ; a traveller 
will nowhere in India see a more typical 
specimen of the better class of Hindu 
town architecture. It, too, is not with- 
out its legend. Rama thirsted, and 
there being no water here, he shot an 
arrow into the earth, and fo^th^vith 
appeared the tank, hence called Fana- 
tirtha, " Arrow-Tank." 

A Temple of less importance is the 
Dwarkanath's Temple, close to the 
Esplanade, on the right-hand side of 
the road that leads to Parell, and a little 
N. of the Framji Kausji Institute, 
which is on the opposite side of the 
road. 

Entering by a side door on the N., 

the visitor nnds himself in a room 

-q. with a silver door at the end 



7 ft high, which hides from view the 
principal idol. There are many ima^ 
and paintings of Krishna and Badha, 
his favouiite mistress. 

There is a group of MaMvMmM 
Temples at Breach Candy, and others 
in the native quarter around the tanks 
of Mombadevi and Chwalia, 

Shootiiig. — ^Tigers and panthers m 
rather numerous in the ^onkan, and 
may be found occasionally in Salsette. 
At. the hill -fort of Tungarh, about 
20 in. from Bombay, tigers are occasion- 
ally to be found, but it is difficult to get 
accommodation there, as there are only 
one or two huts, and horses picketed 
outside are likely to be killed during 
the night. Newcomers should en- 
deavour to go with some experienced 
sportsman, by whom all the arrange' 
ments should be made. Snipe an 
numerous on the E. side of Bombay 
Harbour in Panwell Creek and othei 
places. At the Vehar Lake and Tamu 
and close to Narel wild duck, snipe 
hares, and partridges are to be found 
At places in Gazerat sonae of the fines 

?uail, snipe, and duck -shooting u 
ndia is to be obtained. 

Railways, Tramways, and Steanun 
— The terminal stations of the tian 
ways and of the Bombay, Baroda, an 
Centra] India Railway are at Colak 
J m. S. of Watson's Hotel, but thei 
is a station much closer, and nearly di 
W. of Watson's Hotel, called Churd 
gate Station, whence passengers cansta 
for any places reached by wie B. B. ai 
C. I. line. Those who are living in tl 
northern suburbs will go of com 
from the Byculla Station, or fix)m t 
Grant Road Station, according to th< 
destination. 



Sights in the Vicinity of BoMBi 



1. Elephants. 

2. Vehar Lake. 

3. Montpezir Caves. 

4. Cave Temples of 

Kanhari. 
6. Sapara. 



6. JogeshwarOav 

7. Matheran. 

8. The TKDsa Wa 

10. G«rBoppa Falls 



(1) Elephanta is asmall island ab< 
6 m. from the Fort of Bombay. ] 
visiting this remarkable place ste 



SXGUR8I0N TO ELBPHANTA 



19 



Isonches^ can be hired at Apollo Bandar, 
and make the passage in about 1 or 1^ 
his., or a banoar-boat may be hired at 
from 3 to 5 rs. In this case the length 
of the passage will depend on wind and 
tide. Or, if living near Mazagon, the 
traveller may hire a boat or engage a 
steam launch from the pier there. The 
boat will pass close to Butcher's Island, 
which is 3 m. nearly due E. from Maza- 
gon Dock. Persons coming from sea 
with infectious diseases, such as small- 
pox, are placed in quarantine at this 
island. The view in this part of the 
harbour is beautiful. To the N. if the 
hill known as the Neat's Tongue, on 
Trombav island, which is 1000 ft above 
sea-level. The ruins of an old Portu- 
guese chapel at Trubah in Trombay are 
at a height of 324 ft The highest 
|oint of Elephanta is 668 ft. There 
la another hill 400 ft high to the left 
pf the Caves as you approach them. 
[Elephanta is oaUed by the natives 
Wharapuri ("the town of the rock," 
gr "of purification," according to Dr. 
pilson)— according to Dr. J. Stevenson, 
hrapuHy "the town of excavations." 
Sie caves are called Lerien (Lena) by 
b natives, a word used throughout 
^dia and Ceylon for these excavations, 
tost probably on account of the first of 
kfim being mtended for hermitages of 
taddhist ascetics. The island is covered 
Hh low corinda bushes and Tal palms. 
\ consists of two long hills, with a 
irrow valley between them. About 
iO yards to the right of the old landjuig- 
boe, at the S. end of the island on the 
to of one of the hills, and not far from 
rains of a Portuguese building, was 
lass of rock, cut into the shape of an 
J^riiant, from which the place derives 
lEuropean name. In September 1814 
I head and neck dropped o£r, and in 
ti the then shapeless mass was re- 
ived to Bombay, and may now be 
a in the Victoria Gardens. 
Ihe modem landing-place N.W. of 
I island is not a very convenient one. 
consists of a rather slippery pier of 
!terete blocks. The caves are distant 

^Consult Mesirs. T. Cook & Son. Their 
■n Imok^ makes the excursion several 
Mt ft week, and makes other excursions in 
Iksrboar. 



about i m., and are approached by easy ' 
steps, constructed in 1863 by a native 
merchant at a cost of 12,000 rs. 
There is a bungalow at the entrance, 
where a fee of 4 annas is paid. 

The time when these caves were ex- 
cavated can only yet be guessed at, but 
it is generally supposed that it must 
have been some time between the 9th 
and 11th cents, a.d. The disintegra- 
tion of the rock, since the caves were 
first described by Niebuhr, and even 
during the last 80 years, has been very 
considerable. 

The entrance into the temple is be- 
tween two massive pillars, forming three 
openings, hewn out of trap rock, over- 
hung by brushwood and wild shrubs. 
The whole excavation consists of three 
principal parts : the great temple itself, 
which is in the centre, open on three 
sides, and two smaller chapels, standing 
back one on each side of the great 
temple, but not perceived on approach-, 
ing it They are now reachea by two 
narrow miniature passes in the hill, 
one on each side of the grand entrance, 
at short distances from it. The side 
fronts are exactly like the principal 
one : all being hollowed out of the solid 
rock, and each fa9ade supported by two 
huge pillars with two pilasters, one on 
each side. The two wings of the temple 
have no covered passage to connect 
them with it. 

The left side of the great cave is 133 
ft. in length, while the right side is 
only 128 ft. 4 in. , measuring from the 
chief entrance to the farthest end. 
Irregularities of this kind are to be 
found in every other part, although the 
general appearance is that of perfect 
regularity. The breadth is fully 130 
ft. from the eastern to the western 
entrance. It rests on 26 pillars (8 of 
them now broken) and 16 pilasters; 
neither the floor nor the roof being in 
one plane, it varies in height from 17 J 
to 16 ft. The plan is regular, there 
being seven pillars and a pilaster in a 
line from the N. entrance to the S. ex- 
treme of the temple, and six together 
with the shrine from the E. to the W. 
entrances. The only deviation from 
this regularity in the chief temple is the 
small square excavation that is seen to 



20 



BOMBAY AND XirviBONS 



tnik 



the rt on going up the temple ; it 
occupies the place of four pillars and 
of the intermediate space enclosed be- 
tween them. This is the Lingam Shrine, 
It is 19) ft. square, with four doois 
facing different wa^. Around this 
shrine on the outside are two large 
figures at each entrance, representing 
doorkeepers, who lean on demon-dwarfs. 
The Lingam is a cylindrical stone 2 ft. 
10 in. in diameter, the emblem of Shiva 
and of reproduction, and is worshipped 
on great occasions by crowds of devotees. 
At the back of the cave there are two 
small excavations facing each other, the 
one on the right, the other on the left ; 
their use is not well ascertained ; they 
were probably employed for keeping 
the temple utensils and offerings. The 
pillars, which all appear to run in 
straight lines parallel to each other, 
and at equal distances, are crossed by 
other ranges running at ri^ht angles ; 
they are strong and massive, of an 
order remarkably well adapted to their 
situation and the purpose which they 
serve. 

The Great Cave at Elephanta is what 
the Hindus call a Shiva Lingam Temple, 
a class of sacred buildings very common 
in India. The natives maintain that 
this cave and all other excavations are 
the works of the sons of Pandu, who 
constructed them while wandering about 
in banishment They consider that 
these excavations are works far too 
mighty for mortals to have constructed. 
The Great Cave is visited by crowds of 
Hindus, on the great festival of Shiva 
in the latter half of Febniary. 

Three-faced Bust J or Trimurti, — The 
chief of the mural figures is the immense 
three-faced bust, 19 ft. in height, at 
the far end of the Great Cave, facing 
the N. entrance. It is the representa- 
tion of Shiva, who is the leading char- 
acter in all the eroups of the cave. The 
front face is Shiva in the character of 
Brahma, the creator ; the E. face (spec- 
tator's 1.) is Shiva in the character of 
Rudra, the destroyer ; and the W. face 
(spectator's rt.) is considered to be 
Shiva in the character of Vishnu, the 
preserver, holding a lotus flower in his 
hand. 

The ArddhanarishvHir, or half -male 



haZf 'female DivinUy in the fint eom- 
partment to the £. of the centnl fignre 
(spectator's L) represents Shiva, 16 ft. 
9 m. high, in his character of AiMhar 
narishwar. The right half of the figoie 
is intended to be that of a male, and 
the left that of a female, and thus to 
represent Shiva as uniting the two 
sexes in his one person. The same 
tradition is represented in a carving at 
the oaves at Badami. Such a maoi- 
festation of Shiva is described in the 
Puranas. The bull on which two of 
the hands of the figure lean, and on 
which he is supposed to ride, is called 
NanoLL, a constant attendant on Shiva. 
Brahma, on his lotus throne, supported 
by five swans, and with his four faces, 
is exhibited on the right of the fignre. 
He has a portion of all these faces 
visible. On the left, Vishnu is seen 
riding on what is now a headless Garuda, 
a fabulous creature, half man half eagle. 
Above and in the background are fonnd 
a number of inferior gods and sages of 
the Hindus. Indra, I^rd of the Finmr 
ment, appears mounted on an elephant 

In the compartment to the W. of the 
Trimurti are two gigantic figures d 
Shiva and Parbati^ the former 16 ft 
high, the Utter 12 ft 4 in. Shiva has 
a high cap, on which the crescent anj 
other symbols are sculptured, and from 
the top of it rises a cup or shell on whieii 
is a three-headed figure representing tiic 
Ganga proper, the Yamuna and SaraA^ 
wati, wnich three streams are fabled to 
unite at Prayag, or Allahabad, and form 
Uie Ganges. According to a well-known 
Hindu legend, the Ganges flowed fnmi 
the head of Shiva. The god is standings 
and has four arms, of which the outei 
left rests on a dwarf, who seems to bend 
under the weight. In the dwarfs right 
hand is a cobra, in his left a ehauri^ 
from his neck hangs a necklace, thi 
ornament of which is a tortoise. Qv 
Shiva's right are several attendante 
and above them Brahma, sculptunc 
much as in the compartment on thi 
right of the Trimurti, Between BrahsM 
and Shiva is Indra on his elephaaf 
Airavata, which appears to be kneeling 

Marriage of Shiva and FarbaH it i 
sculptured group (greatly damaged) i| 
the end of the W. aisle. The poeitiai 



EXCDE8I0N TO ELEPHANTA 



21 



of Parbati on the rieht of Shiva shows 
that she is his bride ; for to stand on 
the right of her husband, and to eat 
with him, are privileges vouchsafed to 
a Hindu wife only on her wedding-day. 
Id the comer, at the left of Shiva, 
is Brahma, known by his four faces, 
sitting and reading, as the priest of 
the gods, the sacred texts suited to 
the marriage ■ ceremony. Above, on 
Shiva's left, is Vishnu. Among the at- 
tendants on the right of Parbati is one 
beaiing a water-pot for the ceremony. 
This is probably Chandra the moon-god. 
Behind the bashful goddess is a male 
iignre, probably her father Himalaya, 
who is pushing her forward. 

Birih of Skarida the War-god^ is a 
scul{>tm^ group at the £. end of the 
N. aisle. Shiva and Parbati are seated 
together, with group of male and 
female inferior divinities showering 
down flowers from above, the rock 
being cut into various shapes to repre- 
sent the clouds of Eailas, Sbiva^s 
heaven. Behind Shiva and Parbati is 
t female figure carrying a child on her 
hip, from which it nas been supposed 
that the sculpture represents the oirth 
of Skanda, the war-god, who figures so 
prominently in Kaudasa's fine poem, 
the JTttmara Sambhava (sniritedly trans- 
Ifttod by Gritfiths). Dr. Stevenson 
thought Ganesha* or Ganpati, the 
elephant-headed god of wisdom was 
perhaps intended here. 

RavaTia attempting to remove Kailas, 
—The visitor must now face completely 
loond, and look to the K. instead of 
the S., and, advancing a few paces, he 
will come in front of the sixth compart- 
ment, which is to the right of the eastern 
entrance. Here Bavana, the demon 
long of Lanka, or Ceylon, is attempting 
to remove Kailas, the heavenly hiU of 
I Sura, to his own kingdom, in order 
tkat he may have his tutelary deity 
ihrays with him, for Bavana was 
cror a woi'sMpper of Shiva. Bavana 
Ui 10 heads and 20 arms, and is with 
\k back to the spectator. Shiva is seen 
a Kailas, with Parbati on his right, 
ttd votaries and Bishis in the back- 
Aoond. The legend runs that Bavana 
iviook Kailas so much that Parbati wpa 
iformed, whereupon Shiva pressed down 



the hill with one of hi) toes on the head 
of Bavana, who remained immovable 
for 10,000 years. 

The figure of Bhairava, — ^The visitoi 
must now cross over to the opposite side, 
passing the Lingam shrine, in order to 
arrive at the correspondingcompartment 
on the W. to that just described on the 
£. This was formerly supposed to re- 
present the sacrifice of Daksha, and is 
twice depicted at Elora, and more than 
once at the Amboli caves in Salsette. 
Daksha, a son of Brahma, bom from 
the thumb of his right hand for the 

Surpose of peopling' tne world, had 60 
aughters, of wnom 27 are the nymphs 
of t^e lunar asterisms. One of them, 
named Sati or Durga, married Shiva, 
and 17 were married to Kashyapa, and 
were the mothers of all created oeings. 
Daksha began a sacrifice according to 
the ancient Vaidik ritual, and as the 
gods of the Yedas alone were invited, 
Shiva and his wife were not asked to 
attend. Sati went, nevertheless, un- 
biddeu, and being badly received, threw 
herself into the fire, whereupon Shiva 
made his appearance in his most terrific 
form as Vira Bhadra, which manifesta- 
tion of the god here forms the principal 
figure of the group. ' He dispersed the 
gods and other attendants of the sacri- 
fice, and seizing Daksha with one hand, 
decapitated him with another, while in 
a third he held a cup, into which spouted 
the blood. The head was hacked to 
pieces; but when Shiva's wrath was 
appeased, he put the head of a ram on 
Daksha's body, thus keeping him ever 
in mind of the power of his decapi- 
tator. The sculptui'e may or mav not 
have a special reference to Daksha. 
It is doubtless intended to repre- 
sent Shiva in one of his usual dreadful 
forms, viz., that of Bhairava, Mahakal, 
or Eapalabhrit. 

Nateaiha or Tavdava, — Shiva is said 
to perform a frantic dance at eventide, 
attended by his gatui or retinue of 
demons, stamping with mad energy, 
when the dust he raises is put on their 
heads by the other gods. Above is a 
very perfect Ganesh with elephant head. 
Natesha has eight arms, which are all 
broken but one. 

Shiva as an Ascetic^ the last group, is 



22 



BOMBAY AND ENVIBONB 



Inita 



to the left of the grand entrance. Here 
Shiva appears as a Yogi, and the figure 
so much resembles Buddha that the 
early desoribers of the cave, before 
Erskine, thought! t to be that person- 
age. The figure has the remains of two 
arms, which appear to have rested in 
his lap. It is seated on a lotus, the 
stalk of which is supported by two 
figures below. 

The W, wingj opposite the Lingam 
chapel first described, and across a court 
to the W., is a smaller excavation in 
the face of the hill in which Ganesh is 
seated at the S. extremity with a com 
pany of Shiva's attendants. The portico 
of the shrine is ornamented with a good 
deal of sculpture. 

The E, wing is approached by a few 
steps, flanked by sculptured lions, lead- 
ing up to a small Lingam chapel, in 
which are no figures. 

SuppleTnentary Excavations, — Bound 
the hill, a Uttie to ti^e S., are two other 
excavations fronting the E. These are 
also Lingam shrines, with Dtoarpals 
sculptur^ outside. On a hill opposite 
to the Great Cave is a small cave, and 
an excavation has been commenced but 
without much progress having been 
made. Since this some steps have been 
unearthed supposed by some to be the 
original ones leading to the sea. 

Dr. Burgess's account of the caves, 
which is the best, was published in 
Bombay, 1871. 

(2)1 Vehar Lake (drive 15 m.) from 
Bombay, or better by G. L P. Rly. 
to Bhandup, 17 m. Arrange with the 
station-master at Bhandup oeforehand 
to have a pony ready, and canter to 
the lake in half an hour, turning to 
the rt. at a signpost, marked 3 m. to 
Pawe, a village belonging to a Parsi, 
amidst 16,000 mango trees. From the 
gateway or Darwazah of Pawe it is 2 
m. to the lake ; the jungle is very thick 
part of the way. The lake covei-s 1400 
acres, and measures 2 x 1 J m. ; it was 
made by Mr. Conybeare, C.E., by 
damming up the Garpur river. It 
cost £3/3,650 with the connecting 
pipes, and can supply 8,000,000 gal- 
lons of water a day. The embankment 

1 ExcursionR 2, 8, 4 ma^ all be done in one 



is 80 ft. broad and 80 ft. above the 
water. The water is 76 ft. deep, of 
which 60 ft. are available for the 
supply of Bombay and 26 ft. are kept 
for soling. Fish are nnmeroos, par- 
ticularly singara or ** cat-fish." There 
are also many conger-eels, which grow 
8 or 9 ft long. There are many teal 
on the lake, but it is very difficult to 
get within shot, except in the very 
early morning. Tigers are scarce now, 
but many have been killed there. One, 
shot by Mr. Robeitson, C.S., had killed 
16 persons. 

The Tulsi Lake, which lies 2 m. to 
the K., was formed in 1872, at a cost 
of £40,000, and water is carried thence 
to the top of Malabar HilL 2 m. N. 
are the Kanheri Caves. 

(8) Montpezir Caves {Mandapesk- 
toar).—B. B. and C. I. Railway- to Bor- 
ItU Station, 22) m., thence nde 1 m. 
Write beforehand to the station-master 
for a pony and coolie to carry tiffin- 
basket Good clean waiting-room at 
Borivli. Leaving the station, proceed 
N"., turning at about 200 vds. to the I 
At the caves is a ruined Portuguese 
chm'ch, with a cross close by. i^und 
the N.E. corner of the church are 
three caves hewn out of the rock, which, 
judging from the pillars, may be of the 
9th century. The cave on the K is 
57 ft 8 in. X 18J ft. There is no carv- 
ing inside, but there are two pillars in 
the fa9ade shaped somewhat like the 
Ionic. Adjoining this cave to the W. 
is a stone basin for water, of which 
there is a g^ood supply, said never to 
fail, and this may oe one reason why 
the Portuguese built here. The next 
cave is 27 ft 3 in. xl4 ft 9 in. In 
the W. wall is a group of figures very 
much mutilated. The principal figure 
has four arms, and is said to be Bhim, 
but is probably Shiva, with 26 Ganas. 
In the corner of the outside wall is 
half a door of the church, of teak, with 
two saints carved on it The third or 
W. cave is locked, but the key can be 
obtained from the priest | ro. off. It 
was probably a vihara cave in which 
10 or 12 hermits lived, but was converted 
into a chapel in 1566 a.d. In the N. 
part of the E. wall, upside down, is the 
stone originally over the entrance 



CAVE TEMPLES OP KANHARI 



23 



door, inscribed with the date 1555. 
At the N.W. are pillared partitious 
leading to cells, and on the W. side are 
two pUasters and four pillars about 12 
ft high, with tapering shafts and angular 
capitals. To the S., on an eminence, 
is a round tower (40 ft. high), which 
the priest calls a Calvarium. The 
staircase is on the outside, and in 
places there are apparently embi^asures 
for eons. The people about say it was 
used as a tower of defence. There is a 
good view from the top over the plain ; 
and about 4 m. off to the E. is the hill 
in which are the 



(4) Cave Tamples of Eanliari ^ {Ken- 
I nery). — These caves are all excavated in 
' the face of a single hill in the centre 
of the island of Salsette, and are about 
j 5 m. by a bridle path from. Borivli 
I Station on the B. B. and C. I. Railway, 
2 m. N. of the dam of the Tulsi lake, 
I and 6 m. from the D.B. at Tanna (see 
I Ete. 1). There ai-e 109 of these caves ; 
but though more numerous, they are 
pronounced by Mr. Fergusson^ to be 
much less interesting than those at 
Ajanta, Elora, or Karli. The same 
authority considers that the greater 
part of them in India, was executed 
by a colony of Buddhists, "who may 
have taken refuge here after being ex- 
pelled from the continent, and who 
tried to reproduce the lost Karli in 
their insular retreat." The caves date 
from the end of the 2nd century a.d. 
to about the middle of the 9th, or pos- 
sibly a little later. The great Chaitya 
is one of the earliest here ; those on 
each side may be 2 centuries later : the 
latest is probably the unfinished one, 
which is the fu-st the traveller ap- 
pioaehes by the usual route, and which 
<Utes about the 9th or 10th century 
ID., or is even still more recent. How-. 
wer this may be, it is at least certain, 
that, to use Heber's words, "the beau- 
tifiil situation of these caves, their 

1 The best and most complete information 
"B the subject of these caves is to be found in 
Om rmpfes and Buddhist Caves, by James 
Borgess, LL.D., D.C.L. 

2 /Jnclr.ct</ Temples of Indian p. 34, 



elaborate carving, and their marked 
connection with Buddha and his re- 
ligion, render them every way remark- 
able." ^ 

The path to them is narrow, and 
winds along the sides of rocks, but 
it is quite possible to proceed along 
it in palkis or on horseback. Most 
of the surrounding hills are covered 
with jungle, but the one in which 
are the caves is nearly bare, its 
summit being formed by one large 
rounded mass of compact rock, under 
which a softer stratum has been de- 
nuded by the rains, forming natural 
caves, which, slightlv improved by 
art, were appropriated as cells. The 
road which ascends the hill leads to 
a platform in front of the great arched 
cave, where are several mounds of 
masomy. The largest of them was 
opened b^ Dr. Bird, and some relics 
and inscriptions on copper were found. 
This is the first stage of ascent to 
the caves, which consist of six ranges, 
on the ledges of the mountain, con- 
nected with each other by footsteps 
cut in the rock. The ascent is gradual 
until within a few hundred yards 
of the southernmost, when the path 
becomes steep and imgged, and so 
closely shaded with shrubs and lofty 
trees as to conceal every appearance 
of the caves imtil the traveller is 
actually in front of them. In the 
first which comes in view two massive 
columns, of the same order as those 
at Elephanta, support a plain solid 
entablature, above which an oblong 
square is hollowed out. Within are 
two anterooms, and beyond, an un- 
finished chamber, 26 ft. deep. The 
front screen has three doors, and three 
windows over them, and the partition 
between the second and the inner 
chamber has likewise three doors, and 
over the centre one a large open arch, 
rising nearly to the roof. Salt thinks 
that the workmen began this cave 
from the top, and worked downwards. 
There are no figures or carvings here, 

1 A good account of the Eanhari caves Jif 
given by Salt, p. 47, vol. i., Transactions of 
the Literary Society of Bombay, which is here 
followed, corrected by Dr. Burgess's i^ccoun^ 
in Cave Tempiesi of India., 



24 



BOVBAT AND ENVIRONS 



India 



and the details are of little interest. 
Fergusson supposes it to be the latest 
excavation in the hill, and to date in 
the 9th or 10th century A.D., or even 
later. 

From this a vihara, oonsistinff of a 
long irregular verandah with cells at 
he back extends in a direction from 
S.W. to N.K to the Great Cave, from 
which it is divided by a partition, 
so thin that it has been broken through 
by some accident. It contains, and 
this is the chief point of interest, two 
sanctuaries, in which are dagobas, or 
solid masses of stone or earth, in the 
form of a cupola. The most southern 
of these stands in a recess, the three sides 
of which are divided into panels on 
which are carved one, two, or more 
figures of Buddha and of Bodhisatwas in 
various attitudes. Behind the northern 
dagoba Buddha is represented on a 
lion -throne, which rests on a lotus, 
whose stalk is supported by two boys 
with hoods like that of the cobra. 
From the main stem spring two others, 
on which are two youths with the fans 
cabled chauri, and one with a lotus-head 
in his hand. Above are two flyingfigures, 
and two of priests below, and a group is 
thus formed, the fac- simile of which 
is seen at Earll and Ajanta. 

The Great Ghaitya Cave joins this 
verandah in the manner just men- 
tioned ; it resembles the gi-eat cave at 
Karli. Figures of Buddha 23 ft high 
occupy both extremities. On the jamb 
of the entrance to the verandah is an 
inscription of Oautamiputra II., in 
the 4th cent. A.B. In front of the 
cave itself is a portal, and after that a 
vestibule. Between the verandah and 
the Gheai Cave is a small tank. Five 
steps lead up to the portal, which opens 
into a court, where are two lofty 
columns, that on the i-t. surmounted 
by 4 lions couchant. Its pedestal is 
cut into panels and supports an image 
of Buddha, whose head is canopied by 
five heads of the hooded snake. The 
left column has three dwarf figures on 
the top, which once, perhaps, supported 
a wheel. The whole space at the farther 
end of the portico is occupied by the 
front face of the cave, which is divided 
hv «1qiti cohimns into three scjuare 



portals beneath and five open windows 
above, beyond which is the vestibule. 
On the right and left of the vestibule, 
in recesses, are gigantic statues of 
Buddha, 23 ft high. The interior 
temple again is parted from the vesti- 
bule by a second screen, the figures of 
which, like all the carving of this cave, 
are most slovenly. The pillars that 
surround the nave are of the same 
order as those at Karli, but much 
inferior in execution. Six on one side 
and 11 on the other have capitals orna- 
mented with figures of elephants pour- 
ing water from jars on the sacred bo 
tree or on dagobas, and boys with 
snake heads are also introduced. The 
nave terminates in a semicircle, and 
at this end is a dagoba. 

Mr. Ferj;usson is of opinioil that this 
Great Chaitya Cave was excavated after 
the vihara, and that the three dagobas 
existing at its threshold are more 
ancient than the cave itself. As the 
spot had been regarded as sacred owing 
to them, some devotee, he thinks, deter- 
mined on excavating a great temple 
behind and between them. 

The Durbar Cave, — Proceeding a 
little to the K.E. from the cave just 
described, and turning to the rt. 
round an angle of the rock, there is a 
Ions winding ascent by steps cut in the 
rock, leading to many smaller caves in 
a ravine through ^rhich a strong moun- 
tain torrent pours in the rainy season. 
There are ranges of caves at different 
heights on both sides the ravine, com- 
municating by steps with one another, 
and above are the remains of a dam 
erected across the ravine, by which a 
capacious reservoir was once formed. 
Tne first cave on the rt. hand is the 
so-called Durhar Cave, or "Cave of 
Audience," the finest vihara of the 
series, and the only one that can com- 
pete in size with those at Ajanta. It 
IS 96 ft. 6 in. long, and 42 ft. 3 in. 
deep, exclusive of the cells. Immedi- 
ately opposite is a vast excavation, in 
which are a few fragments of columns 
hanging to the roof. 

Upper Caves. — ^Ascending still higher 

from the platform of the Great Cave, 

the traveller comes to 20 or 30 exca- 

• vations, containing nothing of note. 



8APAEA— JOGEBHWAR CAVE 



25 



[ Above these again is another series of 
j Yiharas, of which several are very inter- 
esting, their walls being entirely covered 
with figures, finely executed. The 
eeneral design is Buddha seated on a 
I lotus. Remains of plaster and painting 
I are seen here and there. Mr. Fergusson 
remarks on the peculiar head-dj^ of 
the principal figure in some of the 
groups, which he had not noticed else- 
where, and observes also that this 
figure is attended by two female figures, 
whereas the true Buddha is always 
attended by men. This is Padmapani 
or Avalokiteshwai*, one of the Bodhi- 
satvas of later Buddhism, attended bv 
two Taras. On the E. side of the hill 
is a broad, long, and level terrace, 
commanding a very fine view of the 
surroimding country.^ 

The following passage from Dr. 
Bird's book refers to a discovery of 
great importance made by him : — 

"The tope at Kanhari, which was 
opened by me in 1839, appeared to have 
been originally 12 or 16 ft. in height, 
and of a p^midal shape ; but being 
much dilapidated, formed exteriorly a 
heap of stones and rubbish. The largest 
of several being selected for examma- 
tion, was penetrated from above to the 
base, which was bnilt of cut stone. 
After digging to a level with the ground 
and clearing away the loose materials, 
the workmen came to^ a circular stone, 
hollow in the centre' and covered at 
I tlie top by a piece of gypsum. This 
contained l!wo small copper urns, in 
one of which were a ruby, a pearl, 
and small piece of gold mixed with 
ashes. In this urn there was also a 
small gold box containing a piece of 
cloth, and in the other, ashes and a 
silver box were found. Outside the 
drcular stone there were two copper 
plates, on which were legible inscrip- 
tions in the Lai or cave character. 
The smaller of the plates had tvvo lines 
of writing in a character similar to that 
met with at the entrance of the Ajanta 
caves ; the larger one was inscribed 
with letters of an earlier date. The 

iTbe inscriptiODS at Kanhari have been 
translated by Dr. Buhler in Dr. James Bur- 
gess's elaboimte work already referred to on 
Cave Temples and Buddhiai Caves. 



last part of the first-mentioned insorip- 
tion contained the Buddhist creed, as 
found on the base of the Buddha image 
from Tirhut, and on the stone taken 
from the tope of Samathf near Benares." 
The most curious fact of all connected 
with Kanhari is the existence there in 
ancient times of a tooth of Buddha. 
The cave over which inscription 7 
of those mentioned by Stevenson is 
engraved, is called Sakadatya-lena, the 
** Buddha- tooth Cave," probably be- 
cause the relic was there temporarily 
deposited, while the tope in which it 
was finally lodged was being prepared 
(see p. 27). 

(5) Sapara is a village W. of the B. B. 
and C. I. Railway 3 m. N. W. ofBaasein 
Jtoad station on that line. A Buddhist 
tope at this place was opened which 
yielded some highly interesting relics, 
now to be seen in the great room of 
the Asiatic Society in the Town Hall, 
Bombay. The subject is worthy of the 
study of Orientalists and the continued 
research of travellers. 

(6) Jogeshwar Oaye.>-G m. S. of 
Magathana Caves, and 2 m. N.£. of the 
village of Jogeshwar (about 1 m. from 
Goregaon sta. on the B. B. and C. I. 
line). Mr. Burgess attributes these 
caves to the latter half of the 8th 
cent. ; next to those at Elora they 
are the largest in India, being 320 ft. 
long by 200 ft. broad. The W. en- 
trance is that now used ; but the 
decorations on the E. side are more 
carefully executed, and the prin- 
cipal entrance was probably there. 
Over the sloping path that leads to 
the W, entrance a natural arch is 
formed hj the branches of a banyan 
tree, which, shooting across, have 
taken root on the other side, and 
render the approach singularly pic- 
turesque. Eight steps lead down to 
a small anteroom, in which the figures 
are greatly decayed. A door leads into 
the Great Cave, and above this are two 
figures in the attitude in which Rama 
and Sita are often represented. The tall 
figures on each side of the entrance are 
exactly like the dwarapals&t Elephanta. 
The Great Cave is 120 ft. square, and 
18 ft. from the door are 20 pillars of the 
same order as at Elephanta, forming 



26 



BOMBA.T AND ENVIRONS 



India 



an inner sqnare. Within there is a 
ohamber 24 ft. sq., with 4 doors. This 
is a temple sacred to Mahadeva. On 
the walls are the vestiges of many 
figures. Over the door at the E. en- 
trance is the curious design of a monster, 
the makara, with the mouth of a hippo- 

Eius, trunk of an elephant, ana a 
n's tail, which appears to Tomit 
a sculptured group, representing 
some scene of Shaiva mythology. From 
this entrance two vestibules lead to 
three doorways, which again open into 
the Great Cave. Over the doorways are 
some curious designs, as, e.g. over the 
centre one a figure resembling Buddha, 
and on one side a guardian leaning on 
a dwarf, who grasps in his hands two 
enormous snakes that are closely twined 
round his body. 

(7) Hatlieran.— 54 m. from Bombay 
by G. I. P. Ely. (see Rte. 24). 

(8) The Tanaa Water Supply (D.B. 
G. I. P. Eljr. to Atgaon sta., 69 m.)— 
The increasing ponulation of Bombay 
led the mumcipality to construct a 
still larger reservoir on the Tansa 
River, about 60 m. N.E. of Bombay, 
which was formally opened by H.E. 
the Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne, in March 
1892. The Dam which encloses the 
watershed of the Tansa River, com- 
pleted 1891, is the largest piece of 
masonry of modem times. It is of a 
uniform height of 118 ft., and is 2 m. 
long, 103 ft. thick at the base, and 24 
ft at the top, where a flagged road runs 
eJongit. It encloses a Lake 8 sq. m. 
in area, and is capable of supplying 
33,000,000 gallons daily (Engineer, Mr. 
W. Gierke; Contractoi-s, Mr. T. C. 
Glover, and Messrs. Walsh, Lovatt, 
and Co.) 

(9) Karli.— 85 m. from Bombay; 
caves 6 m. from rly. sta. (see Rte. 24). 

(10) Gersoppa Falls (D.B.)— From 
Bombay by steamer to Karwar. From 
Karwar to Honawar (D.B.) by **man- 
chul," 52 m., 15 rs. ; Honawar to Ger- 
soppa, 18 m., by native boat up a 
shallow river to Rule ; Gersoppa to the 
Falls, 18 m., by manchul, 4-8 rs. 
Write beforehand to the Mamlatdar at 
Karwar for manchul, and to the Mam- 
latdar at Honawar to make arrange- 
ments. 'There are in all 4 falls, 



which have been called the Great Fall, 
the Roarer, the Rocket, and the Dame 
Blanche. In the first of these the 
water, in considerable volume, makes 
a sheer leap down of 829 ft., and 
falls into a pool 132 ft. deep." The 
others are all in line with this, across 
the river, which is of great widtJi. The 
scenery up the valley and the ghat to 
the Falls is superb, but road is veiy 
malarious until Dec. or Jan., by which 
time the Falls have run out a great deal 
Provisions should be taken. This is a 
long and somewhat toilsome joamey; 
for full particulars see Rte. 28.^ 



ROUTE 1. 



Bombay to Calcutta by Nasik, 
Caves of Ajanta, Jabalpur, 
Allahabad, and Benares. 

BaU, 1400 m. (G. I. P. B. and E. I. R) : mail 
train 46 hours. 

The rule for breaking journeys on 
Indian railways allows the traveller to 
spend 16 days on the journey from 
Bombay to Calcutta with one tnrough 
ticket. Cost, 1st class 91 rs. 11 as., 2nd 
class 45 rs. 14 as. , and servants 16 rs. 8a8. 
Luggage beyond a small allowance is 
extra. The 85 m. between Bombay and 
Igatpuri are by far the most pictuiisque 
on the whole line between tne western 
and eastern capitals, but unfortunately 
the mail train each way passes over 
the best part of this in the dark. The 
traveller can arrange to see it by day- 
light, on the eastward journey, by pre- 
ceding the mail. He should leave by 
the midday train and reach I^tpuri 
in the evening, rejoining the mail train 
at that place at night, and on the 
westward journey he should wait at 
Igatpuri for a slow train. 

1 See also Dr. George Smith's Life of John 
WOsm, F.HS. 



ROUTE 1.' TANNA KALYAN 



27 



On leaving Bombay, between Sion 
and Coorla, the railway passes on a 
causeway from the island of Bombay 
to the larger island of Salsette. 

9 m. Coorla sta. Close by, rt., are 
the once famoas cotton-mills. 

21 m. Taana (Thana) sta., D.B. 
An early Portuguese settlement, com- 
manding the most frequented passage 
from the mainland to the island of Sal- 
sette. Marco Polo (1298 A.D.) says, 
** Tana is a great kingdom lying towards 
the west . . . There is much traffic 
here, and many ship and merchants 
frequent the place. In 1320 four 
Christian companions of Friar Odoricus 
here suffered martyrdom. Friar Jor- 
danus narrates that he baptized about 
90persons ten days* journey from Tanna, 
besides 35 who were baptized between 
Tanna and Supara. 

The country round Tanna was highly 
caltiyate4, and was studded with 
mansions of the Portuguese when, in 
1737, it was wrested from them by the 
Marathas. In 1774 the Portuguese sent 
a formidable armament from Europe 
for the avowed object of recovering 
their lost possessions. The Government 
of Bombay determined to anticipate 
their enterprise, and to seize upon the 
island for the English. A force was 
{Spared under General Robert Gordon, 
indTannawas taken after a siege of three 
days. On 6th March 1775 the Peshwa 
Bj^hoba by the Treaty of Bassein ceded 
the island of Salsette in perpetuity. 
In 1816 Trimbakji Danglia, the cele- 
brated minister of Baji Rao, the last 
Peshwa, effected his escape from the 
fort of Tanna, though guarded by a 
strong body of European soldiers. The 
diflScmties of this escape were greatly ex- 
aggerated all over the Maratha country, 
ind it was compared to that of Shivaji 
bom the power of Aurangzib. The 
Drincipal agent in this exploit was a 
Maratha horse-keeper in the sei-vice 
of one of the English officers of the 

C'lon, who, passing and re-passing 
bakji's cell, as ^ to ezerci««e his 
master's horse, sang the infonnation 
he wished to convey in a careless 
manner, which disarmed suspicion. 
Bishop Heber, who had seen Trimbakji 
imprisoned in the fort of Chunar, was 



much interested in this escape, and 
writes — 

"The groom's singing was made 
up of verses like the following : — 

" Behind the bash the bowmen hide, 
The horse beneath the tree, 
Where shall I find a knight will ride 
The Jungle paths with me ? 

'* There are five and flftj coursers there, 
And four and fifty men ; 
When the flfty-lifth shaU mount his steed, 
The Deccan thrives again. " 

Heber adds that Tanna is chiefly in- 
habited by Roman Catholic Christians, 
either converted Hindus or Portuguese, 
who have become as black as the 
natives and assume all their habits ; he 
also describes the place as neat and 
flouiishing, and famous for its breed of 
hogs, and the manner in which the Por- 
tuguese inhabitants cure bacon. The 
English Church was being built when 
he arrived, and on 10th July 1826 was 
consecrated by him. In the 16th cent, 
the SUk Industry here employed about 
6000 persons. It is now confined to 
only 7 Portuguese families and 14 looms. 

[Tanna is the best starting-place for * 
the Caves of Kanhari, excavated in 
one of the hills of the island of Sal- 
sette. It is about 6 m. drive in a 
bullock-gharry to the foot of the hill. 
There are 109 oaves in all, and the 
largest is 90 ft. x 40 ft. (see Environs 
of Bombay at the beginning and p. 23). ] 

88 m. Kalyan junct. sta. (R.) Here 
the Madras line through Poena and 
Raichur branches off S.E. (Rte. 22). 
This is a very ancient town, and in 
early times, no doubt, was the capital 
of an extensive province. In 1780, 
the Marathas having cut off the 
supplies from Bombay and Salsette, 
the British Government determined 
to occupy the Eonkan opposite Tanna, 
as far as the Ghats. Accordingly, 
several posts were seized, and Kalyan 
amongst them ; and here Captain 
Richard Campbell was placed with 
a garrison. Nana Famavis forthwith 
assembled a large force to recover 
Kalyan, on which he set a high value, 
and his first operations were verv 
successful. He attacked the English 
advanced post at the Ghats, and 
killed or made prisoners the whole 



28 



ROUTE 1. BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA 



India 



detachment. He then compelled En- 
sign Fyfe, the only surviving officer, 
to write to Captain Campbell that, 
unless he surrendered, he would 
put all his prisoners, 26 in number, 
to death, storm Kalyan, and put 
all the garrison to the sword. To 
this Campbell replied that, "the 
Nana was welcome to the town if 
he could take it." After a spirited 
defence, he was relieved by Colonel 
Hartley, on the 24th May, just as 
the Marathas were about to storm. 
The remains of buildings roimd 
Kalyan are very extensive ; and Fryer, 
who visited the place in 1678, "gazed 
with astonishment on ruins of stetely 
fabrics and many traces of departed 
magnificence." A few miles 8. is the 
fine 10th century temple of Amber- 
natb (p. 318). 

Between Kalyan and Igatpuri, the 
railway ascends from the Konkan to 
the Deccan plateau by the mountain- 
pass, known as the Tal (Thull) Ohat. 

75 m. Easara sta. (R.) Here a 
special engine is attached and the 
iLScent of we Ghat begins. In 9^ m. 
the line ascends 1050 ft. 

At 79J m. is the reversing station, 
and the ascent terminates at 85 m. 
Igatpuri, jjc D.B. (R.), where the special 
engine and brakes are removed. 

The ajBcent of the Tal Ghat is at all 
seasons interesting ; but it is most 
beautiful in September owing to the 
wild flowers. The leaves are then 
bright green, and the country below 
the Ghats is all streams, pools, and 
inundations ; the Ghats themselves 
all cascades and torrents. Igatpuri, 
properly Wigatpura, " the town of dif- 
ficulties," so called on account of the 
precipitous road that preceded the 
railway, is a pleasant sanitorium and 
summer resort of Europeans from Bom- 
bay. Some large game is to be found 
in the neighbourhood. There are 
several European bungalows belonging 
to railway officials. The line passes 
through a comparatively level country, 
with low mountains on either side, to 

113 m. Deolali sta. A halting- place 
for troops arriving from or proceeding 
to Europe. There are barracks for 1000 



117 m. VASIK Boad sta., ^ D.B. 
(The Nasika of Ptolemy,) 

A tramway conveys passengers to 
the town, D.B. (1900 ft. above sea- 
level), 5J m. N.W. of the sta. Pop. 
85,000. It is one of the most sacred 
places of the Hindus; 1800 families 
of Brahman priests are settled here. 
It is said that Lakshman, the elder 
brother of Rama, cut off the nose 
of Sarpnakha, Ravana's sister ; and as 
Nasika in Sanskrit is "a nos^" the 
place hence got its name. The real 
cause of the sanctity of Nasik, however, 
is its position on the bi^ks of the sacred 
river Godavari, about 19 m. from its 
•source at Trimbak. 

Nasik may be called the Western 
Benares, as the Godavari is termed the 
Ganga—** Ganges." All Hindus of 
rank on visiting it leave a record of 
their visit with their Upadhya, or 
"family priest," for each nobje family 
has such a priest at each celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. In this record 
arc entered the names of the visitor's 
ancestors, and thus the pedigree of 
every Hindu chief is to be found in the 
keeping of these Upadhyas. Even 
Jang Bahadur, the late de facto ruler 
of Nipal, had his Upadhya at Nasik. 
The present Gaekwar owes his seat on 
the throne to this custom, for when 
the Gaekwar of Baroda was deposed 
and an heir sought for, the family 
Upadhya at Nasik supplied proofs of 
the young prince's legitimate descent 
from Pratap Rao, brother of Danmji, 
the third Gaekwar. 

The Snndar Narayau Temple was 
built by one of Holkar's Sardars in 
1725. It is smaller than that of the 
Black Rama (see below), but a miracle 
of art. Below it may be seen the 
temples of Balaji and of the White 
Bama, and the Memorial erected to the 
Kapurthala Rajah, who died in 1870 
near Aden, on his way to Europe. 
From Sundar Narayan Temple the river 
is crossed by a bridge, completed in 
1897, which cost Rs. 1.81.000. 

At Nasik the river, here 80 yds, broad, 
is lined on either side for a distance of 
400 yds. with flights of steps, and dotted 
with temples and shrines, and, as in 
most Indian cities situated near flowing 



ft6tJ*E 1. NAStk 



rivers, the view along the banks when 
hundreds of men and women are bath- 
tog is extremely picturesque. The 
part of the town which stands on the 
rt bank of the river is built npon 8 
hills, and is divided into the New Town 
N. and the Old Town S. The quarter 
on the L bank, where are* the chief 
objects of interest, is called Pcmchvxiti. 
'fhe manufacture of brass and copper 
ware, especially of idols, caskets, boxes, 
chains, lunps, etc., flourishes here. 
Specimens of the beautiful old work, 
though rare, are still occasionally to be 
found in the " old " copper bazaar. 

The temples at Nasik, though pic- 
turesque, have no striking architectural 
features. 

i m. to the "W., on the Panchwati 
side of the river, is a solidly-built house 
belonging to the Rastia family. Here 
alight and walk a few hundred yards 
up a lane to five very old and large 
trees of the Ficus indica species. Under 
the shade of the largest is a small build- 
ing. None but Hindus may pass the 
vestibule. It consists of a low room, 
at the S. end of which is an arch 8 ft. 
high, and beyond steps descend to 
2 apartments 5 ft. sq. and 4 ft high. 
In the first room are images of Rama, 
Sita, and LakshmanI In the second 
is an image of Mahadeo, 6 in. high, 
which those three personages are said 
to have worshipped ; hence arises the 
extreme sanctity of the place, w^hich is 
quite one of the holiest in Nasik. This 
hole is Sita'B Oupha, or Cave, where 
she found an asylum until lured away 
by Ravana to Ceylon. Farther down 
tne river, and just before reaching 
the riverside, is the oldest temple in 
the place, Eapdleshwar, ''God of the 
Skull," a name of Shiva. The ascent 
to it is by 50 stone steps. It is said 
to be 600 years old, but is quite plain 
and unattractive. Opposite to it the 
river foams and rushes in a rocky bed. 
Kama's Eund is the place where the 
pod is said to have bathed ; hence it 
13 very sacred, and bones of the dead 
are taken there to be washed away. 
Opposite to it and in the river itself is 
a stone dharmsala, with several arches, 
roofed over, in which ascetics lodge 
when the water is low. Down tihe 



stream, about 20 yds., are three temples 
erected by Ahalya Bai. The first is 
only a few feet high and long, but the 
next is a large square building, with a 
stone foundation and brick superstruc- 
ture, dedicated to Rama ; N. of it is 
a long dharmsala, and a little down 
the stream is the third temple, all of 
stone. About 200 ft. down tne stream 
is Nam SlumJcar's temple, with an 
elaborately carvedportico and a large 
stone enclosure. This ends the temples 
immediately on the water on the Panch- 
wati side. Proceed then J m. by a 
back way through streets of well-built 
houses to the great temple dedicated to 
Kal& Battia, or " Black Rama,'* which 
cost £70,000. It stands in an oblong 
stone enclosure, with 96 arches. To 
the W. is a hill called Sunar 'All, 
and there is another hill close by, 
called Jonagadb, or Old Fort, on 
which is a square building, in which 
Aurangzib's chief officials used to 
reside. They command fine views over 
the city. The Hingue Wada, an old 
palace of the Peshwa (chief of the 
Mahrattas), at present used as a school, 
is worth a visit for its beautiful carved 
wood-work. 

The traveller should not leave Nasik 
without visiting Sharanpore, seat of 
the mission founded by the Church 
Missionary Society in 1835, in the 
Junawadi part of Nasik, and moved to 
Sharanpore by Mr. W. S. Price in 1855. 
Since the establishment of the Govern- 
ment High School at Nasik in 1872 
the missionary school has fallen off. 
There was connected with this mission 
an AMcan Asylum for youths rescued 
from slavery, and it was from here that 
Livingstone's Nasik hoys were drawn. 
It closed in 1875, and Mr. Price took 
the boys to the E. coast of Africa, where 
a colony is established for redeemed 
slaves. There is a well-built but archi- 
tecturally disappointing church. 

In a hill 4| m. S. of Nasik are the 
Lena CaTea. A narrow path ascends 
to the height of about 450 ft. to a 
broad black line in the N. face of the 
hill, which extends about J m. in length, 
and marks the excavations. In the 
centre, just opposite the spot where 
the path ends, is a Cave 37 ft x 29 ft. 



ftOtJTB 1. BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA 



India 



and 10 ft. high, with a perfecUy flat 
roof, hewn out of the solid rock. Kound 
the central chamber are 16 cells, each 
6 ft sq. with a recess, hewn so as to 
make a couch for the inmate. In the 
centre is a modem figure of Bhairay 
(see below) with a mace, on which he 
leans with his left hand. On either 
side of him is an earl^ female figure. 
That on the right is fairly well carred. 
On the inside tace of the corridor, and 
on one side, is a long inscription in old 
Pali characters. To the W . is a small 
cave with two pillars with elephants on 
their capitals ; then a ruined cell with 
a broken inscribed tablet. Next is a 
fine cave (No. 3) with six pillars, of 
which two are broken, and the heads 
and busts of six giants supporting the 
basement of the corridor. Inside the 
verandah, on the left of the entrance, 
are two long inscriptions. The door 
has a fi^e about 4 ft. high on either 
side, which is probably a Yaksha, and 
all round the door are small figures 
much defaced. Then there is a large 
chamber, nearly the same size as that 
in the first cave, with 18 cells surround- 
ing it. At the end is a da^ba with 
figures on the sides, a carved belt half 
way up, and a double ornament at top. 
To the W. is a low cave with 12 figures. 
On the left is Buddha, seated, with 
attendant figures on either side, and 
opposite are other two figures. To the 
W. in a line with them is a figure 3 ft. 
6 in. high, called by the guides Gautama. 
Then tnere is a large excavation, about 
20 ft. long, called Sita's tank which 
is carried under the rock. There are 
four piUars in front, two of them broken. 
Above is a frieze 6 in. broad, with figures 
of horses, bulls, deer, and elephants. 
Beyond is a tank. To the E. is a 
Chaitya cave (No. 13) with seven pillars 
and a dagoba, which the guides say is 
Bhim's mace. Beside it is a vihara 
(No. 12) approached by steps. It has 
seven cells round it, and at the N. end 
a defaced figure of a goddess. 

Farther E. is the large Vihara Cave 
(No. 15). It is 46 ft. deep, and 87 ft, 
broad. There are 22 cells round it. On 
the right and left of the spectator as he 
enters the ante-chamber to the shrine 
are two dw&rapals, probably Manjushri 



and Avalokita. In the recess ia a 
seated figure of Buddha, as he sits 
with attendant disciples or Boohisatvato. 
There is a wall 3 ft. high in front of 
the recess, which is so dark that 
nothing can be seen without a torch. 
There are several other smaller oeUs 
of less importance.^ 

About 2 m. E. of the town, in the 
hill of Ra.mshej, is another group of 
excavations, but they are of little im- 
portance. 

19 m. by road is Trimliak. 

There are several stone-faced wells 
on this route, and at Nirwadi, on the 
right of the road, is a beautiftil tank 
lined with stone, and with stone st^s 
and 2 small pagodas built by Ahalya 
Bai. Near Wadi 2 conical hills, about 
900 ft. high, face each other on either 
side of the road. From these the hais 
run in fantastic shapes to Trimbak, 
where they form a gigantic crescent 
from 1210 to 1500 ft. high. Below 
this mountain wall, which has near 
the top a scarp of about 100 ft., is the 
small town of about 3000 inhab. It 
derives its name from TVi, "three" 
&nd. ArnbaJCf "eye"; three-eyed being 
a name of Shiva. The Fort stands on 
an impregnable height, 1800 ft. above 
the town. The Temple of Trimbakesb- 
war, which is on the E. side of the 
town, not far from where the Nasik 
road enters, was built by the great Baji 
Rao Peshwa, who died in 1740. It 
cost £90,000. It stands in a stone en- 
closure, which has no corridor, but a 
portico, which is the music gallery, 
and is 40 ft. high. The ascent is oy 
steps outside, and strangers are per- 
mitted to mount in order to look into 
the interior of the temple, which none 
but Hindus may enter. A flight of 
690 stops up a hm at the back of Trim- 
bak leads to the sacred source of the 
river Godavari, where "the water 
trickles drop by drop from the lips of 
a carven image shrouded by a canopy 
of stone" into a tank below. For ^ 

1 See Fergtisson and Burgess, Cave Templesi 
pp. 263-270, and plates xix. -xxvi ; and Buigesa, 
dcm Tmn^, pp. 87ff. 



ttOtTTB 1. BXJ»BDlTION TO AJAN*A 



31 



m. the banks of the stream, 15 ft. broad, 
are faced with stone. The water is 
dirty. On its course is a fine stone 
tank, surronnded on three sides by a 
porticus 25 ft. high, with a pa^da at 
each comer. This is the sacred bath- 
ing-place of pilgrims, and is called the 
Eushawat. In front of it are two stone 
enclosures full of filthy water, into 
which the leaves offered to the deities 
are thrown and there decompose. At 
the Si end is a temple to Shiva. 

147 m. Lasalgaok sta. From this 
place Chandor, an interesting town, 
overhung by a fine hill -fort, is 14 m. 
N. by a good road. The Maharajah 
Holkar is hereditary Patel of Chandor. 
The fort was -taken by the British in 
1804, and again in 1818. 

162 m. Uiinmar junct. sta., D.B. (R. , 
This is the junction of the Dhona 
and Munmar State Railway, which 
forms a cord line between the N.E. 
and S.E. branches of the G.I.P.R. 
About 4 m. S. of the station is the 
Ankai Tanki Fort, now in ruins, and 
7 Buddhist caves of some interest. 
Between the caves and the station 
rises a curious hill called Ram Gulni, 
surmounted by a natural obelisk of 
trap rock 80 or 90 feet high. 

178 m. Nandgaon sta., D.B. (R.) 
From here a road runs S.E. to Auran- 
gabad, 56 m., the fort of Daulatabad, 
and the Caves of EUora (see Rte. 2). 

232 m. Pachora sta., D.B. From 
here the Caves of Ajanta, distant 34 m., 
are reached by a rough road. 

[Bxpeditlon to AJaata. 

The D.B.^ nearest to ^e caves is at 
Fardapur, 80 m. from Pachora. The 
best way is to write at least one clear 
day before to the Mamlatdar (native 
magistrate) at Pachora asking him 
to arrange for conveyances. A traveller 
who does not know the language well 
must be accompanied by a servant or 
interpreter, and each person must have 
liedding and provisions. The journey 

1 It fg said that tbe best road to Aja^ta is 
BOW ftx>in Jalgaon sta. (distance about 80 m.) 
farther E. along the line. Special arrange- 
ments for carriages are necessary, and permis* 
aion to occupy, if required, one of the two 
Bak Bungalows on the road. The traveller 
shoold write one clear day or two days before- 
hand to the Oollector of Khandesh at Chulia. 
mentioning the number of persons iu the 
P*rty. 



will take from 9 to 12 hours, and cost 
from 12 to 15 rs. for each cart. Not 
more than 80 pounds of luggage should 
be taken in the cart. The less the 
better for speed and comfort. There 
are fairly good guides on the spot. 

The caves are a good hour's walk, 4 m. 
by a bridle-path from the D.B. at 
Fardapur. The bed of the Wagora 
river iJs crossed and recrossed several 
times. The ravine is wooded. The 
caves extend about one-third of a mile 
from £. to W., and are excavated in 
the concave scarp of the trap rock, at an 
elevation of from 85 to 110 ft. above the 
bed of the stream. The most ancient 
caves are near the E. end. 

Following Fergusson's arrangement, 
they are numbered from E. to W. The 
cave- temples and monasteries 6f Ajanta 
furnish a history of Buddhist art» and 
illustrate the legends of the religion and 
the domestic life of the people from 
shortly after the reign of Asoka to 
shortly before the expmsion of the faith 
from India. The oldest caves are 
believed to date from about 200 B.c.^ 

The narrow path by which access is 
gained to the caves reaches them at the 
seventh cave from the E. Thence the 
path goes on ascending to E. and W. 
along a narrow ledge, in some places 
little more than 2 ft. broad, and reaches 
cave Number 1, the farthest point on 
the E. This is a Yihara. Dr. Burgess 
assigns this cave to the 7th century. 
The fa9ade is richly decorated wiui 
sculptured processions of elephants, 
horses, and people. On the S. frieze of 
the portico is a very spirited repre- 
sentation of a wild buffalo hunt. The 
hunters are mounted and armed with 
bows and arrows. The door jambs are 
embellished with male ana female 
figures in amatory attitudes. The great 
hall or central chamber is 64 ft. sq., 
and has 20 pillars. The capital of 
one on the S. side is remarkable for 
four bodies of deer with only one head, 
which suits each body according to the 
position from which you look at it. 
There are remains of highly interesting 

1 The Indian Gk)yemment caused copies of 
these ancient mural paintings to be made, 
and ninety of them may be seen at tiie South 
Kensington Museum. Several were destroyed 
by a fire soon after arrival. 



ttOUTB 1. BOU&AY TO CALCUTTA 



India 



paintiDgs in oil on the wall»of this cave. 
Remark on the rieht-hand side of the 
back wall a very Chinese-looking fi^re 
of a youth with a perfectly white skin. 
Remark also four pictures of a group 
of four figures, which Mr. Fergusson 
has pronounced to be very probably 
Khusru and Shirin and two attendants. 
Khusra II., or Khusru Par viz, whose 
loves' with Shirin are the subject of 
some of the most famous Persian poetry, 
reigiied from 691 to 628 a.d. This king 
of Persia received an embassy from a 
king of the Deccan, in whose territory 
were the Caves of Ajanta, and it is 
thought by some that when the embassy 
returned the king sent with it Persian 
painters who executed these designs. 
The kin§j, a large fair man with all the 
look of a voluptuary, and dressed in 
Eastern robes with a strange high 
loose cap something like the red night- 
cap which used to he worn in England, 
holds a broad shallow cup, into which 
a beautiful girl, supposed to be Shirin, 
is pouring wine from a vase of classic 
character. In another tableau the 
king in royal state is receiving and 
apparently sending back the embassy 
from the Indian prince. There is a 
sort of fillet worn by Khusru, which 
resembles that exhibited on a patera 
in Paris, and displays an undoubted 
representation of Khusru. In the 
shrine of this cave Buddha is seated in 
the teaching attitude. There are four 
cells in the back wall besides the shrine, 
and five in each side wall. The paint- 
ings in this cave, as in Numbers 2 and 
16, are, in Dr. Burgess's opinion, auite 
equal in colour and grouping to tnose 
at Pompeii. 

Numher 2, a vihara cave. There are 
two chapels to the verandah. Observe 
in ceiling near the S. chapel two figures 
of men with striped socks. One holds 
a beautifully-shaped amphora and a 
flattish cup in his hand. The flowers 
on the ceiling are particularly beautiful. 
Inside the side chapels in the back 
wall are very remarkable Italian-look- 
ing female figures. The middle one 
of one of the 4 groups has quite the 
look of a Madonna, and all resemble 
the Italian paintings of the early part 
of the 14th century. Buddha holds 



the little finger of his left hand with the 
thumb and forefinger of the right The 
Mohammedans seem not to have genef ' 
ally destroyed the noses here as they 
have at Ellora. In the centre of 
Buddha's throne isthe Wheel of the Law 
between two deer. The chapel in the 
back wall, on the right of the shrine, has 
two figures, which are either the patron 
and patroness or Indra and Indrani. 
In the left-hand top comer is a very 
remarkable group, to all appearaiice a 
woman teaching ner child to prajr, and 
resembling a famous European picture. 
On the frieze below is a ram-fight, and 
figures boxing and wrestling, with 
musicians and a president The Italian- 
looking figures of fair women are many 
of them nude to the waist. The chapel 
on the left has two male figures with head- 
dresses like wings of an enormous size, 
and all hanging on the left shoulder. 

Nvmber 3, a small vihara, quite un- 
finished. 

Number 4, a large vihara. There is 
a very remarkable representation of the 
Litany, as it is called by Dr. Burgess, 
on the right of the door, consisting of 
two sets of four groups each. The 1st 
group on the left consists of two figures 
flying from an infuriated elephant ; 
the 2d group is of two figures flying 
from a lion ; the 3d exhibits two 
figures flying from a man with a 
sword, who is stabbing one in the 
stomach ; the 4th group is intended 
to represent the perils of the sea, but is 
so much obliterated that one can make 
out nothing but some fi^ires in a vessel. 
The 1st group on the right hand repre- 
sents the perils of fire ; the 2d group 
is a pair of figures threatened by a 
cobra ; the 3d group is of two figures, 
one of which holds the other by a rope, 
which passes over his shoulder and is 
fastened round his wrist, — this repre- 
sents Captivity ; the 4th group repre- 
sents Kali the Hindu goddess of destruc- 
tion, uplifting her skeleton arms to seize 
a victim, — this represents Famine. 

NumMr 5, a vihara, commenced only. 

Number 6, a vihara, remarkable for 
having two stories, of which there is 
here only one other example, viz. cave 
Number 25. The staircase to the 
upper story is broken away to the 



ROUTE 1. EXPEDITION TO AJANTA 



height of 13 ft., so that that story is 
almost inaccessible. The Bhil free- 
booters for a long time inhabited this 
caye, and damaged it excessively. 

Nvmber 7, a vihara. It has a larp 
verandah with cells at the back like the 
Cuttack Caves. Two porches of two 
pillars each project from the front line 
of the verandah, resembling those at 
Elephanta and the Duma Lena, and are 
probably of the same date. There is also 
a chapel with two pillars at either end. 
In the vestibule are 4 rows of 5 cross- 
legged figures seated on the lotus, with 
a lotas Mtween each pair, and one row 
of studying Buddhas. On the right 
are two similar sculptures of repeated 
figures of Buddha seated and standing. 
Within the sanctuary on either side are 
two large figures and one small, and 
two fan-bearers. On the step are 16 
cross-legged figures, 8 on either side. 

Nwn3xT 8, a vihara of no interest. 

ISutriheT 9 is a dagoba. There are 3 in- 
scriptions, probably of the 2d cent. A.D. 

itumber 10, a aagoba. The statue 
of Buddha is quite separated from the 
wall. The roof is ribbed. The ribbing 
in the aisles beinff of stone, and in the 
Mve of wood, though now only the 
fastening pins, and the footings for one 
or two of the ribs are left. The da- 
goba is plain and solid, with only the 
square capital or Tee on the top. The 
whole of this cave has been painted, 
though now only some figures of Buddha 
and his discibles are .left. On the in- 
terior face of the cave, and very high 
m is an inscription in the pure Ldt (see 
Gloasary) character, which would give 
ao antiquity of from 200 to 100 b.o. 

Number 11 resembles cave Num- 
ber 12, but has four pillars in the 
centre supporting the roof, being prob- 
ably one of the earliest instances of 
the introduction of pillars for such a 
purpose. On the walls are antelopes, 
lions, and a boy praying, sculptured in 
the very best style of art, and evidently 
coeval with the Ganesh Gupha at 
Cuttack. The walls have been stuccoed 
and painted. 

NuTnher 12 is one of the most ancient 

and plainest of the series, having no 

pillars, sanctuary, or visible object of 

worship. The only ornament consists 

[Jfu2ta] 



of seven horse-shoe canopies on each 
side, four over the doors of the cells, 
the other three merely ornamental. 
These canopies are very similar to 
those at Cuttack. There is an inscrip- 
tion on the inner wall in a character 
slightly modified from that on the 
iMs, and written probably early in the 
Christian era, if not before it. 

NuTriber 13, a small cave with 2 cells. 

Nurriber 14, a large unfinished vihara. 

Number 15, a plain square cave. 

Nuwher 16 and Number 17 are the 
two finest viharas of the series. On the 
external faces are two long inscriptions. 
These caves date probably about the 
4th century A. D. The paintings in the 
great hall are very interesting, repre- 
senting battles. The soldiers hold 
short swords like the Nipalese knife, 
and oblong shields, like the shield of 
Achilles. The architectural details 
are more ele^oit than in any cave in 
the series. Number 17 is called the 
Zodiac Cave, and resembles 16, except 
that it is not so lofty, and the detaug 
are not so elegant. The paintings, how- 
ever, are more perfect. On the right- 
hand wall, as you enter, a procession is 
painted. Three elephants are issuing 
from a gateway, one black, one white, 
and one red. Flags and umbrellas are 
borne before them, and men with spears 
and swords make up the train. On the 
back wall is a hunting scene, in which 
a maned lion, now not found in India, 
is a prominent figure. In the verandah 
are some curious paintings, especially a 
circular one, with eight compartments. 
Over the door are eight sitting figures, 
of which four are black, and the rest 
each a degree fairer, the eighth being 
quite white and wearing a crown. Mr. 
Fergusson pronounces these paintings 
to be decidedly superior to the style 
of Europe during the age in which 
they were executed. 

Number 18 is merely a porch with 
two pillars. 

Number 19 is a chaitya (see Glossary) 
cave, remarkable for the beauty of its 
details. The roof is ribbed in stone. 
The dagoba has three stone umbrellas, 
rising till they touch the roof ; in front 
is a standing figure of Buddha. 

Number 20 is a vihara. 



84 



BOUTB 1. BOUBAT TO CALOUTIA 



India 



Number 21. The puntmn are 
almost obliterated, except on xke left 
hand as you enter, where there is a 
large black Buddha with red hair, 
attended by black slayes, also a number 
of females, £ur as Europeans. 

Numbers 22 and 23 are unimportant. 

Number 24 is unfinished ; but the 
details, where completed, are so rich as 
to leare no doubt that this would haye 
been one of the finest cayes had the 
design been folly carried out Only one 
pilLur has been completely sculptured. 

Number 25 is a small rude ymara. 

Number 26 is a yaulted ohaitya cave, 
and perhaps the most modem of the 
series. It resembles Number 19, but- 
is much larger. Its sculptures are 
more numerous and minute than any 
other. The Buddha in front of the 
dagoba is seated, with his feet down. 
The walls are covered with sculptures 
of Buddha and disciples. In the S. 
aisle is a figure 23 ft 3 in. long, reclin- 
ing all its length, in which attitude 
Buddhists prepare to receive nirvdriah, 
*' beatitude." Above are many angels, 
one of them sounding vigorously a big 
drum. The fat figures which serve as 
brackets have four arms. There are 
two inscriptions on the outside, one 
under a figure of Buddha on the left of 
the entrance ; the other much broken, 
but more distinct, on the right, in the 
character of the 6th century A.D. 

Number 27 is small and unfinished.] 

276 m. Bhusawal June. sta. (R.) A 
place called into existence by the 
G.I.P.R. works. Junction of the 
Bengal • Nagpur Railway. (See p. 
78.) 



278i m. The Tapti Bridge, one of 
the most important works on the line. 
The first bndge built was abandoned 
in consequence of the inferior nature 
of the stone of which it was con- 
structed. 



310 m. Burhanpur sta. D.B. The city 
is about 8 m. distant. Fop. 84,000. 
It has been a place of muck import- 



ance, and is completely walled in. The 
neighbourhood contams some interest- 
ing Mohammedan ruins, and a curious 
aqueduct still in use. In the town are 
two handsome mosques. The Sadshai 
JTiZZa— the ruins of a citadel and pedace 
— ^is beautifully situated on a ne^t 
overlooking the Tapti river. Tbe 
place was founded in 1400 A.D. by 
Naser Khan of the Famki dynasty of 
Ehandesh, and was annexed to the 
Mogul Empire by Akbar in 1600 A.D. 
It was the capital of the Deccan Pro- 
vince of the empire when in 1614 A.D. 
Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador from 
James I. to the creat Moguls passed 
through, and paid his respects to the 
Viceroy Prince Parvis, son of Jehangir. 
Sir Thomas complains that the Prince 
" made himself drunk out of a case of 
bottles I gave him, and so the visit 
ended." The place was taken by 
General Wellesley in 1803, and given 
back to Slndia the next year. It is 
now British territory. 

322 m. Chandni sta. About 6 m. by 
a fair road is Asirg^h, an interest- 
ing and picturesque hiU-fort, a detached 
rock standing up 850 ft from the sur- 
rounding plam. It was taken by storm 
by General Wellesley 's army in 1808, 
restored to Sindia, and a^in taken in 
1819, since when it has belonged to the 
British. The country around is wild 
and abounds in large game. 

868 m. Ehandwa junc. sta., D.B. 
(R.) A civil station, the chief place oC 
the district of Nimar in the Central 
Provinces. From here the metre-gauge 
system of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central Indian Railway runs K. to 
Mhow, Indore, and through Western 
Malwa to Ajmere, Agra, and Delhi (sea 
Rte. 4) ; also to Ferozpore, Punjab. 

417 m. Harda sta., D.B. close to 
station, good (pop. about*14,000). An 
important mart for the export ol 
grain and seeds. Here the railway 
enters the great wheat -field of tike 
Nerbudda Valley, which extends tc 
Jubbulpore. Haraa has a good D.H. 
3 m. walk from the sta. uiBlll Broa, 
have an agency at Harda. 

464 m. Itarsi junc sta., D.B. (JL,] 



B0X7TB I. JEZFBDinON TO THB MA.BBLB BOOKS 



36 



from this the system of the Indian 
Midland Railway nins N. to Hoshan- 
gabad, Bhopal, Jhansi, Gwalior, Agra, 
and Gskwnpore (see Rte. 5). 

505 m. Pipaxia sta.3^ There is a 
comfortable D.B. close to the station. 
[A fair road leads in 32 m. S. to 
F&ehmari,3^ the hill-station of the 
Central Provinces. There are many 
bangalows at Pachmari and barracks, 
which are occupied by European troops 
in the hot season. The station is nearly 
4000 feet aboye sea -level. There is 
a D. B. on the way ; the ascent, which 
is 12 m. long, is very pleasing. Good 
large -game diooting . in the forests 
below the station.] 

536 m. Gadarwara junc. sta. A 
railway 12 m. long leads S. to the Moh- 
paai coal-mines, worked by the Ner- 
badda Coal Co. 

616 m. JABALPUB sta. 3^ (792 
m. from Calcutta by the Allahabad 
route). (R.), an important civil 
and military station, the meeting- 
place of the G.I. P. and East Indian 
Rlys. 

The town (pop. 84,570) and station 
are well laid out and well cared for, 
but contain little of interest in them- 
selves. Travellers stop here in order to 
visit the Marble Bocks (see below.) In 
the modern settlement of India few sub- 
jects have created more interest than 
the suppression of the Thags {Thugs), 
a fraternity devoted to the murder of 
human beings by strangulation. The 
occupation was hereditary. They made 
it at once a religion and a means of 
livelihood. The principal agent in 
hunting down these criminals was 
Colonel Sleeman, and it was at Jabal- 
par — -a great centre of their operations 
—that the informers and the families of 
the captured Thags were confined. They 
were Kept in an enclosed village, and 
to provide them with occupation the 
once famous '* School of Industry " was 
established in 1835. Originally there 
were 2500 of these people, now very few 
remain. A pass is required to see the 
lliag village, and the interesting and 
well organised Jail. 



[Expedition to the Kaxble Books.^ 

The Marble Rocks, which are 11 m. 
from Jabalpur, are worth a visit. 
Tongas can be hired for the trip. The 
road is heavy and dusty in places, but 

rnerall^ good. About half-way, and 
m. oft the main road is a remarkable 
ancient fortress of the Grond Kings, 
perched on the summit of an enormous 
granite boulder. At 9^ m. turn 1. to 
the rocks by a branch road, which for 
the last i m. is impracticable in the 
rains. There is a comfortable D.B. 
Descend 70 ft to the river-side, and 
there embark. Four men to row and 
one to steer are quite enough. The 
river in the dry season is a series of 
deep pools without current, and of a 
dark green, and full of fish and alli- 
gators. The latter do not come out on 
the rocks till the sun is high, when 
they bask, and might be shot at, were 
it not for the bees. There are pigeons, 
too, and water-fowl, but shooting has 
its perils, for there are both hornets' 
and bees' nests. These quickly attack 
persons who fire guns or make a noise. 
J ust at the end of the pools, at a place 
called the Monke/s leap, two young 
railway engineers were attacked by bees 
as they were shooting. One got ashore 
and ran off with the natives into the 
jungle, and though much stuns, escaped 
death. The other jumped mto the 
water and dived, and though a good 
swimmer, was drowned, for when he 
came up the bees attacked him again, 
and would not leave him till he sank. 
The nests are quite black, and more 
than a yard long. The cliffs are of 
white marble, which, when broken, is 
bright and sparkling, but the surface 
is somewhat discoloured by the weather 
Near the new bungalow, -where are 
several white temples, the cliffs are 
80 ft. high. The water is said by the 
people of the place to be here 150 ft. 
deep. 1 m. farther the barrier rocks 
intercept the stream, and no boat can 
pass in the dry season. In the rains 

1 Fasseogera who are pressed for time, by 
' phing beforehand to the hotel i 



at Jabalpiir to have a carriage ready for 
them at the rly. sta., may visit the rocka, 
and proceed on their journey by the following 
train. 



36 



BOUTB 1. BOMBAY TO OALOUTTA 



India 



the river rises 80 ft, and is then a 
mighty torrent, and veiy dangerous 
Aboat i m. upon the 1. is an in- 
wription in the Nagri character, made 
by Madhu Rao Peshwa. } m. 1. are 
curious rocks called Hathi ka Panw, 
" elephant's leKS," from a fancied resem- 
blance. The height of the rocks no- 
where exceeds 90 ft, and though the 
scenery is picturesque, it is not grand. 
There is a cascade f m. beyond the 
barrier rocks called the Dhuandhar 
or " Smoke Fall." 80 yds. beyond the 
bungalow is a flight of 107 stone steps, 
some of them carved, which lead to 
the Madanpur Temple, surrounded by 
a circular stone enclosure. All round 
it are fiffures of Farvati, with one leg 
in her Up. Though much mutilate^ 
they are quite worth a visit.] 

678 m. Xatni junc. sta. Line S.£. 
to the coal-fields at Umcuria 87 m., and 
thence to Bilaspur on the Bengal-Nag- 
pur Rly. (p. 76;. A line W. to Saugar. 

784 m. Sntna (or Satna) sta., D.B. 
(R.). A town and British cantonment in 
the Rewah state, also the headquarters 
of the Baghelkhand Political Agency. 
The Umballa road branches from this 
point eastward meeting the Great Dewari 
Road which runs from Jabalpur to Mir- 
zapur. Rewah is situated on this road 
8 m. from the junction. There is nothing 
whatever to see at Sutna. Near Satna 
were found the remains of the Bharhut 
stupa removed to Calcutta Museum. 

783 m. Hanikpur junc. sta. From 
this place the Indian midland line runs 
W. to Jhansi, 181 m. (Rte. 6a}. 

842 m. Naini sta. (R.) Hotel Close 
by is the Jail, one of the largest in 
India, and admirably managed. 2 m. 
farther the line crosses the Jumna by a 
fine bridge, and enters 

844 m. Allahabad sta. « The 
capital of the North- West Provinces, 
816 ft above sea-level (pop. 162,896), 
is a cood place to make a halt. 
Travellers coming from Bombay or 
Calcutta, between the months of 
November and March, are warned 
to provide themselves with warm 
' ""s and blankets, as they will find 



it cold at Allahabad and fisurther north. 
Allahabad is situated on the L bank 
of the Jumna river, on the wedge of 
land formed by its junction with the 
Ganges, crossed by 2 bridges of boats 
on the N. side of the town. 

The Fort stands near the jimctlon of 
the Ganges and the Junma. The Civil 
Station, CSantonments, and City stretch 
W. from this point 6 m. The present 
Fort and City were founded by Akbar 
in 1676 A.D., but the Aryans possessed 
a very ancient city here called Prayag. 
The Hindus now call it Prag. It is a 
very sacred place with them, as they 
believe that Brahma performed his 
sacrifices of the horse here, in memory 
of his recoverixig the four Yedas from 
Shankhasur. The town was visited 
by Megasthenes in the 8d cent B.a, 
and in the 7th cent a.d. Hiouen 
Thsang, the Buddhist pilgrim, visited 
and described it It was first conquered 
by the Moslems in 1194 A.D., under 
Shahabu-din-Ghori. At the end of 
Akbar*s reign Prince Salim, afterwards 
the Emperor Jehangir, governed it and 
lived in the fort. Jehangir's son, 
Ehusru, rebelled against him, but wis 
defeated and put under the custody of 
his brother Khurram, afterwards the 
Emperor Shah Jehan. Ehusru died 
in 1616, and the Khusru Bagh (see 
below) contains his mausoleum. In 
1786 Allahabad was taken by the 
Marathas, who held it till 1760, when 
it was sacked by the Pathans of Farruk- 
habad. It changed masters several 
times, and in November 1801 it was 
ceded to the British. 

Allahabad was the seat of the govern- 
ment of the N.W. Provinces from 
1884 to 1866, when that was removed to 
Agra. In 1868, after the suppression 
of the Mutiny, it again beceime the 
seat of the provincial government. 

In M^ 1867 the all -important 
station of Allahabad, with its magni- 
ficent Arsenal and strong Fort, was, in 
spite of the warnings of Sir James 
Outram, garrisoned by a single Sepoy 
regiment, the 6th, to which, on 9th 
May a wing of the Ferozpur regiment 
of Sikhs and, ten days later, two troops 
of Oudh Irregular Horse, were added. 
The officers of the 6th N.I. were con- 



rn 2 



BOUTE 1. ALLAHABAD 



37 



fc in the loyalty of their corps, but 
nately a few days later 60 English 
^r^id soldiers were brought in from 
i||. lar. The history of uie outbreak 
'£|VJIahabad is one of the saddest 
^^^tera in the long list of misfortunes 
% '.A marked the commencement of 
Si^Xpeat Mutiny of 1857. Fifteen 
TjiB were murdered by the Sepoys. 
• was an awful crisis. Had the 
I'. .'$ in the Fort fraternised with the 
8, that stronghold, with its im- 
k stores of guns and ammunition, 
have gone to swell the strength 
rebels ; but Brasyer, who com- 
. d the Sikhs, drew up his detach- 
Ut the main gate, and with him 
^j^^Wie guns manned by the English 
Jmi artillerymen from Chunar, and 
;?(4Mknot8 of English volunteers, 
epoys were overawed, disarmed, 
icpeUed from the Fort Meaii- 
^Bussell, an officer of the Artillery, 
|dd trains to the magazines, and 
spared to blow them up in case 
reverse. "While this went on 
Fort, anarchy reigned in the 
i-the jail was broken open, and 
I prisoners, with the irons still 
[ on their limbs, murdered every 
m they met On the morning 
lie 7th the Treasury was sacked, 
(the 6th N.I. disbanded itself, 
man taking his plunder to his 
re village. Each Sepoy carried off 
or 4000 rs., and many of them 
murdered by the villagers. A 
nmedan Maulvi was put up as 
lor of Allahabad, and took up 
laarters in the Ehusru Bagh. 
lie 11th of June General Neill 
. in the Fort, and on the mom- 
the 12th opened fire from the 
igons on the village of Baraganj, 
ent out a detachment of Fusiliers. 
, who burned the village and 

sion of the bridge of boats. 

ie same day Major Stephenson, 
100 men of the Fusiliers, passed 
\ the Fort KeiU then scoured the 
libouring villages, and produced 
a terror in the city that the in- 
fants deserted en masse, and the 
Ivi fled to Cawnpore. 

Shnsra Bagh, close to the 
and E. of it, ia entered by an 



old archway, nearly 60 ft. high and 46 
ft deep, overgrown with creepers. With- 
in thQ well-kept garden are 3 square 
mausoleums. That to the E. is the tomb 
of Sultan Khusru, W. of it is a ceno- 
taph of Nur Jehan, who was buried at 
Lahore, and farther W. that of Sahibah 
Begam, wife of Jehangir. They are 
shjuied by some fine tamarind trees. 

The mausoleum of Ehusru has been 
yery handsome inside, and is orna- 
mented with many Persian couplets, 
and with paintings of trees and flowers, 
which are now faded. The actual grave 
is underground, but above is a cenotaph 
of white marble, on a raised platform, 
without inscription. To the rt. and 1. 
two of Khusru's sons are buried. In 
the gardens are the reservoirs for the 
water supply of the town ; and beyond 
the gardens is the native quarter, con- 
taining some picturesque comers. It 
is quite distinct from Canxiing Town, 
the European quarter, which since the 
time of tne Mutiny has been laid out 
amongst a network of wide avenues. 
All Saints' Church, near the rly. sta., 
is a large cruciform building in the 
Romanesque style. Trinity Church is 
on the way to the Fort, and a little 
over 2 m. to the N.W. of it This 
church contains a tablet which is valu- 
able as a historical record of those who 
perished in the Mutiny, and gives a list 
of their names. The Bomlta Catholic 
Cathedral, in the Italian style, is W. 
of the Alfred Park. 

The Muir College, to the N. of the 
Alfred Park, is a fine building in the 
Saracenic style. It has its name from 
Sir William Muir, formerly Lt-Govemor 
of the N.W. Provinces, and author of 
the Jjife of Mahomet. Close by is 
the Mayo Hall, or Memorial^ a fine 
structure, with a tower 147 ft. high. 
The main hall is used for balls and 
amateur theatricals. 

The Club is close to the Mayo Me- 
morial, and S. of it, and is reached by 
the ThomhiU Road. 

The Thomhill and Mayne Memorial. 
— In the Park is also the Thornhill 
Memorial, where are the Library and 
Museum. In the Library there are 
between 9000 and 10,000 books and 
pamphlets. 



38 



BOUTB 1. BOMBAT TO OALOUTTA 



Indda 



The Fort was built by Akbar in 
1576. It fonns a striking object from 
the river, but its "high towers have 
been cut down, and the stone ramparts 
topped with turfed parapets, and fronted 
with a sloping glacis. The changes 
rendered necessary by modem military 
exigencies have greatly detracted from 
its picturesqueness as a relic of antiquity. 
The principal gateway is capped with a 
dome, and nas a wide vault underneath 
it. It is a noble entrance. The walls 
are from 20 to 25 ft. high. There is 
a broad moat which can be filled with 
water at any time. Within the en- 
closure lie the officers* quarters, powder 
magazine, and barracks, while the old 
palace, greatly disfigured by the fa9ade 
Duilt by the English, is now utilised 
as an arsenal " (an order to enter must 
be obtained from the Ordnance Com- 
missaiy at Allahabad). The central 
room is what was the Audience Hall. 
" It is supported by 8 rows of 8 columns, 
and surrounded by a deep verandah of 
doul)le columns, with groups of 4 at 
the angles, all surmounted by bracket 
capitals of the richest design." — J. F. 

Asoka'a Pillar. — Close to the Palace 
is the Asoka Pillar, which rises 49 ft. 
5 in. above ground. It is of stone, 
highly polished, and is of much interest 
on account of its great antiquity. On 
it are inscribed the famous Edicts of 
Asoka {circa 240 b.c.)» and also a record 
of Samudra Gupta's victories in the 2d 
cent., and one by Jehangir, to commem- 
orate his accession to the throne. There 
are also minor inscriptions, beginning 
almost from the Christian era. Ac- 
cording to James Prinsep, the insertion 
of some of these inscriptions shows 
that it was overthrown, as it would 
have been impossible to cut them while 
the pillar was erect. It was finally 
set up in 1838 by the British. 

The Alcshai Bar or nndecaying 
banian tree. — Hiouen Thsang, the 
Chinese Pilgrim of the 7th cent, in de- 
scribing Frayag gives a circumstantial 
description of the undecaying tree. 
In the midst of the city, he says, stood 
a Brahmanical temple, to which the 
presentation of a single piece of money 
procured as much merit as that of 1000 
pieces elsewhere. Before the principal 



room of the temple wasa tree surrounded 
by the bones of pilgrims who had sacri- 
ficed their lives there. 

There are a few steps leading to 
a dark underground passage which goes 
35 ft straight to the £., then S. 30 ft. 
to the tree. Beyond this is a square 
aperture which the Indians say leads 
to Benares. There are some idols 
ranged along the passage. In the centre 
of the place is a lingam of Shiva, over 
which water is poured by pilgrims. 
Cunningham in his Ancient Geography 
of India gives an interesting sketch 
of the probable changes in the locality, 
and concludes : '' I think there can be 
little doubt that the famous tree here 
described is the well-known Akshai 
Bar or undecaying banian tree, which is 
still an object of worship at Allahabad. 
Xhis tree is now situated underground, 
at one side of a pillared court (or orypt) 
which would appear to have been open 
formerly, and which is, I believe, the 
remains of the temple described by 
Hiouen Thsang. The temple is situated 
inside the Fort E. of the Ellenboroogh 
barracks, and due N. from the stone 
pillars of Asoka and Samudra Gup»ta." 

As no tree could live in such a situa- 
tion, the stump is no doubt renewed 
from time to time. Close by is a deep 
octagonal well flanked by 2 vaulted 
octagonal chambers. 

It is worth while walking round 
the ramparts for a view of the Con- 
iiaence of the Gtanges, which is 1^ 
m. broad, flowing from the N., with* 
the Jmnna, i m. broad, flowing 
from the W. The Ganges is of a 
muddy colour, the Jumna is bluer, 
and they meet J of a m. beyond 
the Fort The Mela, a religious 
fair of great antiquity, to which 
Allahabad probably owes its origin, 
occurs every year about the mont!h 
of January, when it is said that the 
pilgrims have numbered a million 
persons. They come to bathe at the 
confluence of the sacred rivers, and. 
encamp on the sandy tongue of land 
between them. 

The Akbar Bund or embankment 
runs from Dara GaDJ N.£. of the fort. 
The Old and New Kotwalis are i m. 
S. of the Khusru Bagh and the RaO- 



ROUTE 1. BBNARBS 



89 



way Station. These are well built, and 
are worth looking at. 

The Jail is at Kaini, about 2 m. to 
the W. of the Jnmna, after crossing 
over the bridge (see above). 

509 m. Minapnr sta. An important 
well-built city. Pop, 84, 130. Before the 
opening of the East India Railway it 
was the largest mart on the Ganges for 
grain and cotton ; much of the trade 
is now diverted elsewhere. It is still 
noted for carpets and rugs, dyed with 
old native vegetable dyes, which are 
very permanent. Two manufacturers 
haye the privilege of displaying their 
patterns on the rulway platform daring 
the stoppage of the train. There is a 
handsome riyer front with fine ghats. 
The civil station is to the N.E. of the 
city. 

931 m. Mogul Sarai junc. sta. (R.) 
Prom this point the traveller should visit 

[BBSAXBS{Farcma8i—Kasi),i^ The 
Cantonment sta. is 10 m. distant from 
Mogal Sarai on the Oudh and Robil- 
cund ByL : at 7 m. the Ganges is crossed 
by a steel bridge nearly f m. in length. 
There is a station called the Benares 
river-station on its banks. 

Benares (pop. 232,400), commonly 
called Kasivy the Hindus, has been 
the religious capital of India from be- 
yond historical tunes. The most gener- 
ally accepted derivation of the name, 
Faranasi is from the streams Yarana 
{modemBama )and Asior Ashi(ritm^e«). 
The former, a river of some size on the 
N. and E. of the city; the latter, a 
rivnlet now embraced within its area. 

The site of Benares has often been 
chan^d, but there is good ground for 
supposing that the first city was built 
at SamcUh, The past historjr of this, 
one of the most ancient cities in India, 
is involved in obscurity. It is, how- 
ever, certain that it was a most flourish- 
ing and important place 6 centuries 
before the Christian era, for Sakya 
Muni, who was bom about 557 b.c., 
and died in 478 B.C., came to it from 
Gays to establish his religion, which 
he -would not have done had it not been 
then a great centre. Many of the most 
important writers of the Hindus were 
first heard of at Benares. Of inter- 
mediate events little is known, but we 



learn from Husain Nizami's history 
that in 1194 a.d. Jaychand, Rajah Ol 
Benares, "whose army was countless as 
the sand," was defeated and killed by 
Kutb-ud-din, the general of Shahab- 
ud-din Ghori. Kutb destroyed 1000 
temples, and built mosques on their 
sites. From that date Benares was 
governed by the Moslems, and became 
part of the province of Allahabad. It 
IS due to the iconoclastic spirit of the 
conquerors that hardly a single build- 
ing can be found in Benares which 
dates beyond the time of Akbar. 

The ornamental Brass- Work which 
is met with all over the world is a 
spedaUU of Benares ; but the modern 
work is far less carefidly executed than 
the old, which is now difficult to pro- 
cure. Small idols and other images in 
brass and other materials are made in 
great quantities in the narrow lanes 
around the golden temple. 

Shawls, silks, ana embroideries 
may also be purchased here. 

As the finest view of Benares is 
obtained from the river Ganges, the 
banks of which are bordered by Ghats, 
or flights of stone steps, descending to 
the water from the most famous build- 
ings in the city, the traveller will do 
w^l to spend some time in a boat, 
passing along the whole of the river 
frontage, where, in the morning especi- 
ally, he will see crowds of the people 
coming down to bathe and drink the 
water of the sacred river. 

For those who are pressed for time, it 
will be sufficient to see the Observatory, 
the Monkey Temple, and the whole 
length of the Ghato, and disembark at 
the Fanchganga to see the Golden 
Temple. The rest may be omitted. 

Particulars regarding these Ghats and 
the buildings near them are given be- 
low. The river and native town are 
nearly 2 m. from the 

Cantonment, where a detachment of 
Europeans and a native regiment are 
stationed. Near the Hotel is St. Mary's 
Church, with some old tombs, and the 
Benares Ooverzmient College, a building 
in the Perpendicular style, called Queen's 
college. It contains an ArchsBological 
Museum. 

To the N. of the Collage is an 



40 



ROUTE 1. BOMBAT TO CALCUTTA 



India 



ancient monoUtli, 81^ ft hieh, with 
ftn English inscription attached. It 
wasfoundnearGhaziiiur. On the obelisk 
there is an inscription in the Gupta 
character. To the E. of the grounds 
are carved stones brought from Samath, 
Bakariya Eund, and other places. 

Should the traveller desire to go 
first to the Raj Ghat, near the Railway 
Bridge, by the Grand Trunk road, he will 
pass the Nandeshwar Kothi, a residence 
of the Mahan^a of Benares. In this 
house, Mr. Davis, Judge and Magistrate 
of Benares, was attacked by uie fol- 
lowers of Vazir *Ali, the deposed Nawab 
of Oudh, who had just killed Mr. 
Cherry, the British Resident, on the 
14th of January 1799. Mr. Davis sent 
his wife and two children on to the roof, 
and, with a spear, placed himself at the 
top of the staircase leading to it, where 
he so successfully defended himself that 
his assailants contented themselves with 
destroying the furniture, and watching 
their opportunity. Vazir *Ali then 
sent for materials to fire the house, but 
Mr. Davis was rescued by the arrival 
of a regiment of cavalry. The house 
at present is lent by the Maharaja to 
persons of rank who visit Benares. 
The furniture and pictures seem to be 
of Mr. Davis's time. The garden is 
pretty. 

The Church HisBion House at Sigra 
is IJ m. to the W. St. Paul's 
Church is 1 m. due S. of the rly. 
Stat., and was finished in 1847. 
There is an Orphanage for girls and 
boys attached, also Normal and Indus- 
trial Schools for Women. Thence the 
traveller can drive 1 J m. to the Maha- 
raja of Vijayanagram's Palace at 



Belipur. Permission must be obtained 
to see the house from the agent of the 
Maharaja. There is a good view from 
the terraced roof of the palace over the 
Ganges, in the direction of Aurangzib's 
mosque. The Golden Temple is seen 
to the E.N.E. Close to the palace on 
the W. are several Jain Temples. 

Native Town. 

The Dnrga Temple is sometimes 
called the Monkey Templeby Europeans, 
from the myriads of monkeys which 
inhabit the large trees near it. The 
temple is about three-fifths of a mile S. 
of file Vijayanagram Palace. It is 
stained red with ochre, and it stands 
in a quadrangle surrounded by high 
walls. In front of the principal entrance 
is the band room, where the priests 
beat a large drum three times a day. 
The central portion is supported by 
twelve curiously carved pmars, on a 
platform raised 4 ft. from the ground. 
The doors are plated with brass, and 
there are two bells. The temple and 
the fine tank adjoining were constructed 
by the Rani of Natre in the last cen- 
tury. As Duiga is the terrific form 
of Shiva's wife, and is said to delight 
in destruction, bloody sacrifices are 
offered to her, and goat's blood may be 
seen sprinkled about. 

From this temple the traveller may 
proceed to the Ghats, embarking at 
the Man Mandir Ghat, and rowing 
slowly past in front of them. The 
Ghats are here given in succession 
from the W. proceeding down stream. 
A detailed description follows the 
list 



Table of Ghats and Buildinos adjoining them 



Names of the Qh&pi or flights of steps 
firom S. to N. 


Names of the Buildings adjacent to 
each Ghdt. 


1. Ashi Ghiti or Asi Sangam Ghiti 

2. Uli Miar Gh4t or Bachhr^ Ghif. 

8. TulfllGhAt . . . ; . . . 


1. The Monastery of Tulsl Dds, Jaganndth 

Temple to W. 
3. Kqtu. Ghatr Temple. 


4. R4o SAhfb GhAt • .... 

5. Akral 6h&t. 

6. Shiy^ Gh4t 


4. Image of Bhlm. 

A Vhm Mfthal. Ppitiaa of PiblU'ff hoilflfl. 


7. DaiKji GhAt. 

8. Haniun&ix Oh&t;> 





BOUTB 1. BBKABES 



41 



Names of the Ghdts or flights of steps 


Names of the Buildings ac^acent to 
each Ghit. 


from S. to N. 


». SmashAnorMashinGhdl;. . . . 


9. 


The Cremation Ground. 


10. TiAliGhiti. 






11. KeddrGhAt; 

12. Ghaiak or Ghanki Ghdj: . . . . 


11. 


Eedimith Temple. 


12. 


Minsarovar, a tank surrounded by shrines. 


18. GhatrGhAtorlldjiGh&l^ . . . 


18. 


The Ghatr or Best-house of Raja Amrita 


14. Someshwar Ghit. 




Rio. 


15. PandeGhit. 






Id. NandGhdIf. 






17. GhatrGhdf. 






18. Bengali TolA Ghit. 






19. Gum Pant Ghdt. 






20. Chaosathi Gh4l^ 


20. 


Temple of the Goddess Chausathi. 


21. Bdnd Ghdt 

22. MnTiRhlGhit 


21. 


Built by the Rini of Oodeypur. 


22. 


A fine building at head of stairs. 


28. Ahalya B&('8 Ghit- 






24. Sltl&Ghi$. 






25. Dasashwamedh Ghit 


25. 


The Observatory. 

Mahalla Agast Eund (best point for em- 


26. MinMandirGhit 


26. 


27. Bhairava Gh&tu 




barking). 


28. M^Ghit. 

29. LalitaGhit. 










30. NinAI Ghit . 


80. 


Temple of Bi^heshwar or Golden Temple 
and Holy Well 


81. JalSiinGhi^ 




82. Kayasth Ohbt 






88. MagikaraDiki Ghit 


83. 


Temple of Tirkeshwara, Well of Mani- 
karaniki. Cremation Ground. 


84. Sindia'sGhit . .... 

85. Bhfm ka Gha*. 


84. 


Broken Wall. 






86. Ga^esh Ghit. 






87. Ghosla Ghit. 






88. H&m Ghit 


88. 


Temple of Rim. 

Confluence of the Dhantapipi, Jara^in. 


89. Fdnchganga Ghit 


89. 






ida, Eir^inada, Saraswati, and Qanga, 






the first four underground. Aurang- 






zib's Mosque, called Midhu Dis ki 






^>eorhi. 


40. Dorgi or EiU Ghit. 

41. Hindu Midhava Ghit- 






42. GauGhit 


42. 


Stone figure of a cow. 


43. TrUochana Ghat (or Pilpilla Tilth) • • 


43. 


Houses of the DihU family and Cemetery 


44. telianila Ghit 

45. Haitra Gh^t- 

46. Prahlid Ghit. 




ofMakhdum^ihib 






47. Bij Gh&t ....... 


47. 


Bridge of Boats. 



The Ashi Ghat is one of the five cele- 
brated places of pilgrimage in Benares. 
The channel of the Ashi, which here 
falls into the Ganges, is dry during the 
cold weather. It is about 40 ft. broad, 
llie steps at this Ghat are a good deal 
broken, and though one of the most 
sacred, it is certainly not one of the 
handsomest Ghats. This is the nearest 
Ghat from which to cross to Bamnagar, 
the palace of the Maharaja of Benares. 
The next Ghat is the Bachhraj or Lata 
Misr Ghat. Here the Jains have built 
two temples, which stand on the bank 
of the Ganges. At the K. end of Tnlel 
Ohat^ whi(m comes next, huge masses 
of the building have fallen, and lie on 



the river's edge. At Bao Sahib Ghat 
is a huge recumbent image of Bhim, 
which is said to be annually washed 
away and restored. The traveller will 
now pass the Akrul Ghat and come to 
the Shivala Ghat. Here stands the 
fort in which Chait Sing resided. It 
is a handsome building, and appears as 
fresh as when first constructed. In 
the upper part of the N. wall are five 
small windows in a row, from one of 
which Chait Sing made his escape, 
when he fled from Warren Hastings in 
1781. It is now called the Khali 
Mahal, or *' empty palace," and be- 
longs to Government In this vast 
building two companies of Sepoys and 



42 



BOUTB 1. BOMB AT TO OALOUTTA. 



Indta 



three officers, who were sent by Hastings 
to arrest Chait Sing, were massacred by 
a mob, owing to the soldiers having 
come without their ammunition. When 
fresh troops reached the palace, Chait 
Sing had ned. The Shivala Ghat is one 
of tne finest and most crowded of the 
Ghats. Fart of it is assigned to the 
religious ascetics called Gosains. The 
next is the Daadi Ghat, and is devoted 
to the staff- bearing ascetics called 
Dandi Pants. It is also very laige. 
The Hanuman Ghat, which comes next, 
is large and generally crowded. At the 
Smashan Ghat» i>yres for cremation may 
be seen being built, while bodies wra^t 
up in white or red cloths lie with their 
feet in the Ganges ready to be burned. 
Passing the Lali Ghat, the Kedar 
Ghat, which comes next, deserves at- 
tention. According to the religious 
books of the Hindus, the city is divided 
into three great portions — Benares, 
Kashi, from whence the popular name, 
and Eedar. Eedar is a name of Shiva, 
but it also signifies a mountain, and 
especially a part of the Himalayan 
mountains, of which Shiva is the lord, 
hence called Kedamath. His temple, 
or rather the top of it, may be seen 
from the river at this Ghat. It is 
much resorted to by the Bengali and 
Tailangi ^p. of the city. The temple 
is a spacious building, the centre of 
which is supposed to be the pli^ where 
Kedarnath dwells. At the four comers 
are Shivalas, with cupolas. Here are 
two brass figures, hidden by a cloth, 
which is removed on payment of a fee. 
The walls and pillars are painted red 
or white. There are two large black 
figures, which represent the dwarpals, 
or janitors ; each has four hands holding 
a trident, a flower, a club, and the fourth 
empty, to push away intruders. At 
the bottom of the Ghat is a well called 
the Gauri Kund, or "well of Gauri," 
Shiva's wife, the waters of which are 
said to be efficacious in curing fevers, 
dysentery, etc To the W. at 600 yds. 
is the Manaarovar tank, round wnich 
are 60 shrines. Manas or Mansarovar 
is a fabulous tank in the Himalayan 
mountains, near Kailas, or Shiva's 
heaven. Near the tank at Benares so 
called ii a stone 4^ ft. high, and 15^ ffc. 



in periphery, which is said to grow daily 
to the extent of a sesamum seed. In a 
street to the E. of the tank are figaxes of 
Balkrishna, or the infant Erishna, and 
Chatrbhuj or Vishnu. Close by is a 
Shivala, built by Bajah Man Sing, and 
called Maneshwar. At the Chauki 
Ghat is the place where serpents are 
worshipped. Here, under a pippal 
tree, are many idols and figoies of 
snakes. In a street close by, called 
Eewal, is a figure of Durga with ten 
arms. 

The next Ghat, where the stairs 
ascend into a large house or aarai built 
by Amrit Rao for travellers, is the Chatr 
or Rajah Ghat. On leaving it the 
traveller reaches the Someahvar Ghat 
so called from the adjacent temple of 
the moon, Sovna being the "moon, and 
Ishwa/r "lord." At this Ghat evenr 
kind of disease is supposed to be healed. 
Close by is an alley, in which is the 
shrine of Barahan Devi, a female 
iBsculapius, who is worshipped in the 
morning, and is supposed to cure 
swelled hands and feet. From Chauki 
to Pande Ghat the water is very dirty, 
owing to a lar^e drain, which pours the 
filth of the city into this part of the 
Ganges. There is nothing particular 
to be seen at the next four Ghats, but 
the one after them, ChauBathi Ohat, 
is one of the most ancient at Benares. 
Here, in a narrow lane, is a temple to 
the goddess Chausathi Chausathi 
signifies ''sixty-four." The Sana Ghat, 
built by the Maha Rana of Oodeypur, 
is not much frequented by Hindus. 
It is the special place for the bathing 
of the Mohammedans. The Mtmshi 
Ghat is the most picturesque of all the 
Ghats at Benares. It was built by 
Munshi Shri Dhar, Diwan of the Eajah 
of Nagpur. Notice the building at the 
top of nie stair. Of the two next Ghats 
nothing particular is to be said. SitIa 
Ghat signifies " small-pox Ghat," over 
which a Hindu goddess presides. 

Dasashwamedh Ghat is one of the 
five celebrated places of pilgrimage in 
Benares. It is specially thronged 
during eclipses. Here Brahma is said 
to have ofl!ered in sacrifice ten horses, 
and to have made the place eqiuJ in 
merit to Allahabad. 



BOUTE 1. BBNARBS 



43 



The trayeller may disembark here 
and walk to the SEaji Mandir Ghat to 
see the Obsenratory. This lofty build- 
ing gives a fine appearance to the Ghat, 
and commands a beautiful view of the 
river. It was erected by Rajah Jay- 
sing, the founder of Jeypore in 
Rajputana^ who succeeded the Eajas 
of Amber in 1693. Chosen by Mu- 
hammad Shah to reform the calendar, 
his astronomical observations were 
formulated in tables, which corrected 
those of De la Hire. He built five 
observatories — at Delhi, Benares, 
Muttra, Ujjain, and Jeypore. On 
entering the Observatory the first in- 
strument seen is the Bhittiyantra, or 
'* mural quadrant." It is a wall 11 ft. 
high and 9 ft IJ in. broad, in the plane 
of the meridian ; by this are ascer- 
tained the sun's altitude and zenith 
distance, and its greatest declination, 
and hence the lati tude. Then come two 
large circles, one of stone and the other 
of cement, and a stone square, used, 
perhaps, for ascertaining the shadow of 
the gnomon and the degrees of azimuth. 
Next the Yantrasamant will be seen, 
the wall of which is 36 ft. long and 4 J 
ft. broad, and ia set in the plane of the 
meridian. One end is 6 ft. 4^ in. high, 
and the other 22 ft. 8) in., and it 
slopes gradually up, so as to point to 
the North Pole. By this, the distance 
from the meridian, the declination of 
any planet or star and of the sun, and 
the right ascension of a star are cal- 
culated. There are here a double 
mural quadrant, an equinoctial circle 
of stone, and another Yantrasamant. 
Close by is the Ohakrayantra, between 
two walls, used for finding the de- 
clination of a planet or star ; and near 
it a Digansayantra, to find the degrees 
of azimuth of a planet or star. 

At Bhairava Ghat is a Shivala, as 
Bhairava is only a terrific form of 
Shiva. The idol here is said to be the 
Eotwal, or magistrate of the city, 
who rides about on an invisible dog. 
There is an image of a dog close to the 
idol, and the confectioners near sell 
images of dogs made of sugar, which 
are offered to it. A Brahman waves a 
&n of peacock's feathers over visitors 



to protect them from evil spirits, and 
they in return must drop offerings 
into the cocoa-nut shell he holds. The 
idol is of stone, with a face of silver, 
and four hands. The temple was 
built in 1826 by Rajah Rao of Poena. 
There ate several other idols, and 
among them one of Sitla, goddess of 
smallpox, the offerings at which are 
taken by men of the gardener caste, 
as they are the professional in- 
oculators of India. At this place 
dogs are daily fed by a Gosain, who 
has servants under him, who make up 
cakes of wheat, barley, or jowari flour. 
On festivals the dogs have cakes of 
wheaten flour, butter, and sugar. The 
traveller will come next to the Mir 
GYukt, which was built by Rustam' Ali 
Khan, Nazim of Benares. It now be- 
longs to the Maharaja of Benares. 
From this the Nipalese Temple is seen, 
a picturesque object, but disfigured by 
indecent carvings. It does not re- 
semble in the least the Hindu temples. 
It is popularly called the Nipali 
Kharpa. up a flight of steps behind 
this temple is a Wrestler's College. 
The manager welcomes visitors, and 
the performance of his pupils is curious 
and interesting. 

The famous Oolden Temple (see 
below) is between this Ghat and the 
Jal Sain Ghat. 

The Kayasth Ohat is of no im- 
portance. The Manikaranilca Ohat, 
one of the five celebrated places of 
Hindu pilgrimage in Benares, is con- 
sidered the most sacred of all the 
Ghats, and in November is visited 
by multitudes of pilgrims. It is also 
at the central point of the city, so 
that if a line were drawn from it 
to the W., it would divide Benares 
into two portions N. and S. Just 
above the night of steps is the Mani- 
karanika "Well, and between it and 
the steps is the temple of Tarkesh- 
wara. Below this temple the bodies 
of Hindus are burned. The well has 
its name from Mcmi, "a jewel," and 
Kdmaf **the ear," Devi or Mahadeo 
having dropped an ear-ring into it. 
During the eclipse of the sun it 
is visited by millions of pilgrims. 
The well, or, more properly, tank, is 



44 



ROUTE 1. BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA 



India 



85 ft. sq., and stone steps lead down to 
the water. Offerings of the Bel tree, 
flowers, milk, sandal-wood, sweetmeats, 
and water are thrown into it ; and from 
the putrefaction of these a stench arises 
equal to that which ascends from the 
Well of Knowledge. It may be men- 
tioned that at the Cremation Ground 
below the fire must be brought firom 
the house of a Domra, a man of yery 
low caste. The Domra who has the 
monopoly of giving fire for cremation 
is very wealthy, as fees are demanded 
and given up to 1000 rs. At Tarkesh- 
wara the idol is kept in a reservoir of 
water. At this Ghat is the Charana- 
paduka, a round slab projecting slightly 
from the pavement, on which stands a 
pedestal of stone : on its marble top are 
2 imprints, said to have been made by 
the feet of Vishnu. At the second 
flight of steps of this Ghat is a temple 
to Siddha Vinayak, or Ganesh. The 
idol has three eyes, is painted red, and 
has a silver scalp, and an elephant's 
trunk covered with a bib, which 
resembles a barber's cloth wrapped 
about a man when he is about to be 
shaved. At the feet of the image is 
the figure of a rat, which is the Yahana 
or ** vehicle " of Ganesh. 

The traveller will now proceed to 
Sindia's Ohat, which is curious from 
the fact that its massive structure has 
sunk several feet, and is still gradually 
sinking. The temple on the left of the 
S. turret is rent from top to bottom, 
as are the stairs leading to the curtain, 
between the turrets. It was built by 
Baiza Bai, who constructed the colon- 
nade round the Well of Knowledge, 
but was left unfinished. Passing over 
the next -two Ghats, the traveller will 
come to the Ghosla Ghat, which was 
built by the Nagpur Raja, and is very 
massive and handsome. Bam Ghat 
jcomes next, and is much frequented 
by Marathas. On the steps is a very 
sacred temple. 

The next is the Panchganga Ghat, 
beneath which 6 rivers are supposed 
to meet.. Above it rises Aurangzib's 
mosque, called in maps **the Minarets." 
The view from the top of the minarets 
(150 ft. high) of the town beneath is 
very striking. 



Passing the Dnzga Ghat, the traveller 
will come next to the Bindu Madhava 
Ghat, which was formerly dedicated to 
Madhava or Krishna, whose temple 
was rased by Aurangzib. The next 
Ghat is the Gau Ghat, so called from 
the number of cows that resort to it, 
and also from the stone figure of a cow 
there. 

The Trilochana Ghat, also called the 
Pilpilla Tirth, will next be reached. 
The pilgrim bathes in the Ganges at 
this Ghat, and then proceeds to the 
Panchganga, and there bathes again. 
There are two turrets at the Trilochana 
Ghat, and the water between Ihem 
possesses a special sanctity. Passing 
the three next Ghats the traveller will 
arrive at the BaJ Ghat near the Bridge. 
On the morning of the 1st May 1850 a 
terrific explosion took place here, owing 
to a magazine fleet blowing up, when 
lying at this Ghat. All the buildings 
near were shattered. At the junction 
of the Ganges and the Bama is a piece 
of high ground which in the Mutiny 
was strongly fortified, and has ever 
since been called the Baj Ghat Fort 

The Golden Temple is dedicated to 
Bisheshwar, the Poison God, or Shiva — 
a word compounded of Fish, ** poison," 
and Ishtoar, ''god," because Shiva 
swallowed the poison when the gods 
and demons churned the ocean. The 
temple is in a roofed quadrangle, above 
which rises the tower. At each comer 
is a dome, and at the S.E. a Shivala. 
The temple is surrounded by verv nar- 
row crowded streets. Opposite the en- 
trance, with its finely wrought brass 
doors, is a shop where flowers are sold 
for offerings. The visitor may enter the 
shop and ascend to the story above, 
which is on a level with the three 
towers of the temple. The red conical^ 
tower 1. is that of Mahadeo's temple ; 
next to it is a gilt dome, and on the 
rt. is the gilt tower of Bisheshwar's 
temple. The three are in a tow in the 
centre of the quadrangle, which they 

1 Tliese conical towers, almost universal in 
Hindu temples, are called SiJcraa or Fimano^. 
The origin of their peculiar form is anknown. 



ROUTE 1. BBNARES 



45 



almost fill npt They are covered witli 
gold plates, over plates of copper wliich 
cover the stones. The ex^nse of gilding 
was defrayed by Maharaja Ranijt Sing 
of Lahore. The temple of Bisheshwar 
is 51 ft. high. Between it and the 
temple of Mahadeo hang nine bells from 
j a carved stone framewoi One of these, 
and the most elegant, was presented by 
the Maharaja of Nipal. The temple 
of Mahadeo was boilt bv Ahalya Bai, 
Maharana of Indore. Outside the en- 
dosm^, and to the N. of it, is the Court 
of Mahadeo, where on a platform are a 
nmnber of Lingams, and many small 
idols are built into the wall. They are 
thought to have belonged to the old 
temple of Bisheshwar, wmch stood N.W. 
of the present one, and was destroyed 
by Aurangzib. Bemains of this temple 
are still to be seen, and form part of a 
mosque which Aurangzib built, where 
the old temple stood (see below). 

In the quadrangle between the 
mosque and the Temple of Bishesh- 
var is the famous Jnan Knp, " Well 
of Knowledge," where the Hindus 
suppose that Shiva resides. The quad- 
rangle itself is unpleasant, but in that 
respect feUs short of the well, which 
is absolutely fetid, from the decaying 
flowers thrown Into it, notwithstanding 
that it has a grating over it, overspread 
with a doth ; for in this cloth there 
are large ^ps, and flowers are continu- 
ally falling through them. The 
votaries also throw down water ; and 
as they are not at all particular how 
they throw it, they make the pave- 
ment one vast puddle, and besprinkle 
their fellow-worshippers all over, so 
that the clothes of many of them are 
in a dripping state. It is said that 
when the old temple of Bisheshwar was 
destroyed, a priest threw the idol into 
this well, hence its uncommon sanctity. 
The platform is thronged by men and 
women, and the horrible din of gongs 
and voices deafens the visitor. Crowds 
of fresh pilgrims arrive incessantly ; 
and as numbers of cows are mixed up 
in the throng, and must be treated 
with great consideration, the jostling 
is something terrific. The roof and 
colonnade of this quadrangle were built 
in 1828, by Baiza Bai) widow of Daulat 



Bao Sindia. To the E. of the 
colonnade is a stone Nandi, given by 
the Raja of Nipal, 7 ft. high. On the 
S. side of the colonnade is an iron 
palisade, within which is a shrine 
of white marble, and one of white 
stone, and a carved stone support, 
from which hangs a bell. Around are 
many richly carved small temples, 
particularly one to the S. of Bishesh- 
war, and the gateways of the court- 
yard are similarly carved, and small 
gilded spires add to the picturesqueness 
of the scene. 

Aurangzib'e Mosque, ''whose tall 
and graceful minarets still form one 
of the most prominent features in 
every view of the city" (Fergusson), 
is otherwise of no great magnificence. 
This mosque, built to insult the Hindus 
in one of their most sacred localities, 
has led to much animosity between 
them and the Moslems. The Hindus 
claim the courtyard between the mosque 
and the wall, and will not allow the 
Moslems to enter by the front of the 
mosque, but only on one side. The 
Moslems built a gateway in front of 
the mosque, which still stands, but no 
Moslem can enter by it, and the space 
between the pillars has been built up. 
A Ficus religiosa tree overshadows the 
gateway and the road, but the Hindus 
will not suffer the Moslems to touch a 
leaf of it. The British Government 
acts as trustee of the mosque, and 
allows certain moneys belonging to it 
to be paid into the Treasury, and to be 
periodically made over for the benefit 
of the trust. During the period of 
nearly two centuries since the mosque 
was built not a stone has been loosened. 
It was constructed on the site of a 
magnificent temple of Madhava, or 
Krishna. A small number of the 
faithful assemble here on Fridays, 
otherwise it is deserted. 

The traveller can ascend the central 
staircase, which leads to the roof, by two 
most precipitous flights of steps. There 
are ropes on either side. The view from 
the minarets is picturesque. 

Just outside the Golden Temple is 
the Shrine of Sanichar, or Shani, the 
planet Saturn or its regent. The 



46 



BOUTS 1. BOHBAT TO 0ALCX7TTA 



IndM 



image la a round silyer disc, from which 
hangs an apron, or doth, which 
prevents one remarking that it is a 
head without a body. A garland 
hangs from either ear, and a canopy is 
spread above. A few steps beyond 
this is the Temple of Annapnma, a 
goddess whose name is compounded 
of Anna, * * food, " and Pv/ma^ * *who is 
filled." She is supposed to have express 
orders firom Bisneshwar to feed the 
inhabitants of Benares. In front of 
this temple are a number of beggars, 
who pester all passers-by. It was 
built about 1721 by the Peshwa of 
that date, Baji Bao. There are four 
shrines in this temple dedicated to the 
Sun, Ganesh, Gaun Shankar, and the 
monkey-god Hanuman. Near this is 
the temple of Sakshi Vinayak, the 
witnessing deity. It was built in 1770 
by a Maratha, whose name is not 
recorded. Here pilgrims, after finishing 
the Panch Eosi, or five kos or 10 m. 
circuit round Benares, must get a 
certificate of having done so, otherwise 
their labour goes for nothing. S. of the 
temple to Shani is that of Shokaresh- 
war, Shuka/r being the planet Yenus 
or its regent, and idma/r "god." 
Here prayers are made for handsome 
sons. Between the Temple of Anna- 
puma, and that of Sakshi Vinayak is a 
strange figure of Ganesh, squatting on 
a platform raised a little above the ^ath. 
This ugly object is red, with aLlver 
hands, feet, ears, and elephant's 
trunk. 

After viewing too closely the vulgar 
aspect of Hindu worship, and suffering 
from the smells, jostlings, and noises 
of the Golden Temple, it will be a re- 
lief to visit the Carmichael Library, 
which was built by public subscrip- 
tion. 

About 1 m. N. from this is the 
Town Hall, a modem building of red 
stone. 



Banmagar and Samaih. 

Before visiting Eamnagar, the resi- 
dence of the Maharaja of Benares, 
vhich is on the right bank of the 



Ganges, it will be well to ask peimis* 
sion to visit the palace. Having ob- 
tained this, the traveller will drive jjast 
the Dnrga Eund Temple to what is 
called *the Banmagar Ghat on the W. 
bank of the Ganges, opposite to a Ghat 
of the same name on the £. bank, 
which is overlooked by the palace. 
There is a fine view from the rooms 
which look on the river. 

At 1 m. to the N.K -of the palace \& a 
beautiful tank, with flights of stone 
steps to the water's edge, and a stone 
casm^ all round. To the N. of the 
tank IS a temple called Sumer Mandir. 

Samath. — The site of old Benares, 
where Buddha taught To reach it 
cross the Bama Bridge and pass Warren 
Hastings's sun-dial on E., proceed along 
the Gha2dpur Bead to the third mile- 
stone, and then turn off to the left 
Shortly after turning, two towers, one 
of which stands on a hUl, come in view. 
In Fergusson's Hist, of Arch, is a view 
of this tower, or T(^, and also an 
excellent account of it ; with a repre- 
sentation of the panelling. '* The best 
known as well as the best preserved of 
the Bengal topes, is that at Samath, near 
Benares. It was carefully explored by 
General Cunningham in 1835-36, and 
found to be a stupa — ^viz. containing 
no relics, but erected to mark some 
spot sanctified by the presence of Bud- 
dna^ or by some act of his during Ms 
long residence there. It is situated in 
the Deer Park, where he took up Ms 
residence, with his five disciples, when 
he first removed from Gaya on attaining 
Buddhahood, and commencing his mis- 
sion as a teacher. What act it com- 
memorates we shall probably never 
know, as there are several mounds in 
the neighbourhood, and the descriptions 
of the Chinese pilgrims are not suffi- 
ciently precise to enable us now to dis- 
criminate between them."^ 

The building consists of a stone base- 
ment 93 ft in diameter, and solidly 
built, the stones being clamped together 
with iron to the height of 43 ft Above 
that it is in brickwork, rising to a 
height of 110 ft. above the surround- 
ing rains, and 128 ft above the plain. 
Externally tbs lower part is relieved 
1 FergusMA'B Jtu{ia» Anhiieetun, 



ROUTE 1. BUXAB — ARBAH 



47 



by eight projectiiig faces, each 21 ft 6 
in. wide, and 15 ft apart. In each is 
a small niche, intended apparently to 
contain a seated figure of Buddha, and 
below them, encircling the monument, 
is a^band of sculptured ornament of the 
most exquisite beauty. The central 
part consists of geometric patterns of 
g^t intricacy, but combined with 
singalar skill ; and above and below 
foluige equally^ well designed, and so 
much resemblmg that carved by Hindu 
artists on the earliest Mohammedan 
mosques at i^mere and Delhi, as to 
make ns feel sure that they cannot be 
very distant in date. 

"In his excavations, General Cun- 
ningham found, buried in the solid 
masonry, at the depth of 10^ ft. from 
tibe summit, a large stone, on which 
was engraved the usual Buddhist for- 
mula : * Ye dharmma hetu, ' etc., in char- 
acters belonging to the 7th century." 
Dr. Fergusson writes that he is '* inclined 
to adopt the tradition preserved by 
Captain Wilford, to the effect that the 
Sarnath monument was erected by the 
sons of Mohi Pala, and destroyed (in- 
terrapted) by the Mohammedans in 
1017 A.D. , before its completion. The 
form of the monument, the character 
of its sculptured ornaments, the un- 
finished condition in which it is left, 
and indeed the whole circumstances of 
the case," he continues, "render this 
date so much the most probable, that I 
feel inclined to adopt it almost without 
hesitation." 

Sarnath was visited by the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hian in 899 A.D., 
and Hiouen Thsang in 629-645 a.d. 
The former says : " At 10 li (2 m.) to 
the N.W. of Benares is the temple, 
ntoated in the Deer Park of the Im- 
mortal. " Hiouen Thsang states that to 
the N.£. of Benares was a stupa, built 
by Asoka, 100 ft. high, and opposite to 
it a stone column ''of blue colour, 
bright as a nurror." He says the 
monastery of the Deer Park was divided 
into eight parts, and was surrounded 
by a wall, within which were balus- 
trades, two-storied palaces, and a Yi- 
hara, 200 ft. high, surmounted by an 
An-molo or mango in embossed gold. 
"There were 100 rows of niches round 



the stupa of brick^ each holding a 
statue of Buddha in embossed' gold. 
To the-S.W. of the vihara was a stone 
stupa raised by Asoka, having in front 
a column 70 ft. high, on the spot where 
Buddha delivered his first discourse. 
W. of the monastery was a tank in 
which Buddha bathed, to the W. of that 
another where he washed his monk's 
water-pot, and to the N. a third where 
he washed his garments. Close to the 
tanks was a stnpa, then another, and 
then in the midst of a forest a third. 
To the S.W. of the monastery at ^ a m. 
was a stupa, 300 ft. high, resplendent 
with jewels and surmounted by an 
arrow." The Dhamek Stupa, the one 
now existing, stands on rising ground, 
and has to the W. a Jain temple sur- 
rounded by an enclosure. About 40 
ft from the E. end there is a torso of 
Buddha, with the Brahmanical Thread. 
There are also a few carved stones. To 
the W. are acres of mounds and exca- 
vations, showing that there were exten- 
sive biuldings m that direction. At 
370 ft. to the W. by S. of the Dhamek 
Stupa, is a round well 50 ft in diameter, 
which the guide calls the Rani's bath. 
It is 15 ft. deep, and a torso of Buddha 
lies in it. 

A little to the N. of the well is Jagat 
Sing's Stupa, so called by Cunning- 
ham, because Babu Jagat Sing, Diwan 
of Chait Sing, excavated it to get 
bricks to build Jagatganj. The other 
tower stands on a very steep mound 
about 100 ft high. The building is 
octagonal, and has an Arabic inscrip- 
tion on the N. side, and a well down 
the centre. ' 

The objects of interest in the CarUon- 
merU are the Mint, where the Europeans 
and other Christians assembled when 
the Mutiny broke out in 1857, the 
yellow btmgaloWf where Warren Hast- 
ings lived, and the sun-dial he erected. 
There is a large jail, and the necessary 
offices of a large civil station.] 

983 m. Buxar sta. (R.), D.B., Hotel 

1032 m. Arrah sta., D.B. The special 
interest that attaches to this spot is in 
connection with an incident of the 
Mutiny. After some preliminary 



48 



ROUTE 1. BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA 



India 



troubles, the Sepoys at IXnapur 
mntinied on the 24th July. They then 
marched to Arrah, where they released 
the prisoners in the jail, plundered the 
treasury, and, but ror the gallant re* 
sistance offered, would have destroyed 
all the Christians in the place. A 
serious misfortune added enormously 
to the difficulties of the situation. A 
relieving party of about 280 Europeans 
from Dmapur fell into an ambuscade 
and were nearly annihilated. In the 
meantime the little party of English 
at Arrah were holding out against tre- 
mendous odds. They were surrounded 
by 2000 Sepoys, ana a multitude of 
armed insurgents, perhaps four times 
that number. There were about 12 
Englishmen and 50 Sikhs. 

On the 27th of July the Dinapur 
mutinous Sepoys attacked the little 

firrison under Vicars Boyle, the Civil 
ngineer, and Hereward Wake, but 
were met with such a heavy fire that 
they broke into groups and sheltered 
themselves by trees. The enemy had 
recourse to various devices for driving 
the English out, but in vain. A week 
thus passed, but when the second 
Sunday came round Major Vincent 
Eyre, who had fought his way through 
the enemy's lines, arrived with 4 guns, 
60 English gunners, and about 260 in- 
fantry, and after a very critical engage- 
ment against overwhelming numbers, 
charged home, and the enemy broke 
and fled in confusion. 

The house they defended stands in 
the Judge's Compound. It is nearly a 
sq., and has two stories, with a veran- 
dah on three sides, supported by arches 
which the besieged filled up with, 
sand-bags. The lower story is a 
little over 10 ft high, and was held by 
50 Sikh soldiers. The garrison dug a 
well in the house, and that was all 3ie 
water they had. 

At about \ m. from the Judge's 
house is St, S(jmour*8 Churchy a very 
small but neat building. In this church 
and in a railed enclosure near the Col- 
lector's Court-house are some interest- 
ing monuments and tombs of those 
who fell in this gallant defence and 
rescue. 
Arrah is on a branch of the Son 



Canal the great irrigation-work of 
South Behar. The Son is crossed at 

1062 m. Bankipiirjunc. sta.,^(B.), 
D.B., the Civil Station of the district, 
forms the western extremity of the city 
of Patna (sta. 6 m. farther E.) (170,000 
inhab.), which covers 10 sq. m., and 
with its suburbs extends 9 m. along 
the S. bank of the Ganges, but con- 
tains nothing of much interest to the 
traveller, except a building called the 
Golah, which was built for a granaiy 
in 1783, but has never been used for 
that purpose. It is 426 ft round at 
the base, built of masonry, with walls 
12 ft. 2 in. in thickness, the interior 
diameter being 109 ft. It is about 90 
ft high, and might contain 137,000 
tons. Inside there is a most wonderful 
echo, the best place to hear which is in 
the middle of the building. As a 
whispering gallery there is perhaps 
no such building in the worla The 
faintest whisper at one end is heard 
most distinctly at the other. As a 
curiosity, if for no other reason, the 
building should be kept up. The 
ascent to the top is outside, by steps. 
At the top is a platform 10 n. 9 io. 
round, which has a stone placed in the 
centre. This stone can be lifted and 
access obtained to the interior. It is 
said that Jung Bahadur of Nipal rode 
a pony up the steps outside to the topi 

Patna is a great centre for the Indigo 
Trade. The Bazaars are very exten- 
sive and well worth a visit. The 
Government Opium Factory is the 
largest in India. 

Bankipur is the junction for the 
Tirhoot State Rly., N. ; the Bengal and 
N. W. Rly., leading to Oudh ; and the 
Patna Gaya Rly. S. 

[Expedition to Gaya. 

57 m. firom Bankipur. 
This journey will not repay the ordin- 
ary traveller, but to the archaeologist or 
the student of Buddhism it will be 
full of interest. The district of Gaya 
contains many places of great sanctity. 
The rocky hills which here run out far 
into the plains of the Ganges Valley 
I toem with associations of the religion of 
1 Buddhism many of which have been 



ROUTB 1. EXPEDITION TO GAYA 



49 



diyerted to new objects by modem 
saperstition. The Brahmans stamped 
oat the Buddhist faith, but they have 
utilised its local traditions to their own 
profit. At the present day the chief 
pilgrims to the temple and sacred tree 
at Baddh Gaya are devout Marathas, 
who come to pray for the souls of their 
ancestors in purgatory. The pilgrim, 
before leaving his home, must first walk 

; five times round his native village, 
calling upon the souls of his ancestors 
to accompany him on his journey. 
Arrived at Gaya, he is forthwith placed 

! in charge of a special Brahman guide. 
Gaya is a city of 80,000 inhab. At 

1 1 m. from the station is the D.B. and, 

I a short way to the W. of it, the Col- 
lector's office. 

About 100 yds. N. of the cemetery, 
3 m. E. of tne station, is a Temple^ 
sacred to Mahadeo, Ram, Lakshman, 
Ganesh, and Hanuman, built by Bani 
Indrajit, of Tikari, at a very consider- 
able cost. Thence to the temple of 
Bishn Fad, in Old Gaya, is 1^ m. It is 
difficult to approach the temple except 
on foot, owing to the extreme narrow- 
ness of the streets. Beyond this is the 
Footstep of VvUmu,^ or the Bishn Pad, 
which is 13 in. long and 6 in. broad. 
It ia of silver, and is enclosed in a 
vessel of siljrer inserted into the pave- 
ment, which hasa diameter of 4 ft. Here 
flower and other ofiferings are made. 

Buddh Gaya is 7 m. S. of the city. 
For the first 5 m. tho road is good, but 
unshaded by trees. Pass the prison, 
rt. ; after 5 m. turn 1. and go for 2 
m. along a country road. The Temple 
of Btiddh Oaya is of very great anti- 

' qoity (543 B.O.), and abounds with 
traditions of the life of Buddha. It 
is built in a hollow, which diminishes 
Its apparent height. It is also shut in 
by small houses. The figure of Buddha, 
according to Hionen Thsang, was of 
periumed paste, and was destroyed cen- 
turies ago. Other figures of plaster 
w«ie sabsequently made and also de- 
stroyed. To the 1. is the place where 
the founder of the present College of 
Mahants, about 260 years ago, performed 
Tapagya, that is^ sat surrounded by 
fodrfireei with the sun overhead. The 
Mhet were, preserved, and a hollow 
[India] 



pillar, with a diameter of H ft. and 
4 ft. high, rising from a sq. base was 
built over them. Nearly in line with 
it are three masonry tombs of Mahants. 

It is known that Asoka surrounded 
the temple with a stone railing. As 
much of this railing as could be found 
has been restored to the position which 
it is supposed to have occupied. The 
railing has four bars of stone, sup- 
ported by pillars at intervals of 8 ft. 
The top rail is ornamented with carv- 
ings of mermaidsL or females with the 
taus of fish, inseUing their arms into 
the mouths of Makarahs, that is, im- 
aginary crocodiles, with large ears like 
those of elephants, and long hind legs. 
Below this top bar are three others, 
also of stone, ornamented with carv- 
ings of lotus flowers. The pillars are 
adorned with carvingsof various groups, 
such as a woman and child, a man, with 
a woman who has the head of a horse, 
Centaurs, and so on. Mr. Fergussou 
pronounced this to be * ' the most ancient 
sculptured monument in India." The 
plinth of the temple is 26^ ft. high, 
and at the top of it is a clear space 13 
ft. broad, which allowed a passage round 
the tower, and also gave access to a 
chamber in it. At each corner of the 
platform by which the passage round 
the tower was effected was a small 
temple, and below, outside Asoka's 
rail, were many subordinate temples. 
Behind the temple, on a raised platform, 
is the sacred Bo tree (a pipul or Ficus 
religioaa) under which Buddha sat. 

Mr. J. 0. Oman says : " If it were 
possible to ascertain by any means what 
particular spot on earth is the most 
sacred in the opinion of mankind, 
there is every reason to think that the 
majority of votes would be given in 
favour of Buddh Gaya. Defaced by 
time and the hand of man, transformed 
a good deal through well-meant restore^ 
tions, the celebrated temple at Buddh 
Gaya, even in its modem disguised 
condition, with its 19th-century stucco 
about it, and its brand new gilt finial. 
is an imposinff structure, about 170 ft. 
high and 50 rk. wide at its base. All 
tlungs considered, it has certainly lasted 
remarkably well, the material of which 
it is constraeted being only vell-bnmi 



50 



ROUTE 1. BOMBAT TO OALOUTTA 



India 



brick cemented with mud. Stone has 
been used only in the door frames and 
flooring. The building is plastered 
with lime-mortar. It is buift in the 
form of a pyramid of nine stories, em- 
bellished on the outer side with niches 
and mouldings. Facing the rising sun 
is the entrance doorway, and above it, 
at an elevation greater than the roof of 
the porch which once adorned the 
temple, there is a triangular opening 
to admit the morning glory to fall upon 
the image in the sanctuary." 

A Burmese inscription records its 
restoration in 1306-1809. Again in 
1877 permission was granted them to 
restore the temple, but Rajendralala 
Mitra, deputed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal to inspect theur 
work, states that *'the Burmese carried 
on demolitions and excavations which 
in a manner swept away most of the 
old landmarks." The remains of the 
vaulted gateway in front of the temple 
were completely demolished, and uie 
place cleared out and levelled. The 
stone pavilion over the Buddha Pad 
was dismantled, and its materials cast 
aside on a rubbish mound at a distance. 
The granite plinth beside it was re- 
moved. The drain-pipe and gargoyle 
which marked the level of the granite 
pavement were destroyed. The founda- 
tions of the old buildings noticed by 
HiouenThsang were excavatedfor bricks 
and filled with rubbish. The revetment 
wall round the sacred tree had been 
rebuilt on a different foundation on the 
W. The plaster ornaments on the 
interior feeing of the sanctuary were 
knocked off, and the facing was covered 
with plain stucco, and an area of 213 
ft. to 250 ft. was levelled and sur- 
rounded by a new wall For further 
description of the temple, refer to Raj- 
endralalaMitra's Bvddh Qaya^ Calcutta, 
1878; and Cunningham's Arch, Surv. 
vol. iii ; and Sir Edwin Arnold's most 
delightful chapter in India BevisUed, 
1886, " The Land of the Light of Asia." 

To the N.W. is a smsdl but very 
ancient temple, in which is a figure of 
Buddha standing. The doorway is 
finely carved.] 

1118 m. Mokam^h June. sta. (R.) Line 



to the N. joining the Tirhoot State 
Railway. To the E. the loon line of 
the East Indian Railway, whicn follows 
the banks of the Ganges, rejoins the 
direct route at Khana June, near Buid- 
wan. 

262 m. Lnckeeserai junc sta. 
[Here a loop line of the E. I. Ely. 
branches £. along the banks of the 
Ganges via Jamalpnr, Sahebgonge, 
and Tinpahar to Khana (see below), 
where it rejoins the main Ime.] 

1217 m. Uadhnpor junc. sta. (R.) 
of the Giridih line. 

[Excursion to Parasnath 

Parasnath Mountain. — From Mad- 
hupur sta. to Giridih sta. 24 m. by 
rail, from the latter place to the foot 
of mountain 18 m. by good road. 
Bearers at Madhuband for the 
ascent (2| hrs.) The sportsman and 
the lover of mountain scenery will 
enjoy a visit to this far-famed mountain 
and place of pilgrimage. The nume^ 
ous temples, though most picturesque, 
are of no great antiquity. It is 4488 
ft. above sea-level, and is the Eastern 
metropolis of Jain worship. According 
to tradition, Parasnath, who was the 
23d Tirthai^ar of the .Tains, was bom 
at Benares, lived 300 years, and was 
buried on this mountain. 

Madhuband, 1230 ft., where this 
bearers are procured, is at the N. side 
of the mountain. Here is a Jain con- 
vent on a tableland. In a clearance of 
the forest, "the appearance of the 
snow-white domes and bannerets of its 
temple, through the fine trees by which 
it is surrounded, is very beautifiil." 
The ascent of the mountain is up a 
pathway worn by the feet of innumer- 
able pilgrims frx)m all parts of India. 
10,000 still visit the place annually. 
The path leads through woods with 
large dumps of bamboo over slaty rocks 
of gneiss, much inclined and sloping 
away from the mountain. The view 
from a ridge 500 ft. above the village 
is superb. Ascending higher, the paSi 
traverses a thick forest ot s<U ( VatmOx 
or Shorea, rdlmgta)^ and other treea 
spanned with cables of Baohinia sterna 



BOUTB 1. EZOUBSION TO PARASNATH 



51 



At 8000 ft. the vegetation becomes 
more luxuriant^ and the conical hills 
of the white ants disaj^pear. At 3500 
ft the vegetation again changes, the 
trees becoming gnarled and scattered. 
The traveller emerges from the forest 
at the foot of a ^eat rid^e of rocky 
peaks, stretching E. and W. for 3 or 4 
m. The saddle of the crest (4230 ft.) 
is marked by a small temple, one of 
many which occupy various promi- 
nences of the ridge. The view is beauti- 
M. To the N. are ranges of low wooded 
hills, and the Barakah and Aji rivers. 
To the S. is a flatter country, with 
lower ranges and the Damodar river. 
The situation of the principal temple 
is very fine, below the saddle in a hollow 
&cing the S., surrounded by groves of 
plantain and Ficus indica. It contains 
Uttle but the sculptured feet of Paras- 
nath and some marble cross-legged 
figures of Buddha, with crisp hair, and 
the Brahmanical Cord. TBears are 
numerous round this spot. A conval- 
escent depot for European soldiers was 
established in 1858, but was abandoned, 
and the officers' quarters are now 
utilised as D.B.] 

1262 m. Sitarampur junc. sta. for 
Barakar,- 5 m. 

1268 m. Asensol junc. sta. of the 
Ben^ and Nagpur Railway (see 
Bte. 3). 

1279 m. Banignuj sta., 3^ on the E. 



edge of the very extensive coal-fields of 
Bengal, which stretch out 384 m. to the 
W., and extend under the bed of the 
Damodar. The place was formerly the 
property of the Raja of Burdwan, hence 
the name. More than 30 species of 
fossil plants, chiefly ferns, have been 
found in the coal, of similar species to 
those in the Yorkshire and Australian 
coal. The mines afford regular employ- 
ment to a large number of men and 
women, chiefly of the Beauri tribe. A 
vast number of boatmen on the Damo- 
dar river are employed in carrying coal 
to Calcutta. The coal is piled on the 
banks of the river, and can be carried 
down only while the Damodar is in 
flood. The mines are said to have beer 
accidentally discovered in 1820 by Mr 
Jones, the architect of Bishop's College 
at Calcutta. The hills of Chatna. 
Bihari Nath, and Pachete look weU 
from Ranigunj. 

1325 m. Ehana junc. sta. for the 
loop line (see p. 264). 

1334 m. Burdwan sta. (R.) 

1376 m. Hooghly junc. sta. for the 
Eastern Bengal Railway by the fine 
Bridge over the Hooghly {Hugli) river^ 

1379 m. Chandemagore and Seram- 
pore stations (see Excursion from 
Calcutta, p. 64). 

1400 m. Calcutta, Howrah ter- 
minus (see next page). 



ftS 



OILOUTTA Om 



Mm 



CALCUTTA CITYjOe 



I 



CONTENTS. 



PAOS 

Arsenal ....... 68 

Asiatic Society . . . . .57 

Belvedere (Lt.-Qovernor'B Palace) . . 60 

Bishop's College 59 

Braluna Somt^ 60 

Calcutta Uniyersity Senate House . 56 
Gathedrals— 

St. Paul's 68 

Roman Catholic 60 

Churches — 

Armenian ...... 60 

Greek 60 

Old Mission 59 

St. Andrew's or Scotch Kirk . . 60 

St John's (Old Cathedral) ... {^9 

St. Thomas's Roman Catholic . . 60 
Clubs (see Index and Directory). 

Custom House 54 

Dalhonsie Institute 57 

Engineering (Civil) College ... 62 
Esplanade, or Maidan .... 54 
Forts- 
William 57 

Old Port 58 

Garden Reach 60 



Gardens- 
Botanical .... 
Eden . . . . 

Government House . 

HlghCourt .... 

Hospitals 

Hotels (see Index and Directory). 

Legislative Council Office 

Maidan or Esplanade 

Metcalfe HaU i 

Military Prison 

Mint 

Missions 

Mosque of Prince Ghulam Miihamma4 

Museums— Economical . 
Indian 

Palaces— King of Oudh's . 
Lt -Governor's (Belvedere) . • fl/fi 

PostOfflce .... 

Public Buildings . 

Race-course J^lf/ 

Secretariat .... 

Statues 

Telegrwh Office 

Town Hall . . . . 



The Approach from the Sea, Hooghly 
Ewer, and Landing-place at Galcuita. 
—At Pilot's Ridge during the S.W. 
monsoon, that is from the 15th of 
March till the 16th of September, there 
is a floating Light -vessel, which is a 
guide to vessels making the Hooghly 
Pilot Station. At this point the 
traveller enters its waters. The Cal- 
cutta Pilots are better paid, better 
educated, and occupy a higher position 
than others of their profession. The 
Hooghly is a most dangerous and diffi- 
cult river to navigate. There is in the 
first place the dread of cyclones, which 
may take place in any month except 
February, when they are unknown. 
The worst months are May and Octo- 
ber. In some of these cyclones a storm 
wave has covered the adjacent shores, 
and many thousands of persons have 
perished. The cyclone of 1874 covered 
Saugar Island with water. But in 
addition to the possible danger of 
storms, there is the normal one of 
shoals and tides. New shoals are con- 
tinually forming, and nothing but a 



daily experience of the river < 
a pilot to take a vessel 
There is, for instance, the mosi 
0U8 shoal called the ** James s 
The real origin of the name ( 
the wreck of a vessel called 
Ja/mes and Mary on that banls 
It appears first under this 
chart dated 1711. Upon th 
many other wrecks have takj 
The Hooghly cannot be nav* 
night, nor until the tide mak 
be ascended. It is usual, theT( 
anchor near Saugar Island 
casioh serves. 

Saugar Island.— A gathering 
100,000 to 200,000 pilgrims £ 
parts of India, but principall]) 
the Bengal districts, takes placel 
early part of January, the date i 

Ct Bathing Festival of Bengal J 
ling ceremony as a rule 
three days, though the &ir lasts] 
couple of days longer. . The site r_ 
fair is a sandbank on the S. shof 
the islandi facing the surfi Just to ^ 



J "•" "•"*• I one of the Ghats Ae fee is 2annaBfor 
t from CUonttik | each person, and 4 annas for luggage. 



«»»*»' 



v%^ 



forming, 



;, iud .iotbing but •! the UUad, facing "« ««"' •''■- 



to lb 



THI APPROAOR TO OAZiOXTTTA 



58 



• of the jtmctioii of Pagoda Creek 
|& the bay. An offering is made to 
H sea of cocoa-nnts, frnit^ or flowers, 
m especiaUy of fire gems — a pearl, 
tmond, an emerald, a topaz, and a 
iKce of coral worth a mpee or two. 
prmerly children used to be cast into 
le sea. After bathing, the pilgrims 
I to the spot where the Pholu emblem 
f Eapila Muni is set np. 
Sport is abundant Deer, wild boar, 
ftd a great varielr of sea-birds are 
land throughout the year. 
Tigers are to be met with in the 
ttgle. The best way to get about is 
i a boat, sportsmen landing when 
ley so desire for shooting, and return- 
g at night. In this way good sport 
ly he had ; but without previous ex- 
irience too much must not be expected. 
The Lighthouse, of iron, 76 ft. high, 
18 commenced in 1808. It is at 
Sddleton Point, at the S.W. end of 
w island, 570 yds. from low -water 
irk. 
(The mouth of the Hooghly is about 
lo m. from Calcutta. 

At 40 nut is the town of Kalpi, D.B., 
n the rt ^ing up stream. 

It contains a large market-place for 
be sale of rice grown in the interior, 
nd there is a road from it to Calcutta. 

At 30 m.,t as the crow flies, is Dia- 
Hond Harbour, marked by a large 
lumber of trees, where the E. I. Com- 
^y's ships used to auchor. There is 
i Custom House here, and the officers 
ward shiDS proceeding ujp the river, 
illy, to Calcutta, 3 or 4 trains daily, in 
Uto 4 hrs. At 28 m.t is the Ru^arayan 
dyer, which flows into the Hooghly 
mtheL 

20 m.t Tamhik is passed L (pop. 
BOOO). A very famous city in ancient 
times, and a maritime port of the 
Baddhists, where the Chinese pilgrim 
ft Hian embarked for Ceylon in the 
beginning of the 5th cent a.d. Hiouen 
Ihsang 250 years later speaks of it as 
th important Buddhist harbour. It 
ii now a long way from the ocean, but 
iMched by the tide. There is a Temple 
j hstt known in the locality by the name 
t From CUonttik 



of Darffah Bhama or Bhenna. It was 
ori^ally a Buddhist temple. The 
shnne is surrounded by a cunous triple 
walL The foundation of the place con- 
sists of large logs covered with bricks 
and stones to a height of 30 ft covering 
the whole area. 

The Damodar river enters the 
Hooghly District from Bnrdwan, and 
flows past the viUages of Ampta £. and 
Baghnan W. to Mahishrakha Ghat, 
where it is crossed by the IJlubaria 
Midnapur Canal, and flows into the 
Hooghly opposite Fulta. It is navi- 
gable as far as Ampta, which is 26 m. 
from its mouth, by boats of from 10 to 
20 tons. By this river Jarge quantities 
of coal are brought from the Kanigu^j 
mines. 

Fnlta is a large village just opposite 
the mouth of the Damodar. It is the site 
of a Dutch fadx)ry, and is the place to 
which the English ships sailed on the 
capture of Calcutta by Sirajudaulah. 

At 15 m. S.t Ulubaria, a small town 
on the 1. of the Hooghly, is passed. 
Here the main road frDm Calcutta to 
the temple of Jagannath at Puri crosses 
the Hooghly, and here begins the Mid- 
napur High-Level Canal. A fewm. N. 
of this on the rt. are the extensive Akra 
brick-fields belonging to Government. 

At 7 m.t the first view of the city 
is obtained, and then Gtoden Beach 
is passed rt ; the Botanical Gardens 
and Bishop's (now Civil Engineering) 
College on the 1. The river is now 
crowded with shine at anchor, many 
rows deep, all the way up to the 
Landinff-place. The view is very strik- 
ing, and the forest of masts, the plain 
of the Esplanade, the Fort and the 
fine buildings in the background, all 
give the idea of a great commercial 
capital. 



Arrival at CALCUTTA. ^ 

Every vessel that arrives at Calcutta 
must be berthed by the Harbour-master 
either in the new Docks or at the 
jetties. For landing from the stream at 
one of the Ghats the fee is 2 annas for 
each person, and 4 annas for luggage. 



54 



OAX^nTTTA OITT 



JfuKa 



FdBMp'f OthtA, nowtome distance in- 
land since the reclamation of the fore- 
shore by the excavation of thenewdocks, 
is marked bv a pavilion of stone, sup- 
ported by pillars, and inscribed " James 
Prinsep." The passenger musttakewith 
him a pass from the Custom -House 
officer, without which he may not put his 
luggage into a carriage. From the jett^ 
to ue street is about 100 yds., through 
the enclosure of the Custom House. 

The Popalation of the city and 
suburbs was 840,000 in 1891. 

The Esplanade, or Maidan (plain), is 
a magnificent open space of about 1^ m. 
diameter. 

Oehterlony MomimeTU. — Not far from 
Government House, in the centre of 
the Esplanade, is a eolumvn 165 ft. hi^h 
to Sir Damd Oekterlanyf Besident in 
Malwa and Rajputana in 1823. It has 
two galleries at top, from which a fine 
view over Calcutta is obtained. W. of 
it are several statues. 

Statues, — First comes the bronze 
equestrian statue of Xorcf^an^in^tf. He 
is bareheaded, with his sheathed sword 
by his side. It is a good likeness, and 
well executed. W. of this statue is 
that of Lord LatorenMj standing bare- 
headed. To the £. of Lord Haroinge's 
statue is an equestrian bronze statue of 
Ewrl of Mayo. On the Chowringhee 
Road side is the equestrian statue of 
Svr James Outramt by Foley, R.A. He 
is represented bareheaded, with a drawn 
sword in his right hand. His horse is 
violently reined in. Beneath is an in- 
scription. There are statues of Lord 
Dufferin and Lord Roberts on either 
side of "the red road" now used for 
the evening drive. 

At the N.W. comer of the Esplanade, 
lining the Strand, are the Eden 
Ckurdens, for which Calcutta is indebted 
to the Misses Eden, Lord Auckland's 
sisters ; here a band plays every even- 
ing. On the S. side is a fine marble 
statue to Captain Sir William Feel, 
of H.M.S. Shannon, Commander of the 
Naval Brigade in the Indian Mutiny. 

On the N. side of the Gardens is the 
statue of Lord Auckla/nd, 

Standing picturesquely by the water- 
side is a Burmese Pa^i^oda, brought from 
Prome and set up in 1856. Close tp 



the Gardens is the Ground of the Cal- 
cutta Cricket Club. There is a good 
drive along the river side from the 
Gardens past Fort- William to Bel?e- 
dere, the Lieut. -Governor's resideooe, 
and another E. from the Gardens to 
Government House. There is also a 
drive on the S. side of the Esplanade 
to the Cathedral and Chowringhee. 

A little to the N. is Babu Ghat, 
named from Raj Chandra Das, who 
constructed it There is a handsome 
colonnade with Doric pillars. 

Goveniment Houm stands in a 
garden of 6 acres. Begun 1799 by com- 
mand of Lord Wellesley (arch. Captain 
Wyatt). The design is copied from 
that of Kedlestone Hall, Derbyshire, 
built by Adam, and consists of a central 
buildinff with four wings connected 
with tne centre by gaUeries. The 
building stands N. and S., and the 
grand entrance faces the N. To the 
rt on entering, beneath the porch, is 
a finely-executed white marble statue 
of the Marquis Wellesley. Close by are 

S»rtrait8 of Lords Canning, 1856-62, 
astings, 1818-23, and Mayo, 1869-72. 

The Vinviig^oom is of white (^unam 
with a floor of veined white marble. 
On either side are six well -executed 
marble busts of the Caesars, taken from a 
French ship during the war. The 
TJh/rone-room is so-called from its con- 
taining the throne of Tipu. The pic- 
tures are, the Queen seated, by Sir George 
Hayter, a most indifferent picture ; 
Queen Charlotte, standing; next George 
III., — both supposed to be by Hudson, 
the master of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Next 
is General the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, 
1803, by Home, R.A., one of the best 
in the collection, and extremely inter- 
esting. On the way to the breakfast- 
room, pass E. through a curved passage 
to the Cotrndl-roorn, In this passage 
are three full-length portraits — Lord 
Teignmouth, 1793-98, The Earl of 
EUenborough, 1842-44, and Lord 
Metcalfe, 1835-39, the well-known 
likeness by Hayes. 

At the end of the passage is the 
OouncfU-room. The pictures are as 
follows : The Earl of Minto, 1807-13 ; 
Sir Eyre Coote (over the centre door) ; 
Marquis Comwallis, 1 786 - 98 - 1805 \ 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 



55 



Lord Hardinge, 1844^48, a i-lengtli 

gortrait, in blue undress, wearing a 
tar; Warren Hastings, 1772-86, 
with a motto, "Mens sequa in arduis," 
at the top, — a fine picture. Over the 
2d door rt. is The Earl of Elgin and 
Kincardine, 1862-63, a {-length. Over 
the window. The Earl of Auckland, 
1836-42, a ^-length. Mr. John Adam, 
1823, a fine picture by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. Marquis Wellesley, 1798- 
1806, in peer's robes. Over a window 
Lord Clive, {-length, wearing Riband 
of the Bath, by Nathaniel Dance. 

There are also pictures of Louis XY. 
and his Queen, perhaps by Be la Roche ; 
of Lady William Bentinck, by Beechy ; 
of the Nawab S*aadat 'Ali Khan, by 
Chinnery ; the Shah of Persia, 1798 ; 
Jaswant Sing, Maharajah of Bhurtpur, 
by Anger ; and the Amir of Kabul, by 
W. M. White. 

Aboye the dining-room and the ad- 
joining rooms is a splendid ballroom. 
The floor is of polished teak, and the 
ceilings are beautifully panelled, after 
designs by Mr. H. M. Locke. The 
chandeliers are said to have been cap- 
tured with the busts of the Caesars and 
the portrait of Louis XV. from the 
French. It is believed that they were 
all taken from the same ship^ and were 
a present from the French King destined 
for the Nizam of Hyderabad. In the 
S. anteroom is another picture of the 
Marquis Wellesley. On a table are the 
subsidiary treaty of Hyderabad, 1798, 
the partition treaty of Mysore, 1799, 
and subsidiary treaty of Seringapatam, 
1799. 

The extensive grounds are well kept. 
40 yds. from the verandah on the 
ground-floor is a fine brass 32-pounder, 
taken at Aliwal, and inscribed in Gur- 
mukhi. On either side is a 6-pounder 
brass tig|er-^n, taken from Tipu. On 
the N. side is a large brass gun, which 
is inscribed ** Miani, 17th February," 
and also " Hyderabad, 30th of March 
1843.'* On the N. side is another, with 
a carriage representing a dragon. There 
is also a small brass gun to the N.W., 
curious on account of its extreme aee. 

The Town Hall.— This fine building 
stands W. of Government House. It was 
built by the inhabitants of Calcutta in 



1804, and cost j£70,000. The style is 
Doric, with a fine flight of steps lead- 
ing to a portico on the S. The car- 
riage entrance is to the N. under a 
portico. The centre of the building 
is occupied by a. saloon 162 ft. long, 
and 66 ft broad. In the S. front is a 
central room 82 ft long, by 30 ft broad, 
and two smaller rooms. In the S. vesti- 
bule is a marble statue of Warren 
Hastings, by R. Westmacott, R.A. 
He stands between a Mohammedan and 
a Hindu. At the W. end of the lower 
saloon is a marble statue by J. Bacon, 
junr., of the Marquis of Comwallis. 
This statue was erected by the British 
inhabitants of Bengal, 1803 a.d. In 
the vestibules are busts of C. B. Green- 
law, Esq., and John Palmer, Esq., and 
portraits of Lord Lake, Lord Gough, 
Sir C. Metcalfe, Sir H. Durand, Dwar- 
kanath Thakur, Bishop Wilson, Mr. 
Cameron, Mr. Wilberforce Bird, Sir 
Henry Norman, and other distinguished 
men. There are also fall-length por- 
traits of the Queen and Prince Albert, 
presented by Her Majesty to the city 
of Calcutta. 

Opposite the Hall, about 60 yds. off, 
is a bronze statue of Lord William 
Bentinck, with an inscription by .Lord 
Macaulay, and close by is a statute oi 
Sir Stuart Bay ley, a former Lieutenant 
Governor. 

The Legislative Council Office is 
close by to the N.W. The S. front is 
adorned with Corinthian columns. 

The High Ck>urt is after the model 
of the town hall at Ypres. The Chief 
Justice's Court is in the S.W. corner. 
The Court of First Instance is at the 
S.E. comer. In the E. face is the 
Barristers* Library, The Attorneys' 
Library is in the E. comer ; and here 
is a portrait of Justice Norman. In 
the Court of First Instance, which is 
also used as a Criminal Court when 
required, are portraits of Sir Wm. Bur- 
roughs, by Lawrence, 1818 ; Sir Fred. 
Workman M*Naghten, by Chinnery, 
1824 ; and Sir Elijah Impey, Knt., by 
Kettle, 1778. The next room contains 
a picture of Shambu Nath Pandit, the 
first Indian Judge, a native of Cashmere. 
In the Chief Justice's Court are 3 pic- 
tures—Sir E. Impey, by Zoffany, 1782, 



M 



OAS/juTSA ont 



IfidM 



in red robes, standing ; Sir H. Russell, 
by Cbinnery, 1872, robed in red ; and 
Sir John Anstnither, 1805. In the 
centre of the £. side is a statue of Sir 
Edward Hyde East, 1821. In the 
Jud^' Library are six pictures — 
Justice Treror, H. B. Harington, and 
Sir John Oolvin, who died at Agra. 
Opposite are Sir Ed. B3ran, Sir Robert 
Chambers, and Sir liawrence Peel. 
There is a garden in the centre quad- 
rangle, and a fountain. 

The Seeretariat.— This noble build- 
ing stands on the K. side of Dalhousie 
Square, and occupies the site of the 
Old Writers* Buildings, where so many 
illustrious Indian statesmen com- 
menced their public career. 

Calcntta University donate House. 

— On the N.W. of College Square are 
Presidency College, Hare School, and 
the Calcutta University. The Uni- 
versity Senate House is a grand hall 
120 ft. X 60 ft., in which the Convoca- 
tions for conferring degrees take place. 
It has a porticd, supported by 6 lofty 
pillars. Close by is the Hare Ckshool, 
which is self-supportine, — ^itwas erected 
out of the surplus fees of students. 
The Hindu College was founded in 
1824, and opened in X827. The total 
cost was 170,000 rs. In the year 1855 
it was merged in the Presidency College. 
The foundation stone of the new build- 
ing of this College was laid in 1872 by 
Sir George Campbell. 

The Indian Mnseum,^ 27 Chow- 
ringhee Road, is an immense building, 
and contains a very fine collection of 
Fossils and Minerals, a Geological 
Gallery with rich specimens, and a 
Library ; but the most important 
feature is the Gallery of ArUiquUies^ 
well worth inspection, particularly the 
Buddhist remains brought from the 
tope at Bharhut (see Fergusson's Bist. 
of Arch,) ; also those from Muttra and 
Gandhara (Panjab), etc. Some displav 
exquisite feeling, and are executed with 
a vigour and grace worthy of the 
Greeks. The composition of the figures 
and the representations of the drapery 
are very remarkable. 

1 There is an excellent catalogue. 



Amongst other fine objects from 
Muttra notice MB, a figure of Buddha, 
6 ft. high, with a halo behind the head, 
carved with floral devices. In the 
Gkmdhara Collection notice amongst 
many others O 81 a tog, 7 seated win^ 
male human figures; 96, a portion 
of a frieze representing 6 naked boys, 
quite classic in design ; 6^i(75,adomestie 
scene, suggesting the Stable at Beth- 
lehem. 

The archaeologist will find here 
selected pieces from the most famous 
ancient buildings in India. There are 
interesting fragments of Buddhist art 
from the caves of Orissa, from Sanchi, 
and Buddh Gaya, from Muttra, and 
Sarnath, near Benares, and great num- 
bers of other sculptures. 

Amongst the Siwalik Fossil Remains, 
observe the Hy»narctosor Hysena-Bear ; 
the Amphicyon, a dog-like animal as 
large as the Polar bear ; the Machairodus 
or Sabre-tooth tiger, whose canine teeth 
were 7 in. long ; also the Siwalik 
cat, which was at least as large as a 
tiger, — ^it is distinguished by a ridge 
running along the upper i)art of the 
skull. Amongst the American Eden- 
tata remark the Megalonvx, long-nailed 
animal, and the Glyptodon, a gigantic 
armadillo, whose armour was afl of one 
piece, so tiiat it could not roll itself up. 
There is the skeleton of a Megatherium 
brought from America, and one of an 
elephant 11 ft high ; also of Hodson's 
antelope, whose two horns seen in a line 
were thought to belong to a unicorn. 
Amongst Siwalik birds there are the 
shank-bone and the breast-bone of a 
wading-bird as big as an ostrich. This 
bird has been called the Megaloscelornis, 
and these bones are the only ones 
belonging to this species existing in 
the world. In the Upper Palaeonto- 
logical Gallery there are many bones 
of the Dinomis. Amongst the reptiles, 
remark a Ma^ar or crocodile, fix)m 
Matlah, 18 ft long, and a snake of the 
Python species, also of that length. 
There are the jaws of the Bal«noptera 
indica, which must have belonged to a 
fish between 80 ft and 90 ft. long. 
Observe also the remains of the Croco- 
dilus crassidens, an extinct species of 
enormous dimensions. There ib also 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 



67 



aspecimeii of the Siwalik Colossochelys, 
a gigantic tortoise of prodigious size. 
It will be noticed that whereas all the 
species and many of the ^nera of the 
Siwalik Mammals and Birds are entirely 
different from those inhabiting the 
earth, all the genera of the Reptiles 
have living representatives in India. 
The Collection of the Fossil Vertebrata 
of the Siwaliks is the most complete 
and comprehensive in the world. 

As to Minerals, it may be said that 
most of the diamonds exhibited are 
Indian, from Bundelknnd, S. India, 
and Sambalpnr. There are also models 
of the most celebrated diamonds, snob 
as the Regent, the most perfect brilliant 
in existence, the Koh-i-Nor, the Great 
Nizam, etc., all of which were obtained 
in India. Amongst the Meteorites, 
remark the model, No. 16, of one which 
fell on the 23d of January 1870, at 
Nedagolla, 6 m. S. of Parbatipur, in 
the Madras Presidency. The original 
weighed over 10 lbs. There is a 
portion of the original weighing 7 oz. 
260*8 gr., numbered 90, in the collection. 
It is the only Indian meteoric iron here. 

The Economical HnBenm.— Those 
who desire to study the products of 
the country and see the finest samples 
of native manufactures, should visit 
this section of the Museum. It occu- 
pies a quadrangular building on the 
Ghowringhee Road facing the Maidan. 
It was here tiiat the Calcutta Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1883-84 was 
held. 

The Mint is at the W. end of Nim- 
tolla Street; built 1824-30 (archit. 
Major W. N. Forbes). The style is 
Doric, the central portico being a copy 
in half size of the Temple of Minerva 
at Athens. The area of the building 
and grounds is 18^ acres. 

The Dalhonsie Institute stands on 
the S. side of Dalhousie Square, and 
was built "to contain within its walls 
statues and busts of great men." The 
foundation-stone was laid in 1865, but 
the entrance portico preceded it, having 
heen built m 1824. It contains a 
statue of the Marquis of Hastings, by 
Chantrey. 



The hall is lined with marble, and 
measures 90 x 45 ft. It contains statues 
of the mat Marquis of Dalhousie, and 
of the Rt Hon. James Wilson, and a 
bust of Edward E. Venables, indigo 
planter, Azimgarh, all three by Steell, 
K.S.A. Also busts of Brig. -General 
Neil, O.B., and of Sir Henry Ha velock, 
by Noble ; and of Sir James Outram 
and General John Nicholson, who led 
the attack upon Delhi, by Foley. 

The Bengal Asiatic Society is at 57 
Park Street. This institution wai» 
established in 1784 by Sir William 
Jones and led to the foundation of 
the Royal Asiatic Society in London. 
Visitors can be elected members. The 
Agiatic .Researchea began to be issued 
in 1788, and continued to be published 
until 1839. The Journal began in 
1832, and from that time to 1839 both 
publications were issued. The curi- 
osities have all been sent to the Indian 
Museum, where the Society was to have 
bad rooms. This having been denied 
to them, Government n\^e a grant to 
the Society of 1} lakhs in compensation. 
The library consists of 16,000 volumes, 
and there is a large collection of coins, 
copper-plates, pictures, and busts. 

The Post Office (opened 1870) is a 
fine building. It stands on the site 
of the S. face of the Old Fort, and looks 
E. on Dalhousie Square, formerly Tank 
Square, and S. on Koilah Ghat Street. 
It cost 680,5x0 rs., and occupies an area 
of 103,100 sq. ft. At the S.E. corner 
is a lofty dome. .According to the 
Government plan, the site of the Black 
Hole is marked by the third and fourth 
pillars in the side fronting the Square, 
counting from N. to S. 

The Telegraph Office is also a fine 
building. It stands at the S. comer 
of Dalhousie Square. 

Fort -William, S. of the Maidan, 
received its name from William III. 
Its site was changed in 1757, after 
the battle of Plassey, from that which 
is now occupied by the Post Office, to 
the river-bank, where Clive commenced 
a new and much more formidable 
fortress, which was finished in 1773, 
and cost £2, 000, 000. It is an irregular 



58 



OAIXJUTTA OITT 



IniHa 



octaffon, of which five sides look land- 
wara and three on the river. It ia 
surrounded by a fosse SO ft. deep and 
50 ft. broad, which can be filled from 
the river. There are now two regi- 
ments, one English and one N. I., and 
one battery of artillery. There are six 
gates — Chowringhee, Plassey, Calcutta, 
and Water Gate, as well as St. George's 
and the Treasury Gate. Opposite the 
Water Gate is the Gwalior Monument, 
erected by Lord Ellenborough, in 1844, 
in memory of the officers and men who 
fell in the Gwalior campaign of 1843. 
It was designed by Colonel W. H. 
Goodwyn, Beng. Eng. It is of brick, 
faced with Jeypore marble, surmounted 
by a metal cupola made from guns 
taken from the enemy. In the centre 
the names of those who fell at the 
battles of Maharajpur and Paniar are 
engraved on a sarcophagus. There is 
also a sallyport between Water and St. 
George's Gates. Entering by Chow- 
ringhee Gate, past the Governor's resid- 
ence, used as a Soldiers' Institute and 
Garrison School, is the Fort Church, 
St Peter's, built in 1835. The Catholic 
Chapel, St. Patrick's, was built in 1857. 
The Military Prison is built on a mas- 
sive storehouse, on which is an inscrip- 
tion relating to the amount of rice and 
grain deposited there by the authorities 
in 1782. The ArseTicU is worth a visit. 
The Fort commands the river, and is 
a formidable defence to Calcutta. 

The remains of the Old Fort.— The 
first Fort- William lay between Banks- 
hall Street, now Eoilah Ghat Street, 
on the S., and Fort Ghat Street, now 
Fairlie Place, on the N. Its W. side 
fronted the river. 80 ft. W. of the 
Post Office is all that remains of the 
S. curtain of the Fort, — a row of arches 
10 ft. hich in the walL The place is 
now used as a workshop, with stables 
at the W. end. According to some 
authorities, the Black Hole was at the 
second arch where you enter. 

Metcalfe ffcdl, close by the S.W. 
comer of Hare Street, was founded in 
honour of Sir Charles Metcalfe by public 
subscription. The design is copied 
from the portico of the Temple of the 
Winds at Athens. The entrance is on 
the E, under a roofed-in colonnade. The 



buHding contains the Public Library 
and the offices of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society. In the Library, 
which has passed tnrough a period of 
shameful neglect, there are many rare 
and valuable works. 

St PaiU'B Cathedral, on the E. of 
the Maidan, is about 1 m. from the Fort 
(archit, Mig'or W. N. Forbes). The 
style is Hindu - Gothic, or spurious 
Gothic modified to suit the climate of 
India. In the vestry of the Cathedral 
is a large folio MS. volume entitled 
" History of the Erection of St. Paul's 
Cathedral," which contains a plan of 
the Cathedral at p. 265. Over the 
porch is a library, left to the public by 
Bishop Wilson, and here is an ex- 
cellent bust of that Bishop. The K 
window represents the Crucifixion, 
designed by West. It cost £4000, and 
was eiven dv the Dean and Chapter of 
Windsor. It was intended to be given 
by George III. to St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor. Beneath it are mosaics. 
The Communion Plate was given by 
the Queen. The building cost £50,000, 
of which the Bishop gave £20,000, half 
of which, however, went to endowment 
The W. central window is a memorial 
to Lord Mayo. 

On the 1. side of the vestibule is a 
black marble tablet to 16 officers of the 
Bengal Engineers, who fell during 
the Indian Kevolt in the years 1867- 
58. It is ornamented with 16 bronze 
medallions, representing a well-known 
and gallant incident m the siege of 
Delhi — the blowing up of the Cashmere 
Gate by Lieutenant Salkeld. Next is 
a tablet to 15 officers who fell in the 
Bhutan campaign. Next is a very i 
elaborate and peculiar monument, in 
memory of John Paxton Norman, of 
the Inner Temple, officiating Chief 
Justice of Bengal, who was assassinated 
on the steps of the Town Hall when 
entering the High Court on 20th Sep- 
tember 1871. Next is a tablet to 7 
officers of the 68th Regiment N.I., 
"who died during the Mutiny of the 
Native Troops, and subsequent opera- 
tions, from 1857 to 1859 ; some on the 
field of battle, some by the hands of 
their own followers, others from disease; 
all doing their duty." 



0HURGHE8 



59 



Then follows a tablet to Mr. William 
Ritchie of the Calcutta Bar and Inner 
Temple, a member of the Council of 
the Goyemor-GeneraL The inscription 
on the tablet is by Thackeray, who was 
a cousin of Mr. Ritchie's. On the left 
is a tablet to Sir H. M. Lawrence. 
The tablet is adorned with a medallion 
portrait in white marble. In the centre 
of the left wall of the passage from the 
vestibule to the transepts and body of the 
church is a monument to Lord Elgin. 

In the S.E. comer of the S. transept 
is the tomb of Lady Ccmningf brought 
from Barrackpur. It consists of a base 
of white marble with a sarcophagus, 
on which is inlaid a cross with flowers. 

The upper part of the steeple fell 
during the great earthquake of 12th 
June 1897. 

St. John's Church, the Old Cathedral, 
—To the W. of Church Lane before 
coming to the General Post Office. 
** Council House Street " is written on 
the S. E. gate pillar. The compound is 
shaded with trees. Outside the church 
to the N. of the W. entrance is a 
domed pavilion about 60 ft high, with 
twelve pillars. It is said to have been 
erected in commemoration of those who 
fell in the Rohilla war, but strangely 
enough there is no inscription. 

The W. vestibule has on the 1. a 
large picture of the Last Supper, painted 
and presented to the church by Sir John 
Zoffany, in which the Apostles are all 
portraits of certain well-known inhabit- 
ants of Calcutta. The head of Our 
Saviour is said to have been taken from 
a Greek clergyman, called Parthenio, 
and St. John from Mr. Blaquire, the 
well-known police magistrate. In this 
church and its compound are the oldest 
and most interesting tablets to be found 
in Calcutta. 

In. the compound in the pavilion, 
at the K. end, is a tablet to William 
Hamilton, who, in 1717, having cured 
the Emperor Farrukhsiyar, Obtained 
for the E. I. Company the right of 
importing their ^oods free of duty, 
ana other great privQeees. 

Close to this is a tablet to Job Char- 
nock, one of the first Governors of 
Bengal, and the founder of Calcutta. 

A few j9id^ to the 3. is the tomb of 



Admiral Watson, who with Clive re- 
took Calcutta. It has a large square 
base supporting an obelisk, inscribed 
to hist memory. 

The Old Mission Church.— This 
Church is called the Pooranah Girjah, 
or Old Churckf by the natives. This, 
with the parsonage and the office of 
the Church Missionary Society, is in a 
pretty compound in Mission Row. It 
IS 125 ft. long from E. to W., and 81 ft. 
10 in. broad, and seats 450 persons. It 
was built by the celebrated missionary 
Johann Zacharias Eiemander, who was 
bom at Azted, in Gothland, Sweden, 
in 1711, and educated at the University 
of Upsal. Being offered a post as mis- 
sionary, he left England in 1758, and 
opened a school in Calcutta. His 
second wife on her death left valuable 
jewels, with which he founded a school. 
He called his Church Beth Tephillah, 
"House of Prayer." When blind he 
was deceived into signing a bond which 
ruined him. The church was seized by 
his creditors, but redeemed by Mr. 
Charles Grant for 10,000 rs. He then 
went to Chinsurah, and died there in 
1 799. There is a window presented by 
Kiemander's grandson. There is a good 
engraving of him in the Mission Room, 
with an inscription in German. There 
are many interesting tablets in the 
church, particularly one to Mr. Charles 
Grant, and one to the Rev. Henry 
Martyn, also to Bishop Dealtry of 
Madras, to Bishop Wilson, and to an 
Arab lady of distmction who was con- 
verted to Christianity. 

The steeple was so seriously injured by 
the great earthquake of 12th June 1897, 
that it has been necessary to rebuild it. 

Missions of the Church of England. 
— ^The Oorford Mission, 42 Cornwallis 
Street, works chiefly among the high- 
caste natives, and has charge of Bishop's 
College (in Circular Road), a Boys* High 
School, and Industrial School. 

S,P.G., headquarters Bishop's Col- 
lege, Lower Circular Road ; Mission 
Church, St. Saviour's, Wellesley Square, 
with a Boarding School. 

S.P,&, Ladies' Association have 
charge of the Milman Memorial School 
for Girls. 

Sis^s of St, John (Clewer) Iwve 



60 



OALOniTA CITY 



India 



charge of the Ckyvemment General 
Hospital, the Medical Staff Hospital, 
the Eden Hospital, and the Lady 
Gaxmixig Home for Nurses. Also of 
native mission-work at Peepulputty in 
the rice-fields 3 m. distant. 

The Free OhurchofScotla'n^s Mission, 
begun by Alexander Duff in 1830, is 
conductwl from the Duff College, 
Nimtola Street, the Mission houses 
2 Comwallis Square, and the "Woman's 
Society's Schools in Beadon Street. 
The Scottish church is in Wellesley 
Square. 

The Scotch Kirk, St. And/rew*s, is 
situated in Radha Bazaar. It is called 
by the natives LaZ Qirjah. It was 
opened in 1818, and cost £20,000. 
This church sends a representative to 
the General Assembly at Edinburgh. 
It seats 500 persons. In the vestry 
there is a portrait of Dr. James Bryce, 
the first minister, by Sir John Watson 
Gordon. There are some handsome 
monuments within the church. 

The first Portuguese came to Calcutta 
in 1689, to whom the English sranted 
a piece of land in Portuguese Church 
Lane on which the friars of the order 
of St. Augustin erected a chapel 
in 1700. Its successor the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral was built in 1797. 
It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary of 
the Rosary. . 

St. Thomas's Roman Catholic 
Church. —: A handsome building, in 
Middleton Row, not far from the 
Indian Museum ; commenced in 1841. 
Close by is the Convent of Our Lady 
of Loreto. 

The Greek Church. — Tuminc to the 
W. down Canning Street, on ttie way 
to Burra Bazaar, the traveller will come 
to the Greek Church, built in 1780 by 
subscription, Mr. Warren Hastings 
heading the list with 2000 rs. 

The Armenian Church of St. Nazar- 
eth is close by. It is on the rt. of the 
road leading to Burra Bazaar. It was 
founded in 1724, and completed in 1790. 

The Brahma SomaJ is the reformed 
Theistic sect of Hindus. It has very 
little hold on the rural population, the 
few members being generally men of 
eood social position. The sect was 
founded by Kaja Ram Mohan Rai in 



1830. In 1858 Keshab Chandra Sen 
joined the Somaj, being then 20 years 
of age. In 1862 he was ordained 
minister of the Calcutta BrahmalSomaj. 
In October 1865 his secession took place, 
and next year a new body was organised 
by Eeshab, entitled the Brahma Somaj 
of India, and in January 1868 the first 
stone was laid of a new church for the 

S regressive Brahmas or Keshab Chan- 
ra Sen's party. Brahma marriages 
being illegat in 1872, on the application 
of Keshab, Lord Mayo passed the 
Native Marriage Act, which enacts that 
the parties must be unmarried, the 
brideflproom and bride must have com- 
pleted the age of 18 and 14 years 
respectively, must not be related within 
certain degrees, and, if under 21, except 
in the case of a widow, must have the 
written consent of parent or guardian. 
The Hosqne of Prince Ghnlam Mu- 
hammad. — This is the finest Mosque 



in Calcutta, and stands at the corner 
of DhuramtoUa Street and may be 
visited when driving up Chowringhee, 
from which it is conspicuous. It is 
inscribed, "This Musjid was erected 
during the Government of Lord Auck- 
land, G.C.B., by the Prince Ghulam 
Muhammad, son of the late Tipu Sultan, 
in gratitude to God, and in commemora- 
tion of the Honourable Court of Dir- 
ectors granting him the arrears of his 
stipend in 1840." 

Belvedere, the Lt.-Oovemor*s Palace. 
— This fine building stands in ex- 
tensive and well-kept grounds. In 
the entrance hall are some trophies of 
Indian arms, and full-length portraits 
of Sir John Grant and Sir William Grey. 
In the reception room are portraits of 
H.M. the Queen-Empress and of Sir 
Charles and Lady Elliott. The electric 
li^ht is worked from the neighbouring 
jail. At the spot which is now the W. 
entrance of Belvedere, on the 'AJipur 
road, was fought the duel between War- 
ren Hastings and Sir Philip Francis, 
in which the latter was wounded. 

Race-course. — In driving to Belve- 
dere, the Race-course on "ftie Maidan 
will be passed on the rt. The ground is 
perfectly level, and the distance is 2 m. 

Garden Reach. — Here used to be 
numerous fine villas, most of which 



BOTANICAL QABDENl 



61 



were built between 1768 and 1780, 
now utilised by steamship companies 
and cotton and jute mills. Just above 
Garden Reach is the village of Kidder- 
pur, so called after Mr. Kyd, who con- 
i structed the Government Dockyard, 
near wluch the Port Trust has excavated 
magnificent new Docks. Between 1781 
and 1821 ships were built at the Eid- 
derpur Docks, at a cost of more than 
£2,000,000, and in 1818, the Hastings, 
a 74-gun ship was launched there. At 
the W. extremity of Garden Reach, or 
in its vicinity, was situated the small 
fort of 'Aliearh, and opposite to it, on 
the other bank of the river, was the 
Fort of Tanna, both of which were 
taken by Olive in the recapture of 
Calcutta in 1756. 

A short distance to the £.of 'Alipur, 
and immediately S.E. of Calcutta, is the 
suburb of BaHgunj, within the limits of 
the S. Suburban Municipality, and the 
residence of many Europeans. Beyond 
is ToIlygroDJ where the Calcutta resi- 
dents have laid out the fine grounds of 
the Athletic Club. 

Ealighat, celebrated as the site of a 
temple in honour of the goddess Kali, 
the wife of Shiva, is situated on the 
bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a 
few m. S. of Calcutta. The place 
derives sanctity from the legend that 
when the corpse of Shiva's wife was 
cut in pieces by order of the gods, 
and chopped up by the disc {svdaraan 
chakra) of Vishnu, one of her fingers 
fell on this spot. The temple is 
supposed to have been built about 
three centuries ago. A member of the 
Sabama Chandhu family, who at one 
time owned considerable estates in 
this part of the coimtry, cleared the 
jungle, built the temple, and allotted 
194 acres of land for its maintenance. 
A man of the name of Chandibar was 
the first priest appointed to manage 
the affairs of the temple. His descend- 
ants have now taken the title of 
BLaldar, and are at present the pro- 
prietors of the building. They have 
amassed great wealth, not so much 
from the proceeds of the Temple lands 
as from the daily offerings made by 
pilgrims to the shrine. The principal 
religlotti iMtival of the year is on the 



second day of the Durea-piga, when 
the temple is visited by crowds of 
pilgrims, principally belonging to the 
oistrict of the 24 Farganas and the 
surrounding villages. 

Crossing Kidderpur bridge, the visitor 
passes the garden gate of what was once 
the residence of the late King of Oudh. 

exouesions in the vicinity of 
Calcutta. 

The Boyal Botanical Gardens, on 
the W. bank of the river, opposite 
'Alipur, were founded in 1786, on the 
suggestion of General Kyd, who was 
appointed the first Superintendent. 
His successors, Roxburgh, Wallich, 
Griffith, Falconer, Thomson, Anderson, 
and King, have all been celebrated 
botanists. The visitor may drive to 
the Gardens from Howrah or to the 
King of Gudh's place and cross the river 
Hooghly in a boat The area of the 
Gardens is 272 acres, with river frontage 
of a mile. Thewhole of them may beseen 
without descending from the carriage. 
At the N. W. comer is the Howrah Gate, 
where are three fine trees — a Picas 
indica in the centre, with a FiciLs 
religiosa on either side. There is an 
avenue of Palmyra palms to the right 
of the entrance, and one of mahogany 
trees to the left. The visitor will pass 
up a broad road in the centre, leaving 
to the left a sheet of water, and then 
passing through casuarina trees, up 
which are trained specimens of climb- 
ing palms, will enter the Palm Planta- 
tion. A canal divides this from the 
rest of the Gardens, crossed by three 
bridges. Having crossed one of these, 
the visitor will find the Flower Garden 
on the right, where are many con- 
servatories and two orchid houses: 
close by is a conservatory 200 ft. 
long, and a monument to General Eyd, 
from which a broad walk runs down 
to the River Entrance. Leaving this 
to the left, the visitor will pass along a 
road which leads to the Great Banyan 
Tree {Ficus indica), which covers ground 
nearly 1000 ft. in circumference. On 
the 1. of an avenue near the great tree 
is a monument to Roxburgh, with a 
Latin epitaph by Heber. There are 



BZCUBSIONS IN THE VIOINITT OF OALOUTTA 



India 



also tablets in the Ghu'den, near the old 
conservatory, to Jack and to Griffith. 

Sir J. Hooker, in his interesting 
work Himalayan JowmalSt vol. i. 
says of these Gardens, in 1848, that 
'^ they had contributed more useful 
and ornamental tropical plants to the 
public and private gardens of the world 
than any otner establishment before or 
since." He says also, " that the great 
Indian Herbarium, chiefly formed by 
the Staff of the Botanic Grardens, under 
the direction of Dr. Wallich, and distri 
buted in 1829 to the principal Mu 
seums of Europe, was the most valu- 
able contribution of the kind ever 
made to science ; " and adds, '* that the 
origin of the tea-culture in the Hima- 
layas and Assam was almost entirely 
the work of the Superintendent of the 
Gardens at Calcutta and Saharanpur." 
The Superintendent has a house in the 
Gardens. Near it is the Herbarium, or 
collection of dried plants, probably the 
only one in Asia of the first class. 
There are from 80,000 to 40,000 species 
represented in it. Attached to the Her- 
barium is a very fine Botanic Library. 

GlTil Bngineexiiiff College, N. of 
the Gardens, including the Bishop's 
College, looks well from the river. 

Bairackpur sta., called by the natives 
Charnook, from Job Chamock, who 
resided there for a period. The journey 
may be made by rail, carriage, or by 
river, if the traveller can procure the 
loan of a steam launch. The trip up 
the river takes 3 hrs. , and is interesting 
and picturesque. If time permits, the 
river excursion may pleasantly be ex- 
tended to Serampore, Chandemagore, 
Chinsurah, and Hooffhly (see below). 

Just before reaching Barrackpur, 
there are some handsome modem 
temples on the 1. bank, then comes 
the beautiful park (rt.) with noble trees 
and a small pier as landing-place, at 
which the Viceroy's yacht very often 
lies. At 300 yds. to the S. of the 
house, under a fine tamarind tree, is a 
polygonal enclosure, within which is 
a white marble monument to Lady 
Canning ; it replaces that removed to 
the Cathedral at Calcutta. The Hall, 
built by the Earl of Minto in 1818, is 



100 yds. to the N. of the house, and 
stands within a colonnade of Corinthian 
pillars. Over the outside entrance is 
a bladt slab, inscribed — 

To the Memory of the Brave. 

On the walls are four Tablets erected 
by different Governors-General to the 
memory of British soldiers who fell in 
Mauritius and Java 1810-11, in Isle of 
France, Maharajpur, and Paniar, 1843. 

The House, whidi is the Viceroy's 
country residence, was commenced by 
Lord Minto, and enlarged to its present 
size by the Marquis of Hastings. It 
contains some interesting pictures of 
native princes. N. of the park is Bar- 
rackpur Cantonment. Iroops were 
first stationed there in 1772, when the 

Slace received its name. In 1824, 
uring the Burmese War, the 47th 
B. N. I., which was ordered on service, 
mutinied here on the 30th October, 
on which the Commander-in-Chief, Sir 
Edward Fa^et, proceeded to the can- 
tonment with two European regts., a 
battery of European artillery, and a 
troop of the Governor-Generars Body- 
guara. The mutinous regiment was 
drawn up in fiice of these troops, and 
was ordered to march, or ground arms. 
The Sepoys refused to obey, when the 
guns opened upon them, and throwing 
away their arms and accoutrements 
they made for the river. Some were 
shot down, some drowned, many hanged, 
and the regt. was struck out of the 
" Army List." Again, in 1867, there 
were Mutiny troubles here. 

Diun Dum sta., D.B., 4^ m. from Cal- 
cutta. A municipal town and canton- 
ment. There is a D.B. in the sta. 
(31,578 inhab.) It was the headquarters 
of the Bengal Artillery from 1783 till 
1853, when they were removed to 
Meerut ; and their mess-house is now 
the Soldiers' Club, and is known as the 
Outram InstitiUe, A bust of Sir James 
Outram stands in the verandah. 

In the centre of the Barrack Square 
is a huge gun which has seen some 
service. Near this is the monument 
to the officers and men killed in the 
Khaibar whilst returning from Kabul 
in 1841. The Treaty which testored 
the British settlements after the re* 



FBOM OALOUTTA UP THE W. BANK OF THE HOOGHLT 



63 



oaptore of Calcutta was siffned at Dam 
Dum. There is an En^ish Ohuroh 
~St Stephen's — a Romiw Catholic 
Chapel, and a Wesleyan Chapel. 
There is a SmaU Arm Ammunition 
Factory, which is guarded by British 
Infanliy. 

Polo, cricket, and football, snipe- 
shooting, and tank-fishinff are the 
amnsements of tiie place. Lord Clire 
had a house at Dum Dum, and Fairy 
Hall was occupied by Sir Henry 
Lawrence, when a Lieutenant. 

Prom Calcutta hy the K J. Kl/y, up the 
W, bank of the HoogMy, 

The Howrah sta. is on the W. bank 
of the Hooghly river, 200 yds. beyond 
the Hoo^y Bridge. This bridge 
opens on Tuesdays and Fridays for two 
hours for ships to pass. 

Madras time is kept at all stations, 
and is 33 min. behind Calcutta time. 
1st and 2d class return-tickets, avail- 
able for two months, are issued to any 
stiEition more than 180 m. distant, at the 
rate of one ordinary fare and a half. 
Holdere of monthly tickets, on arriving 
at a station where they intend breaking 
their journey must have inserted on their 
tickets the date and train of arrival, 
and when leaving the date and train 
of departure. Each first-class passenger 
may take 1} maunds of luggage free. 

24 UL Hooghly sta. (Hugli) and Chin- 
sorah (2 m. from Hooghly sta., see 
below), are bracketed together as one 
in the Census Report, and together 
cover an area of 6 sq. m. The pop. is 
31,000. Hooghly town is the adminis- 
trative headquarters of the district of 
the same name. It was founded by 
the Portuguese in 1547 A.D., when the 
royal port of Bengal, Satgaon, began 
to be deserted, owing to the silting up 
of the Saraswati, on which river it 
was situated. They commenced by 
building a fortress at Ghol^hat, close 
to the present Hooghly jail, some 
vestiges of which are still visible in 
the bed of the river. When Shah Jehan 
came to the throne, complaints were 
made to him of the conduct of the 
Portuguese at Hooghly. He sent a 
large force there ; the fort was besieged, 



and after 4} months was stormed. 
More than 1000 Portuguese were 
slain, and 4000 men, women, and chil' 
dren were captured. Out of 300 Portu- 
guese vessels only three escaped. The 
prisonen were sent to Agra, and 
forcibly converted to Islam. Satgaon 
was then abandoned for Hooghly, which 
was made the royal port, and was also 
the first settlement of the English in 
Lower Bengal. The £. I. Co. established 
a factory there in 1Q42, under & finnan 
from Sultan Shuja', Governor of Ben- 
gal, and second son of Shah Jehan. 
Thia firman was granted to Dr. Bough 
ton, who had cured a favourite daughter 
of the emperor, and who asked for it 
when desired to name his reward. In 
1669, the Company received permission 
to bring their ships to Hooghly to load, 
instead of transporting their goods in 
small vessels, and then shipping them 
into large. In 1685, a dispute took 
place between the English at Hooghly 
and the Nawab of Bengal, and the 
Company sent a foree to protect their 
Hooghly factories. It chanced that a 
few EDglish soldiers were attacked by 
the Nawab's men in the bazaars, and a 
street fight ensued. Colonel Nicholson 
bombarded the town, and burned 500 
houses, including the Company's ware- 
houses, containing goods to the value 
of £300, 000. The chief of the English 
factory was obliged to fly to Sutanuti, 
or Chattanatti, and take shelter with 
some native merchants. In 1742 
Hooghly was sacked by the Marathas. 
The principal thing to be seen at 
Hooghly is the Imambarah, built by 
Earamat 'Ali, the friend and companion 
of Arthur Connolly, at a cost of 800,000 
rs. from funds bequeathed by Muham- 
mad Mushin, who owned a quarter of 
the ^eat Saiyadpur estate, in Jessore 
District, and died m 1814, without heirs, 
leaving property worth £4500 a year for 
pious purposes. The trustees quar- 
relled, and Government assumed charge 
of the estate. During the litigation a 
fund of £86,110 had accumulated, and 
with this the Hooghly College was 
founded, in 1886. The faQade of the 
I Imambarah is 277 ft x 86 ft, and in 
its centre is a gateway flanked by two 
I minarets, or towers, 114 ft high* Qu 



84 



SX0UBSI0N8 IN THS TICINITT OF OALOUTTA 



India 



either aide of the door are inscriptions. 
Within is a quadrangle, 150 ft x 80 ft, 
with rooms all round, and a fine hall, 
paved with marble, having a pulpit 
with sides covered with plates of silver, 
and a verse of the Koran inscribed in 
each plate. The library was bequeathed 
hj Karamat 'Ali, but a few books have 
since been added by other people. 
Amonc them are 787 MSS., including a 
fine foUo Koran, in two vols., given by 
Prince Ghulam Muhammad, son of 
Tipu. On the opposite side of the road 
from this Imambarah is the old Imam> 
barah, bmlt in 1776-77. In the W. 
comer lie the remains of Karamat 'Ali, 
and there is a white marble tablet placed 
a^^st the wall, with an extract from 
the Koran, but no tomb. 

About 6 m. from Hooghly is ScUgaon, 
where there is a ruined mosque, 
which, together with a few tombs 
near it, is the only remnant of the 
old capital of Lower Bengal. It was 
built by Saiyad Jamalu-din, son of 
Fakhru-din, who, according to in- 
scriptions in the mosque, came from 
Amol, a town on the Caspian. The 
walls are of small bricks, adorned 
inside and out with arabesques. The 
central Mihrab is very nne. The 
arches and domes are in the later 
Pathan style. At the S.E. angle 
are three tombs in an enclosure. 
During the last century, the Dutch 
of Chinsurah had their country seats 
at Satgaon, to which they walked, 
in the middle of the day, to dine. 
The river of Satgaon, up to Akbar's 
time, formed the N. frontier of 
Orissa, and Satgaon flourished for 
not less than 1500 years. Three cen- 
turies ago the Hoognly flowed by the 
town. 

Chinsurah is written in the old 
Hindu books, Chiichimda or Ohim- 
chuda. Chinsurah was held by the 
Dutch for 180 years, and ceded by 
them to the English in exchange for 
Sumatra, in 1826. The old DiUeh 
Church, of brick, is said to have been 
built by the Governor in 1678. In 
it are 14 escutcheons, dating from 
1685 to 1770, and the inscriptions are 
in Dutch. 

The ffooghly OolUgi is to the S. of 



the church. There are 600 stadents. 
The cemetery is 1 m. to the W. of the' 
church ; the new part is tolerably well 
kept, but; not so the part where the 
ola tombs are. Many of them are of 
Dutch officials. 



Bandel is 1 m. N. of Hooghly and 
28 m. N. of Calcutta. The Portugew 
monastery and church was built in 
1599, and the keystoue with the date 
was erected in the new one, which is 
of brick, and very solidly built It it 
dedicated to Nossa Senhora di Rosario. 
There are fine cloisters on the S., and 
a priory, in whidi is a noble room cialled 
St Augustine's HalL The organ is 
good. The church was founded by the 
Augustinian Missionaries, demolished 
by Shah Jehan in 1640, and rebuilt by 
John Gomez di Soti. 



Serampore sta. The headquarters ot 
the subdivision of the same name is 
on the W. bank of the Hooghly, oppo- 
site Barrackpur, 13 m. from Calcutta 
(24,440 inhab.) Babu Bholanath Chan- 
dra, in his Travels of a Hindu, p. 6, 
says, ** Serampore is a snug little town, 
and possesses an exceeding elegance and 
neatness of appearance. The range of 
houses alone the river-side makes up a 
gay and brilliant picture. The streets 
are as brightly clean as the walks in a 
garden, but time was when Serampore 
had a busy trade, and 22 ships cleared 
from this small port in three months." 
Its chief claim to historical notice arises 
from the fact that it was the scene of the 
apostolic labours of Carev, MarahTnaTi, 
Ward and Mack. The zeal and successes 
of the Baptist missionaries of Seram- 
pore, at the beginning of this century, 
form one of the bri^test episodes of 
Kvangeliatic efforts in India. From 
its press proceeded 40 translations of 
the Scriptures. Serampore was for- 
merly a Danish settlement, and was 
then called Fredericksnafinr. The fine 
mansion of the Danish Governor now 
forms the Courts of Justice and admini- 
strative offices. In 1845 a treaty 
was made with the King of Den* 
mark, by which all the Danuh 



ROUTE 2. AURA.NGABAD 



66 



ms in India, namely, Tranqnebar, 

redericksnagar, and a small piece of 

oand at Bsdasore were transferred to 

le E. I. Company for £125,000. 

The old Danish Church (1805) cost 

1,500 rs., of which 1000 were given 

the Marquis Wellesley. There are 

ilets in memory of the above- 

itioned Baptist missionaries. Their 

lbs are in the native Christian 

pemetery, on the right hand of the 

Joad from the railway station. The 

ftrnrch is now Anglican. 

The College is a handsome building 
m the banks of the river, and com- 
ioands a fine view across it, over Bar- 
raekpur Park. The porch is supported 
by six pillars 60 ft high. On the 
ground floor are the Lecture-rooms, and 
in the floor above, the Great HaU, which 
u 103 ft. long, and 66 ft. broad. In 
pe Library are the following portraits : 
1. Madame Grand, by Zoflfany ; she 
tfterwards married Talleyrand (see 
hdme. de Remusat's Memoirs) ; 2. Dr. 
harshman, by Zoffany ; 3. Frederick 
VI. of Denmark ; 4. Frederick's wife, 
Qaeen of Denmark ; 5. copy of a 
iiadonna by Raphael; 6. Rev. W.Ward, 
fcy Penny. The library contains the 
first editions of Carey and Marshman*s 
Ibrty translations of the Bible ; also 
lome curious Sanscrit and Thibetan 
manuscripts, and an account of the 
ipoBtles drawn up by Xavier's nephew 
fcr Akbar. In the College compound 
k the house in which Carey lived and 
died, now inhabited by the Principal of 
the College. Before reaching the Col- 
lege the Mission Chapel is passed, with 
memorial slabs. 

The fine mansion next to the chapel, 
wMch was the common centre of the 
Semmpore brotherhood, with all Carey's 
park and botanic garden, is now the 
property of the India Jate Company. 
Here, from 1836 to 1875, the weekly 
friend of India was edited. 

Chandemagore sta. a^c The French 
inade a settlement here in 1673, and 
in the time of Dupleix more than 2000 
brick houses were built in the town. 
Mid a considerable trade was carried 
on. In 1757 the town was bombarded 
by the English fleet under Admiral 
Watson, and captured. The fortifi- 
\I'ndioi\ 



cations were demolished, but in 1763 
the town was restored to the French. 
In 1794 it was again captured by the 
English, and held till 1815, when it 
was again restored to the French, and 
has remained in their possession ever 
since. The railway station is just 
outside the French boundary. 

Chandernagore receives from the 
English 800 chests of opium on con- 
dition that the inhabitants do not 
engage in the manufacture of that 
article. A church stands on the bank 
of the river, tuilt by Italian mission- 
aries in 1726. Between Chandernagore 
and Chinsurah is Biderra, where the 
English obtained a decisive victory 
over the Dutch. It is said that the 
English commander was aware that his 
nation and the Dutch were at peace, 
and wrote to Clive for an order in 
council to fight. Clive was playing 
cards, and wrote in pencil: "Dear 
Forde, fight them to-day, and I will 
send you an order to-morrow. — Thurs- 
day 17ih, 1.30 p.m." 



ROUTE 2 
Bombay to Atjrangabad and tha 
Caves of Ellora by Nandgaon sta. 

Bombay (Victoria term.) to Nandgaon 
sta. 178 m. by the G. I. P. Rly. The 
medl tonga rans daily from Nandgaon 
to Auraugabad, a distance. of 56 m. 
in 9 hours — a fairly good road. Con- 
veyances to the Ellora Caves can be had 
only by special arrangement with the 
mail contractor at Nandgaon. 

Deogaon, D.B. a^c (36 m. from 
Nandgaon). 

The road to Roza and the caves leaves 
the main road from Auraugabad H m. 
beyond Deogaon, from whicb point 
the caves are 4^ m. distant. Some 
persons prefer to go first direct to 
Auraugabad, seeing Daulatabad, the 
caves, and other places of interest on 
the return journey. 

56 m. Auraugabad, D.B. This 
thriving city (pop. 8680), which has a 
considerable trade in cotton and wheat, 
was first called Ehirki, and was founded 
in 1610 by Malik Ambar, the head of 
the Abyssinian faction in the Ahmad- 
nagar state. The town lies to- the- E.^' 

F 



00 



aOUTJB S. BOMBAY TO AUBASGABAD 



India 



Um eantonment ttid the road to Dauk* 
tabad,Roia,and£UoTatothe W. 300 
yds. S. of the Old CemeUry^ 1 m. N.K of 
the city, is the grand Mansolensi of 
Babi'a Dnrrani, daughter of Aurangzib. 
The great door at the gateway is plated 
with braes, and along the edge is 
written, ' * This door of the noble mauso- 
leum was made in 1089 A.H., when 
Ateu'Uah was chief architect, by Haibat 
Rai." Near the inscription is an in- 
ftnitesimally small figure, which is said 
to be a bird, indistinctly carved, and 
there is a similar carving on the door 
ef the mausoleum itself. It is a com- 
mon joke amongst natives, when any 
1 asserts that he has been to Rabi'a s 



mausoleum, to ask if he saw the bird 
there, and if he answers in the negative, 
to dispute his having seen the mauso- 
kum at aU. In the garden is a long 
narrow basin of water, in which foun- 
tains used to play, and on either side 
of the water is a walk and ornamental 
wall, in the wall of the mausoleum 
is a second but much smaller door, only 
6 ft. high, plated with brass, where the 
second bird is pointed out. The carving 
of the flowers on this door is curious, 
and that of the dragons particularly so, 
and both are extremely like Japanese 
work. The bird is on the edge of the 
door close to the upper central knob. 
The cenotaph is enclosed in an octa- 
gonal screen of white marble lattice- 
work exquisitely carved, and stands on 
a raised marble platform. The place 
for the slab is empty, and nothing but 
earth appears. This is much approved 
hy Moslems, as showing humility. The 
Government of the Nizam has gone to 
tfreat expense in restoring this mauso- 
leam. The main fault of this otherwise 
1»eautiful building, which is compared 
to the Taj, is the want of sufficient 
height in the entrance archway. Ob- 
serve the curious roof of the gateway 
of the mausoleum. Below the right 
corner of the platform is a second tomb, 
said to contain the remains of Rabi'a 
Durrani's nurse. There is no inscrip- 
tion. In the gallery above the tomb is 
a marble door exquisitely carved. To 
the W. of the mausoleum is a mosque 
of brick faced with cement {chunam) oi 
a ^«>Tr*^g whiteness. The pavement is 



corered with tnciBga of prayer-oarpetik 
The mivibar, or pulpit, is of marble. 

The Pan Chakki or water-mill ii 
perhaps the prettiest and best kept 
shrine in this part of India. It is sitn- 
ated on the rt. of the road from th« 
cantonment to the Begampura bridge, 
and on the very edse of the Kham, ua 
river of Aurangabaa. To enter, turn to 
the rt into a heautiful garden by the 
side of a brimming tank of clear water, 
full of fish from 1 ft. to 8 ft. long, of 
a species called K?iol. This tank over- 
flows into a lower one, and that again 
into a narrow conduit. The saint en- 
tombed here (see below) is Baba Shah 
Muzaifar. He was a Chishii (memb^" of 
a theosophical sect amon^ the Mohain- 
medans), and came originally from 
Bokhara. He was the spiritual pre- 
ceptor of Aurangzib. His successor ii 
still in charge of the place. Beyond 
the first tank and the omameDtal 

farden is a second and much larger one. 
t is entirely supported on vaults, on 
two rows of massive pillars. The weight 
of the great body of water resting oh 
them is enormous, and altogether it is 
a remarkable work. Below is a noble 
hall reached by steep steps down ti) the 
level of the nver. On the rt of the 
second tank is a fine mosque, the roof 
of which is supported by four rows (4 
massive pillars. In two of the row» 
the pillars are of teak, and in two of 
masonry. At the S.W. comer of this 
mosque, in a little garden, is the Tomb 
of the saint. It is of beautiful light- 
coloured marble, but very diminutive. 
After leaving the Pan Chakki^ drive 
4 m. N. to the Mecca Gate of the city, 
and the Mecca Bridge^ which are prob- 
ably some centuries old. The gateway 
from the top of the parapet is 42 ft 
above the road which passes over the 
bridge. The flanking towers are sur- 
mounted by domes. Inside thegate there 
is a black stone mosque built hy Malik 
Ambar. In the centre is a niche with the 
Divine Name, and "Victory is near." 
Above that is the KaJimah, and some 
verses of the Koran written in difficult 
Titghra (ornamental characters and used 
in royal signatures). Olofle hy is a recess 
with a bell-shaped ornament. This is 
perhaps the oldest mosque in the city. 



BOUTB 2. QJkYJSa OF AUBANOABjLD 



67 



Thd CtofttUMBi (UKoM are 2 m. 

to the &B. of the cantonment, and 
k ot near the Arkilla or citadel built 
ly^Aurangzib. This spot not long ago 
was entirely covered with cactus and 
jangle, the haunt of hyenas and other 
wild animals. It was, however, the 
flite of gentlemen's houses in the reign 
of Aurangzib, when Aurangabad was 
tike capital of the Deccan. Sir Salar 
Jang ordered the site to be cleared, 
end when this was done, numerous 
reservoirs, fountains, and other works of 
interest were discovered. These have 
bien repaired, and the wilderness has 
literally been changed into a blooming 
nrden. On the high ground looking 
down upon the Bevenue Settlement 
Officer's Booms, and on those of the 
Municipality, is a fine hall, and in front 
dit is a beautiful tank of most pel- 
lucid water. Behind the hall is a 
well -arranged garden, and in rear 
of that again is the Bardhdari, or 
QonsemmerU House, with a fine fountain 
:in front. The fa9ade of the Barahdari 
lis ornamented with lace-like patterns 
i in white chunam . Only one archway of 
inrangzib's citadel remains, but here 
S3 great princes, like the Maharajas 
of Jeypore and Jodhpnr, attended the 
<ettrt of the £mperor with thousands 
of armed retainers, and Aurangabad 
was then the Delhi of the South. As 
loon as Aurangzib died the princes 
departed, and Aurangabad sank at 
once into comparative insignificance. 
The Jninma Mnsjid is on the right 
of the road, amid a grove of some of 
the finest trees in India. One 
immense Ficus indica stands close on 
the road and shades some 800 ft. of 
it The Mosque is low and so are the 
minarets. But the facade is rendered 
striking by an ornamental band of 
ouving 2 ft. broad along the whole 
front Over the central niche are the 
Kalimah and inscriptions in Tughra 
writing as in Malik Ambar's Mosque. 
This moeque is wonderfully well kept, 
ud there is, what is not seen anywhere 
eke, a net covering the entire fa^de, 
n that no birds or other creatures can 
enter. Malik Ambar built half this 
iBogque, and Aurangzib the other half. 
TheOaves of Avo'angdbad are beyond 



the N. ontskirta of the city near Rabi'a 
Durrani's mausoleum, from which it la 
necessary to ride or walk to the foot of the 
hiUs, which are here about 500 ft. high. 
The ground at the base of the hill is 
very ix)ugh, and intersected with deep 
ravines. The visitor will have to climb 
over a very rough and slippery rock 
about 250 n;. up to the caves. He will 
then see the mausoleum of Babi'a 1^ 
m. to the S.E. Steps lead to the 
entrance of Ca/oe No, 1, On the left 
of the door is Buddha in the teaching 
attitude, that is, holding the little 
finger of the left hand oetween the 
thumb and forefinger of the rights 
A Gandharva is flying nearly over 
Buddha's head. On the left is the 
Padmapani, '^ lotus holder,'' an attend- 
ant. The other attendant on the right 
is Yajrapani, "lightning holder." 
Above the side door on tne left are 
three Buddhas, two of which are cross- 
legged, and the third is in the teaching 
attitude with the usual attendants. On 
the right of the main entrance are 
Buddha and three figures similar to 
those on the left. A lai^ figure of 
Buddha, of black stone, 6 rt. hij^h, sita 
facing the entrance to the shrine. A 
circle in relief on the wall represents a 
halo round his head. Padma and Vajra 
are one on either side as usual, with 
Gandharvas over their heads. This 
cave has been whitewashed, and the 
white patch on the side of the hill 
can be seen from a nule off in the plain 
below. There is an ornament like 
prongs round the archway. 

Ca-oe No. ;^ is a Ohaitya Hall with c 
semicircular roof with stone ribs, like 
the Yis^wakarma Cave at Ellora, and 
a triforium. It consists of a nave 15 
ft. long on either side, besides a bow or 
curve 17 ft long. Near the end of the 
nave there is a dagoba with a *^Tee" 
very perfect. The ribs of the roof are 
13 ft. above the cupola of the dagoba. 
Cave No, ^ is a vihara. The outer 
verandah is ruined. The centre hsJl 
is portioned off as usual by twelve 
pillars, with plain bases, shafts, and 
brackets. There is the usual vestilmle 
and sanctuary. The oentral Buddha 
is 9 ft. 6 in. high. On either side are 
seven worshipping figures. Cave Na^ 



68 



BOUTB 2. BOMBAY TO AnBANGABAB 



India 



4 18 a small vihara. Baddha is seated 
on a Smghtuan in the teaching attitude. 
All round on the wall are smaller 
Buddhas. The sanctuary is 8 ft. 4 in. 
square. The Vajrapani has a da- 
goba in his crest, and two figures of 
Buddha. The Nagas, known by their 
snake-heads, stand at the sides of the 
two attendants. A good example of 
the dagoba crest or Tee is in the 
corridor to your right as you enter, after 
passing the first division, about the 
middle in point of height. Cave No. 6 
is higher up in the face of the cliff, and 
is not worth the trouble of a visit. 
These caves are, as is generally the case, 
in the centre of a semicircular ridge, as 
at EUora. At the distance of 300 yds. 
from the foot of the hill on the descent 
is reached a beautiful cluster of trees, 
of which the principal are two im- 
mense specimens of the Indian fig tree. 

There are many other places of interest 
to be seen in the hills around. The 
journey to DaulcUabad from Awranga- 
bad^ 9 m. , can be done in one hour and 
a half in a tonga with two good horses. 
3 m. from Aurangabad is the village of 
MUmiUia, 

It will be necessary to arrange before- 
hand for a relay of horses at Daulata- 
bad to get on to Roza {the tomb), 7 m. , 
the same day. Near Daulatabad a 
ghat or steep hill is passed, which tries 
the horses very much, and sometimes it 
is necessary to have coolies, or labourers, 
to assist them. Permission must be 
obtained from the British station staff- 
officer to see the fort of Daulatabad. 

Daulatabad (Deogiri) a 13th cent, 
fortress, 8 m. from Aurangabad, is 
built on a huge isolated conical rock of 
granite about 500 ft. high, with a per- 
pendicular scarp of from 80 to 120 ft. all 
round the base. At the base is a strag- 
gling patch of houses and huts, which 
is all that remains of the native town. 
It is defended by a loop-holed wall 
with bastions which on the E. side joins 
the scarp of the fort. At the bottom 
of the scarp is a ditch, before reaching 
which four lines of wall, including the 
outside wall of the town, must be 
passed. The fosse can be crossed 
only in one place by a stone causeway, 
80 narrow that only two men can obtain 



a footing on it abreaat, and commanded 
on the side near the fort by a battle- 
mented outwork. The only means of 
ascending the rock is through a narrow 
passage hewn in the solid stone, and 
leading to a large vault in the interior. 
From this a ramp or gallery, gradually 
sloping upwards, and also excavated 
in the solid rock, winds round in the 
interior. The first part of the ascent 
is easy ; towards the end it is difficult 
The height of the passage averages 
from 10 to 12 ft, with an equal breadth, 
but it is so dark that torches are requi- 
site. The entrance is on the £. side, 
past 2 gates armed with very formidable 
spikes of iron to resist elephants ; at 
the third gate there are 3 Hmdn pillars 
and 3 pilasters on either side. Facing 
this third gate is a bastion 56 ft. hig£ 
It has a balcony or gallery with Hindu 
curved supports, and is called the 
Nakar Ehana, or music gallery. It 
has a small window on which are 
carved in alto-relievo two leopards like 
those in the royal shield of England. I 
The fourth archway faces to the E., | 
and beyond it on the right is an old 
Hindu temple, with a broken lamp 
tower 13 ft. high. On the left of the 
road is a small chaUri, or pavilion, 
which is the dargah of the Pir-i-Kados. 
Passing along the side of a tank, and 
turning to the 1., there is an entrance 
to a mosque which was first a Jain 
temple and then a place of worship 
of Kali. Prayers are said here in 
Ramazan, and at the Bakri 'Id, other- 
wise it is not used. On the rt. of 
the central dome, looking W., in a 
niche, is a stone covered with a San- 
scrit inscription, whitewashed over and 
placed on its side. Going out of the 
temple to the K. is a minaret said 
to have been erected by the Moham- 
medans in commemoration of their 
first capture of the place. It was built 
in 1435, according to a Persian inscrip- 
tion in one of the chambers in the 
foundation. From the window above 
the third gallery an admirable view is 
obtained. The fifth gateway leads to 
a platform, which goes partly round 
the hill, and has on the rt. a building 
called the Chini Mahal, in which 
Hasan Shah, last kisg of Oolkonda^ 



ROUtB 2. ROZA OR KHULDABAD 



69 



was imprisoned for thirteen years. 
Ascend here to a bastion, on which is 
a caxmon indented in two places by 
cannon balls. It is called Eil'ah Shi- 
kan, leveller of forts, and is 21 ft. 10 
in. long, and the muzzle h£ts a diameter 
of 8 in. It was made by Muhammad 
Hasan the Arab. The really difficult 
and in former times impregnable part 
of the fortress is n9w entered. Cross- 
ing a narrow modem stone bridge, con- 
structed to replace the movable planks, 
that formerly were the only means of 
entering, the ditch that surrounds the 
citadel is now passed. To the 1. of the 
bridge and overlooking the moat are 
the extensive ruins of a Hindu palace 
with remains of some excellent carving 
in wood and stone. Continuing to 
ascend by a flight of steps and rock- 
cut passages at the place where the 
tufa and limestone strata join, and 
eventually emerging from a tunnel, we 
reach a platform, and look out over a 

garden with immense nests of hornets 
anging from the branches of the trees. 
Passing on we come to an opening 
covered over with an iron shutter 20 
ft. long and 1 in. thick, made in ribs 
(part of it U gone), which in case 
of siege was heated red hot, so that 
if assailants could have penetrated so 
far, they would have encountered a fiery 
roof quite unapproachable. To provide 
ventilation for the fire a large hole has 
been tunnelled through the rock close 
by. Passing a gateway, and the shrine 
of the Fakir Sukh Sultan, we come 
to a Barahdari, or pavilion, from which 
there is a fine view. It is believed to 
have been the residence of the Hindu 
Princes of Deogiri, and was a favourite 
summer resort of the Emperor Shah 
Jehan and his son Aurangzib. The 
pavilion has a wide verandah, with a 
precipice of from 100 to 200 ft. in 
front, and a view to Aurangabad on 
the E. and to Roza on the N. In the 
direction of Aurangabad is the small 
isolated hill of Chaman Tekri, upon 
which are the ruins of Hindu temples 
of great antiquity. 100 steps more 
must be climbed to reach the Citadel 
itself, on a platform 160 ft. x 120 ft. 
At the W. comer is a one-gun battery, 
60 ft X 30 ft. The gun is 19 ft 6 in. 



long, with a bore of 7 in. On one 
bastion is a large gun, on which is a 
Guzerati inscription, saying . that the 
funds for its constraction were provided 
by certain Banias, and also a Persian 
inscription, naming the gun "Creator of 
Storms." Tavemier says that the gun 
on the highest platform was raised to its 
place undisr the directions of a European 
artilleryman in the service of the Great 
Mogul, who had been repeatedly refused 
leave to return to his native land, but 
was promised it if he could mount 
the gun on this spot. Stimulated by the 
promise, he at last succeeded. 

In the year 1293 'Alan -din, after- 
wards Emperor of t)elhi, took the city 
of Deogiri (Daulatabad). The citadel 
still held out He raised the siege on 
receiving an almost incredible ransom, 
15,000 lbs. of pure gold, 176 lbs. of 
pearls, 50 lbs. of diamonds, and 25,000 
lbs. of silver. In 1338 a.d. Muhammad 
Shah Tughlak attempted to establish 
his capital in the Deccan, removed 
the inhabitants of Delhi to Deogiri, 
strengthened the fortifications, and 
changed the name to Daulatabad. His 
plans, however, were finally baffled. 

The road (7 m.) to Roza and the 
caves of EUora is up the steep hill called 
Pipal Ghat. It was paved by one of 
Aurangzib's courtiers, as recorded on 
two pillars about half-way up the hill, 
where there are fine views. 

Roza (or properly Itauza) or Khul- 
dabad, a^c a walled town, 2000 ft. above 
the sea (2218 inhab.) It is 2 m. from 
the caves of EUora and 14 m. N. W. of 
Aurangabad. Tongas or light carts can 
be taken up or down the ghats. An 
annual Fair is held here on 7th Feb., 
at which thousands of people assemble. 

Roza possesses a pleasant and tem- 
perate climate, and is largely used as a 
sanitarium during the summer months. 
It is the Kerbela (a holy shrine) of 
the Deccan Mussulmans, and is cele- 
brated as the burial-place of many 
distinguished Mohammedans, amongst 
whom are the Emperor Aurangzib and 
his second son, Azim Shah ; Asaf Jah, 
the founder of the Hyderabad dynasty ; 
Nasir Jung, his second son ; Malik 
Ambar, the powerful minister of the last 
of the Nizam Shahi kings ; Thanah Shah, 



70 



ttOUtl 2. BOllfiAt HO AtmA^QA^AD 



tftMa 



the ezUed and impruoned king of Gol- 
k<mda ; and a host of minor celebrities. 

Roza once contained a considerable 
population, bat the place is now in 
great pert deserted. It is surrounded by 
a high stone wall (built by Aurangzib) 
with battlements and loopholes. Old 
and ruinous mosques and tombs abound 
in every direction on each side of the 
road. 

Midway between the K. and S. gates 
of the city is the llansoleiim of Aor- 
angiib. An ascent of 30 yds. leads to 
the domed porch and gateway, erected 
about 1760 by a celebrated dancing girl 
of Aurangabad : within it is a large 
quadrangle. Som^ of the surrounding 
buildings are used as rest-houses for 
travellers, and one as a school. In the 
centre of the S. side is an exquisite little 
Nakar Khana, or music hall, from the 
galleries of which music is played when 
festivals or fairs are celebrated. The 
W. side is occupied by a large mosque, 
the roof of which is supported on scal- 
loped arches. Facing the K. end of 
the mosique is a small open gateway 
leading into an inner courtyard, in the 
S.E. angle of which is the door of 
Aurangzib's tomb itself. Above the 
door is a semicircular screen of carved 
wood. The grave, which is uncovered, 
lies in the middle of a stone platform 
raised about half a foot from the floor. 
It is overshadowed by the branches of 
a tree (Bukuli) which bears sweet- 
smelling flowers, otherwise it is quite 
open to sun and rain, as it should be, 
according to orthodox Mohammedan 
ideas. This emperor, who was a man 
of austere piety, is said before his death 
to have desired that his sepulchre 
should be poor and unpretentious, in 
accordance with the tenets of the 
Koran. The tomb is plain almost to 
meanness, from which it is only 
redeemed by the beauty of the delicate 
marble screen, 5 ft. high, which encloses 
the lower portion on the W. side. It 
is a remarkable circumstance that he, 
who had erected such a magnificent 
mausoleum over his wife Rabi'a Durani 
at Aurangabad, should have desired 
such a lowly sepulchre himself ; but it 
is generally believed that his son, Azim 
Shah, who was near him at the time of 



his death, and his courtiMs, leHgiously 
obeyed hia wish in interring his remains 
in this manner, and in a place sanctified 
by the tomb of a celebrated Moham- 
medan saint. He is said to have 
"desired in his wiU that his fiinetal 
expenses should be defrayed from the 
proceeds of caps which he had quilted 
and sold, and this amount did not 
exceed 10s. ; while the proceeds of the 
sale of his copies of the Koran, 805 n., 
were distributed to the poor." 

Fifteen or twenty paces to the E. of 
Aurangzib's tomb is a small (quadran- 
gular enclosure of marble, within which 
are three graves, the one on the right 
being that of the daughter of the 
Mohammedan saint buned close by; 
the next that of Azim Shah, Aurang- 
zib's second son, attached to which is 
a small marble headstone carved with 
floral devices ; and the one beyond is 
the grave of Azim Shah*8 wife. The 
whole is surrounded by a plain screen 
of white marble. Midway between 
these tombs and that of Aurangzib is 
the Mausoleum of Sayyad Zainu-diny 
on the E. side of which are inscribed a 
number of verses from the Koran, and 
the date of the Saiyad's death, 1370 A.D. 
This tomb, however, was erected many 
years after that period by one of his 
disciples. The doors of the shrine 
are inlaid with silver plates of some 
thickness ; the steps below it are em- 
bellished with a number of curiously cut 
and polished stones, said to have been 
brought here from time to time by 
fakirs and other religious devotees of 
the shrine. A little distance to the 
rear of this tomb is a small room built 
in an angle of the courtyard wall, which 
is said to contain the robe of the 
Prophet Mohammed. It is carefully 
preserved under lock and key, and is 
only exhibited to the gaze of the 
faithful once a year, the 12th Rabiu-1- 
Awal (March). 

Opposite the tombs of Aurangzib 
and his son is that of Asaf Jah, the 
first of the Nizams of Hyderabad. 
The entrance is through a large quad- 
rangle, having open-fronted buildings 
on all sides, ana a Nakar Khana, or 
music hall, at the E. end. The W. 
end is used as a school for instruction 



ttOUTE 2. THE CAVES OF ELLORA 



71 



in the Koran. A door at this end 
gives access to an inner courtyard in 
whkh are a number of ffravjes. Facing 
the entrance are the snrines of Asaf 
Jah and one of his consorts, surrounded 
by a lattice screen of red sandstone, 
and that of Sayyad Haarat Burhanu- 
din^ a saint of great renown amongst 
Mohammedans, who died at Boza, 
1344. The Sayyad is said to have 
left Upper India with 1400 discii)les 
a few years before the first invasion 
of the Deccan by 'Alau-din, 1294, 
for the purpose of propagating the 
tenets of his faith amongst the Hindus 
of this portion of India. Deposited 
within tne shrine are some hairs of the 
Prophet's beard, which are said to in- 
crease yearly in number. The shrine, 
however, boasts of a still more remark- 
able treasure, which is described by the 
attendants as follows : * * For some years 
after its erection, the disciples of the 
Saiyad were without means to keej) it 
in repair, or to provide themselves with 
the necessaries of life. Supplication 
to the deceased saint, however, pro- 
duced the following remarkable pheno- 
menon. During the night small trees 
of silver grew up through the pavement 
on the S. side of the shrine, and were 
regularly removed every morning by 
the attendants. They were broken up 
and sold in the bazaars, and with the 
proceeds thus realised the Saiyad 's dis- 
ciples were enabled to maintain the 
shrine and themselves. This remark- 
able production of silver is said to have 
continued for a number of years, until 
a small jagir was allotted to the shrine, 
since which time the pavement has 
only yielded small buds of the precious 
metal, which appear on the surface at 
night and recede during the day." In 
proof of these assertions the visitor is 
shown a number of small lumps of 
silver on the surface of the pavement. 
The shrine doors are covered with plates 
of white and yellow metal wrought into 
designs of trees and flowers. 

Small game is plentiful in this neigh- 
bourhood. 

24 m. from Rozais the native village 
of Knnhur, in the fertile valley of the 
Sinna. 20 m. farther is Chalisgaon, 
on the G. I. P. Rly. 



The Caves of Bliora.' 
Ellora {Elura or VertU), « about 14 
m. from Boza, a village in the Nizam's 
Dominions. Distant S. W. from Ajirani- 
gabad 14 m., from Drulatabad 7 m. 
Pop. 742. The village is partly walled^ 
ana contains a Monammedan shrine 
famed throughout the Deccan for its 
marvellous healing powers. Ellora is 
famous for its highly remarkable series of 
rock-caves and temples, situated in a 
crescent-shaped hill or plateau. They are 
first mentioned by Ma'sudi, the Arabic 
geographer of the 10th cent., but merely 
as a celebrated place of pilgrimage. They 
were visited in 1306 hy Ala-ud-din or 
his generals, when, as Dow {History of 
Hindostan) relates, the capture occurred 
of a Hindu princess of Guzerat, who was 
hero in concealment from the Moham- 
medans, but was afterwards carried to 
Delhi and married to the emperor's son. 
Contrasting the caves of Ellora 
and Ajanta, Mr. Fergusson writes j 
** Architecturally the Ellora caves 
differ from those of Ajanta, fax con- 
sequence of their being excavated in 
the sloping sides of a hill, and not 
in a nearly perpendicular cliff. From 
this formation of the ground almost all 
the caves at Ellora have courtyards in 
front of them. Frequently also an 
outer wall of rock, with an entrance 
through it, left standing, so that the 
caves are not generally seen from the 
outside at all, and a person might pass 
along their front withont being aware 
of their existence, unless warned of the 
fact." The caves extend along the face 
of the hill for 1 J m. They are divided 
into three distinct series, the Buddhist, 
the Brahmanical, and the Jain, and are 
arranged almost chronolomcally. 

"The caves," writes Dr. Burgess, 
•* are excavated in the face of a hill, or 
rather the scarp of a large plateau, and 
run nearly N. and S. for about IJ m., 
the scarp at each end of this interval 
throwing out a horn towards the W. 
It is where the scarp at the S. end 
begins to turn to the W. that the 
earliest caves — a group of Buddhistic 
ones — are situated, and in the N. horn 
is the Indra Sabha or Jain group, at 
1 Ellora is 45 m. from Nandgaon sta. The 
road passes (9 m.) Deqgaon (D.B.), see p. 66. 



72 



BOUTE 2. BOMBAT TO AUBANaASAB 



Iniia 



the other extremity of the series. Tlie 
ascent of the ghat passes up the S. side 
of Eailas, the third of the Brahmanical 
group, and over the roof of the Das 
Avatar, the second of them. Sixteen 
caves Ue to the S. of Eailas, and nearly 
as many to the N., hut the latter are 
flcattereid over a greater distance. 
"Most of the caves have got dis- 



are 5 at the extreme N. There are 
also some cells and a colossal Jain image 
on the N. side of the same spur in 
which is the Indra Sahha." Amongst 
the Buddhist, the most important are 
the Dherwara, the oldest ; the Vish- 
wakarma, or Carpenter's Cav& a 
Chaitya with a ribbed roof, a parallelo- 
gram about 85 ft. long ; the Don Tal (2 




The Dherwara. 



tinguishing names from the Brahman s ; 
but it may be quite as convenient, for 
the sake of reference, to number them 
from S. to N., beginning with the 
Buddhistic caves, of which there are 
12, and passing through the Brah- 
manical series, of which 17 are below 
the brow of the scarp, and a large 
number of smaller ones above, and end- 
ing with the Jain caves, of which there 



The Kailas. 



storeyed, really 3) ; and Tin Tal (3 
storeys). The Das Avatar is the oldest 
of the Brahmanical series. The great 
hall is 143 ft. long, and is supported 
by 46 pillars. 

The most splendid of the whole series 
is the Eailas, a perfect Dravidian 
temple, complete in all its parts, char- 
acterised by Fergusson as one of the 
most wonderful and interesting menu- 



ROUTE 3. BHUSAWAL 



73 



ments of architectural art in India. 
" It is not a mere interior chamber cut 
in the rock," continues Mr. Fergusson, 
** but is a model of a complete temple 
such as might have been erected on the 
plain. In other words, the rock has 
been cut away externally as well as 
internally." This temple is said to 
have been excavated about the 8th cent 
by Raja Elu of Ellichpur—but the style 
and other evidence point to its having 
been constructed in the reign of Danti- 
durga, the Rashtrakuta king, 730-765 
A. D. Dedicated to Shiva, itis surrounded 
with figures also of Vishnu and the 
whole Puranic pantheon. The interior, 
and parts at least, of the exterior have 
been painted. Unlike any of the pre- 
ceding cave-temples, Eailas is a great 
monoUthic temple, isolated from sur- 
rounding rock, and profusely carved out- 
side as well as in. It stands in a great 
court averagiug 164 ft. wide by 276 ft. 
long at the level of the base, entirely cut 
out of the solid rock, and with a scarp 
107 ft high at the back. In front of 
this court a curtain has been left, carved 
on the outside with the monstrous forms 
of Shiva and Vishnu and their congeners, 
and with rooms inside it. It is pierced 
in the centre by an entrance passage 
with rooms on each side. Passing this, 
the visitor is met by a large sculpture 
of Lakshmi over the lotuses, with her 
attendant elephants. As we enter, to 
right and left is the front portion of 
the court, which is a few feet lower 
than the rest, and at the N. and S. ends 
of which stand two ^gantic elephants, 
— that on the S. much mutilated. Turn- 
ing again to the E. and ascending a few 
steps, we enter the great hall of the 
temple. In front of it, and connected 
by a bridge, is a mandapam for the Nandi 
BuU, and on each side of this mandapam 
stands a pillar, 45 ft high. On the N. 
side of the court is a series of excava- 
tions in two tiers with finely sculptured 
pillars. Another magnificent Brahmani- 
cal cave temple is that of Dumar Lena, 
measuring 150 ft each way. " One of 
the finest Hindu excavations existing." 
From here a footpath leads to 
(1 m.) the fine series of Jain caves, the 
Jagannath, and Indra Sabhas, at the 
N. end. 



ROUTE 8. 

Bhubawal via Nagpuu to Calcutta. 
(G.I.P. and Bengal-Nagpur Rlys.) 

By this line a new route from 
Bombay to Calcutta (1278 m., or about 
125 m. shorter than any other) is 
opened up. It taps an immense 
. territory of the Central Provinces which 
has hitherto been inaccessible to ex- 
ternal trade, and provides an outlet for 
the great wheat and seed -producing 
district of (Mattisgarh, "the granary 
of India. " The scenery in parts of the 
line, notably at Dare iTcwsa, Dongar- 
garhf and SarancUit is very fine. 

The route from Bombay to 

276 m. Bhusawal June (R.) is de- 
scribed in Rte. 1. 

Soon after leaving Bhusawal the 
traveller enters the Province of Berar 
(pop. 2,896,670), which continues 
almost all the way to Nagpur. It 
belongs to H.H. the Nizam, but was 
assigned to the British by a treaty, in 
1853, for the support of the Hyderabad 
Contingent force. This treaty was 
remodelled in December 1860, by 
which, for the Nizam's services in the 
Mutiny of 1857, his debt of 50 lakhs 
was cancelled, the districts of Dharaseo 
and the Raichur Doab were restored, 
and the confiscated territory of Shola- 
pur was ceded to him. 

The traveller cannot fail to be struck 
with the fertility of this Province, 
which is one of the richest and most 
extensive cotton-fields in India. The 
soil is black loam overlying basalt. 
The rainfall is regular and abundant, 
and at harvest-time the whole surface 
is one immense waving sheet of crops. 
The districts into which Berar is 
divided are Akola, Amraoti, Elichpur, 
Buldana, Wun, and Basim. 

333 m. Jalamb junc. sta. 

[Branch 8 m. S. to Khamgaon sta., 



74 



ttOUTB 3. BHtTBAWAL tO CALOJ'MA 



India 



where there is an important ootton- 
mart.] 

840 m. Sheagaon sta. (R.), D.B. 

363 m. Akola sta. is the head- 
auarters station of the West Berar 
district of that name. 

[A road from Akola runs S. 72 m. to 
the important town and military station 
of Hingoli. About 30 m. from Akola 
is the town of Mekar, and 16 m. S. of 
Mekar is a celebrated soda lake called 
LonaVf formed in the crater of an extinct 
volcano. The salt is used for washinc 
and dyeing purposes, and is exported 
in considerable quantities. The area 
of the Akola district is 2659 sq. m., 
pop. 592,800.] 

413 m. Badnera June. sta. (R.), D.B. 

[Br. 6 m. N. to Amraoti sta. (R.), 
D.B. Both places have cotton-marts, 
and there are cotton-gins and ware- 
houses. Amraoti is the headquarters 
of the district of that name, and has 
the usual public offices attached to a 
civil station.] 

472 m. Wardha June. sta. (R.), D.B. 
The chief town of the most westerly 
district of the Central Provinces. The 
place is auite modern, dating only from 
1866, ana is a considerable cotton-mart. 
Here is a Medical Mission of the Free 
Church of Scotland, with fine hospital 
and leper asylum. 

[Branch S. to the Warora coal-fields. 

21 m. Hinganghat sta., D.B., a very 
important old cotton-market. 

45 m. Warora terminus sta., a 
town in the Chanda district of the 
Central Provinces, and a considerable 
cotton -mart Close to Warora are 
mines of fairly good coal ; 3000 tons a 
month have been supplied to the rail- 
way, the yearly out-turn has been 
about 100,000 tons. 

30 m. S.E. of Warora is Chanda, 
D.B., reached by a good road. This 
place is the headquarters of the Chanda 
district. Too far off the main lines of 
communication to be visited by hurried 



travellers, it is yet a most attractive 
spot. The town is surrounded by a 
continuous wall of cut stone 5^ m. in 
circuit Inside the walls are detached ; 
villages and cultivated fields. The I 
folia^ is beautiful and there are ex- 
tensive forest -preserves near. The 
tombs of the Gond kings, and the 
temples of Achaleswar, Maha Kali, and 
Murlidhar, are all worth a visit At 
Ldlpety in the town, a large space is 
covered with monolith figures otgigan- 
tic size which appear to have been pre- 
pared for some great temple never 
erected. Cunningham, in reviewing 
the travels of Hiouen Thsang in South- 
ern India in the 7th century, con- 
siders that Chanda has a strong claim 
to be considered the capital of the 
kingdom of Maha-Eosala. Here a 
traveller would see the Gonds, a people 
differing from the surrounding popula- 
tion in religion, language, and race.] 

520 m. Nagpiir,30c is the capital 
of the Central Provinces, which have an 
area of 112,912 s(^m. (pop. 10,761,630). 
The district of Nagpur itself has an 
area of 3786 sq. m. Among the in- 
habitants are upwards of 2,000,000 of 
aborigines called Gonds ; and of these the 
hill-tribes have black skins, flat noses, 
and thick lips. A cloth round the waist 
is their chief garment. The religions 
belief varies from village to viUage. 
Nearly all worship the cholera and Sie 
small-pox, and there are traces of serpent 
worship. • 

The ancient history of the Province 
is very obscure. In the 5th century 
A.D. a race of foreigners, YavanaSt 
ruled from the Satpura plateau, and 
between the lOtli and 13th centuries, 
Rajputs of the Lunar Race governed 
the country round Jubbnlpore, and the 
Pramars of Malwa ruled territory 
S. of the Satpuras. The Chanda 
dynasty of Gonds reigned probably 
as early as the 10th or 11th cen- 
tury, and the Hailiayas of Chattis- 
garh were of ancient date. In 1398 
A.D. there were princes reigning at 
Kherla, on the Satpura plateau, and 
Ferishtah says ** they possessed all the 
hills of Gondwana.*' In 1467 they 
were conquered by the Bahmani 



ttOt^TE 3. NAGt^t^tt 



?6 



kinjfs. The next century the Gonds 
again rose to power, but in 1741 the 
Maratha Bhonslas invaded the country. 
In 1818 the English annexed the 
Saugar and Nerbudda territories, and 
In 1853 Kagpur and other districts, 
whicii in 1861 Lord Canning formed 
into the Central Provinces. 

Nagpur, situated on the small stream 
called the Nag (pop. 117,900), is the 
headquarters of the administration of 
the Central Provinces. The munici- 
pality includes, besides the city, the 
suburb and the European station of 
Sitdbaldi, In the centre stands Sita- 
baldi Hill, crowned with the fort of the 
same name, which commands a Une 
view. Below to the N. and W. is the 
prettily wooded civil station of Nagpur. 
Beyond to the N. are the military lines 
and bazaars, and beyond these the 
suburb of Takli, once the headquarters 
of the Nagpur Irregular force. There 
is a fine new Residency on Takli Hill, 
but the Chief Commissioner resides 
chiefly at Pachmari on the Satpuras. 
Close under the S. side of the hill is the 
native suburb of Sitabaldi. Below the 
glacis is the railway station ; beyond is 
the Jumma Talao, a large tank ; and 
more to the E. is the city, hidden in 
foliage. Three great roads lead from the 
European station to the city, one on 
I the N. and one on the S. bank of the 
tank ; the third, which is the most N. 
of all, crosses the railway by a bridge 
to the N. of the station. Besides the 
Jumma Talao, there are two other fine 
I tanks, the Ambajhari and Telingkheri, 
! in the neighbourhood. The chief 

fftrdens are the Maharaj Bagh, in 
itabaldi, the Tulsi Bagh, inside the 
! city, and the Paldi, Shakardara, Sona- 
gaon, and Telingkheri in the suburbs. 
The traveller wUl remember that 
Kagpur is famous for its delicious 
oranges, large numbers of which are 
exported during the first three months 
of the year. His first visit may be to the 
Sitahaldi HilL Here, on the 26th and 
27th of November 1817, the Maratha 
troops of the Bhonsla Raja, Apa Sahib, 
attacked the Resident, Mr., afterwards 
Sir R. Jenkins, and the few troops he 
had been able to assemble. After a 
desperate engagement, during which 



the Marathi at one tioae got possession 
of one of the two eminences of the 
Sitabaldi HiU, the English were at 
length victorious. The Resident was 
then joined by fresh troop, and de- 
manded the surrender of the Raja and 
the disbandment of his army. Thib 
latter point was only obtained after a 
second battle, in which the Marathi 
were completely routed. 

Apa Sahib escaped and died in exile. 
A child was raised to the throne under 
the title of Raghoji III., and on his 
death, in 1853, the country was annexed 
by the British. On the 13th of June 
1857 the native cavalry conspired with 
the Mohammedans of the city to rise 
against the British, but the infantry 
continued loyal, and arrested the native 
officers sent to them by the cavalry. 

The Bhonsla Palace^ built of black 
basalt and richly ornamented with 
wood carving, was burnt down in 1864, 
only the Nakar Khana, or music hall, 
remains. 

Thence the traveller may proceed to 
the Tombs of the Bhonsla Itajas, in 
the Shukrawari quarter, to the S. of 
the citj. The markets are in the 
Gurganj Square and Gachi Pagar, and 
take place once a week in each. In 
the city are also the Small Cause Court 
and the Magistrate's Court. The Cen- 
tral Jail is an important institution. 

The old Residency, where the Chief 
Commissioner fonnerly resided, and 
the Secretariat, are at Sitabaldi. There 
is a small detachment from the English 
regiment at Kampti garrisoning the 
fort, and there are also the head- 
quarters and wing of a N.I. regiment. 

The city and civil station are well 
supplied with water from the Ambalhari 
reservoir, and the station roads are lined 
with beautiful trees. There is a hand- 
some English church, and a large 
Roman Catholic cathedral and school, 
and an important branch of the Missions 
of the Free Church of Scotland, with 
the Hislop College, two hospitals for 
men and women, and a fine Marathi 
church. 

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
terminates at Nagpur, and from this 
point E. towards Calcutta the line 
belongs to l^e Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 



76 



ftOUTE 3. BtttJSAWAL HO CALOtfTTA 



India 



529 m. Kampti D.B. A large town 
and military cantonment on the right 
bank of the Eanhan riyer, which is 
spanned by a handsome stone bridge that 
cost £90, 000. Close to it is the railway 
bridge, a fine iron sti-uctnre that cost 
£100,000. Pop. 51,000. Kampti dates 
only from the establishment of the 
military station in 1821, and for about 
fifty years it was governed entirely by 
the military authorities. The neigh- 
bouring city of Nagpur during the 
greater part of this time was the capital 
of the state, and the residence of a 
Maratha court. No more striking evi- 
dence could be adduced of the just and 
moderate tone of the army administra- 
tion than the rapid growth of this place. 
The roads are broad and well laid out. 
The English church was built in 
1833, and there is a highly useful 
Roman Catholic establishment of the 
order of St. Francis de Sales with a 
church and convent, where good educa- 
tion is given to a class of children who 
would otherwise be neglected. There 
are 5 mosques and 70 Hindu temples. 

559 m. Bhandara Roadsta.,,D.B., is 
about 6im. from the town, which is close 
to the Wainganga river. It is the head- 
quarters of a district of the same name, 
and contains the usual public offices, 
schools, and institutions. Pop. 11,000. 
Between Bhandara and Nagpur few of 
the richer natives ever mount a horse, 
they ride astride on the pole of a very 
light two-wheeled ox-cart called a ringi. 
The oxen for these carts are a special 
breed, very small and active, and cap- 
able of sustaining a trot ec^xial to the 
pace of an ordinary carriage horse. 
Here is the R. Barbour Medicfd Mission 
of the Free Church of Scotland. 
615 m. Amgaon sta. (B.) 
From 624 m. Salekasa sta. to 
647 m. Dongargarh sta. (R.), the line 
passes through hills and heavy bamboo 
jungles, and through a pass with a 
tunnel at the summit. The jungle 
near this tunnel is famous for gener- 
ally having a man-eating tiger in it. 
During the construction of the railway 
a large number of natives were killed 
here, and victims have more recently 
been carried off. Large game of all 



sorts abounds. Dongargarh is a large 
engine-changing station, with a con- 
siderable European population con- 
nected with the railway. The ruins of 
a fort are on the N.E. face of a detached 
hill, some 4 m. in circuit. Inside the 
fortified space there are tanks for water 
supply, but no buildings. 

708 m. Baipnr sta. The chief town 
of a district of the same name, the 
residence of the commissioner of ChaUis- 
ga/rhy and a small military cantonment 
The usual offices will be found. The 
old town was to the S. and W. of the 
present one, which was laid out hy 
Colonel Agnew in 1830. The pop. is 
25,000. The town is surrounded by 
tanks and groves of trees, which form 
its attraction. The Fort was built by 
Raja Bhuraneswar Sing in 1460, and 
in its time was a very strong work. 
Its outer wall is nearly 1 m. in cir- 
cumference. Large quantities of stone 
were used in its construction, though 
no quarries exist in the neighbourhood. 
The Burha Tank, on the S., the same 
age as the Fort, covered nearly 1 sq. m. 
In later improvements it has oeen 
reduced in extent. The public gardens 
are on its E. shore. The Maharaj 
Tank was constructed by a revenue 
farmer in the times of the Marathas, 
and close to it is the temple of Ram- 
chandra, built in 1775 by Bhimbaji 
Bhonsla. There are several other reser- 
voirs in the suburbs ; and in the centre 
of the town is the Kankali tankf con- 
structed of stone throughout, at the 
close of the 17th century. 

776 m. Bilaspur junc. sta. (R.). 
This place is a large engine-changing 
centre. 

[Branch N. W. through a mountainous 
district and the coal-fields of Umaria 
to 198 m. Eatni junc. on the E. I. Bly. 
(p. 36). This branch passes at Pendra 
sta., under the Amarkantak plateau 
(4000 ft.) where the Nerbudda has its 
source. There are several temples 
and a **khund" or reservoir enclos- 
ing the head spring. The plateau 
is frequented by the "tirath bdsis," 
and other pilgrims.] 

The traveller enters the province of 
Chattisgarh about Amgaon, 95 m. £. 
of Nagpur, and continues in it to abont 



ROUTE 3. RATANPUB 



77 



Ratearh station, at 884 m. The people 
of this country still consider themselves 
a separate nationality, and always caU 
themselves ChaUisgaris, The Rajas 
of Batanpur ruled originally over their 
36 forts, each the chief place of a 
district ; but about 750 A.D., the 
kingdom was divided into two, and a 
separate raja ruled in Raipur. Ealyan 
Si^i, who ruled between 1536 and 
1573, went to Delhi and made his 
submission to the great Akbar, and 
this prudent conduct resulted in the 
Haihaya rulers retaining their country 
mitil the Maratha invasion in 1740. 

The district, which is regarded as 
one of the richest corn-growing countries 
in the world, and is known as the 
"granary of India," is in the shape of 
a vast amphitheatre opening to the S. 
on the plains of Raipur, but on every 
other side surrounded by tiers of hills. 
About 15 m. E. of Bilaspur is the 
precipitous hill ofDahla^ 2600 ft. high, 
affording a grand view. 

[12 m. N. of Bilaspur is Batanpur, 
or Ruttunpur, the old capital of the 
formerly self-contained kingdom of 
ChaiHsgarh, or the S6 Forts, in which 
is included the districts of Raipur and 
Bilaspur. The town lies in a hollow 
surrounded by the Eenda hills. It 
ceased to be the capital in 1787, but 
the crumbling arches of the old fort, 
the broken walls of the ancient palace, 
and the half-fiUed-up moat which sur- 
rounded the city, recall its former con- 
dition. The population is under 6000. 
The Brahmans of Ratanpur are still the 
leaders of their class all over Chattis- 
garh. The town covers an area of 15 
sq. m., and contains within its limits 
a forest of mango trees, with numerous 
tanks and temples scattered amidst 
their shade. Ailized up with temples, 
great blocks of masonry of uniform 
shape commemorate distinguished satis 
(suttees). The most prominent of these 
is near the old fort, where a large build- 
ing records that there in the middle of 
the 17th century 20 ranis of Raja 
Lakshman Sahi devoutly fulfilled the 
duty of self-immolation. Kota sta. on 
the Eatni branch is a few miles from 
Batanpur.] 

Before reaching 



809 m. Champa sta. the Hasdu river 
is crossed. The stream cuts the coal- 
fields of Eorba, some 20 m. N. of the 
railway ; and in the jungles on its banks 
are to be found some of the few herds 
of wild elephants still roaming through 
the forests of the Central Provinces. 

The line continues E. through a 
thinly-inhabited flat country to 

890 m. Belpahan sta., on leaving 
which the Eeb river, which flows S. 
into the Mahanadi river, is crossed by 
a considerable bridge. The scenery at 
the crossing is very fine. 

903 m. Iharsngnda juno. sta. 

[Branch for the civil and military 
station of Sambalpnr, distant 30 m. ; 
whence, at different times, diamonds 
have been exported to a considerable 
value. They are said to be found in the 
bed of the Mahanadi up-stream from 
the town, but whether the source of 
supply is the Mahanadi or the Eeb 
river is perhaps not clearly known.] 

From Tharsuguda the railway takes 
a N.E. course, and continuing through 
a well-inhabited plain country to 

916 m. Bagdehi sta., it enters the 
hills, in which it continues until the 
plains of Bengal are reached. 

936 m. QarpoB sta. Hereabouts the 
forests are very dense, and in the rainy 
season they are largely resorted to by 
wild elephants. Between 

947 m. Eoumarkela sta. and 

945 m. Bourkela sta. near Kalunga, 
the Brahmini river is crossed. The 
natives here earn a very fair living by 
washing the river-sands for gold. The 
view up-stream is very grand when the 
river is in flood. 

991 m. Honarpnr sta. Here the 
railway enters the Saranda forests, 
which contain some of the finest Sal 
trees {Shorea rokiista) in India. The 
line winds round hills, passing close 
under them on both sides. The sum- 
mit of the range is reached through a 
heavy cutting leading into a tunnel. 
During the construction of the Bengal- 
Nagpur Railway through these forests 
and heavy jungles very great diflSculty 
was experienced in procuring labour, 
as they have a very bad reputation for 
unhealthiness The few inhabitants 



76 



BOUTE 4. KHANDWA TO AJMSRS 



India 



of tlieM wildB are nearly all KoU, an 
aboriginal race. 

1015 m. Sonna sta. ia only 2 m. 
from Parahai, the principal town of 
what was formerly a separate Zamin- 
dari state of the same name. 

In 1857 Ariun Sing the last Raja of 
Parahat rebelled, and was sentenced to 
imprisonment for life at Benares. The 
estate of Parahat was confiscated, and 
is now under the management of 
Government. 

1028 m. Chakardarpnr sta. Here 
the hills recede. The country is well 
cultivated. This is a considerable rail- 
way settlement and engine-changing 
station. A good road connects Chak- 
ardarpur with Hanchi and the Chota- 
Nagpur plateau. 

(SiGta-Nagpur is the seat of a Mis- 
sionary Bishop of the Church of 
England, who nas a handsome Church 
Ana good Schools and Native Mission in 
the town of Ranchi : there are com- 
munities of Christian Kols, the result 
of extensive S.P.G. missions, conducted 
by a brotherhood from Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

[Crhaibaaa, a civil station, is distant 
about 16 m. to the S. A great fair is 
held here at Christroas-time, to which 
the people of the country flock. 
Athletic sports, races, and national 
dances take place on the last day of 
the year, and no better opportunity 
can be taken for seeing the people. 

1062m.Chandilsta. Before this place 
is reached, the hills again close in on 
the line. Dalma Hill, 3407 ft. above 
sea-level, is seen 12 m. E. It is from 
the country about here that the labour- 
ers for the tea-cultivation in Upper 
Assam and Cachar are mainly recruited. 

1095 m. PnruUa sta. The Ihead- 
quarters of the Manbhum District, 
tnrough which the traveller has been 
passing for many miles. The place 
has nearly 10,000 inhabitants ana the 
usual offices of a civil station. From 
here also a road runs to Ranchi. 

1147 m. AsenBol junc. sta. [Branch 
of about 10 m. W. to the coal-mines.] 
About 6 m. before Asensol is reached 
the river Damuda is crossed on a very 
fine bridge. From Asensol to Calcutta, 



a diatanoe of 182 miles, the traveUec 
proceeds by the East Indian BaQway. 
(See p. 61.) 



ROUTE 4 

Khandwa to Ajmere (Rajputana 
and Malwa Metre Rly.) 

From Bombay 858 m. SSiandwa jimc. ata. 
The traveller is here transferred to the 
metre-gauge line. 

At 38 m., Mortakka sta., D.B., the 
Nerbudda river is crossed by a fine 
bridge, with a cart-road under the rails. 

This neighbourhood abounds in large 
game of every sort. 

[A good cart road of 6 m. leads to 
Unkaxji, a place quite worth visiting. 
The best mode of transit is by river 
in one of the large flat-bottomed boats 
found at Mortakka, where there is 
accommodation for Europeans at the 
Serai. The stream is ascended before 
the westerly breeze, and is descended 
by oars with the aid of the current 
Provisions must be taken. The country 
is wild, wooded, and the scenery on tie 
river very beautifaL 

XJnkarji is more properly Omkaiji, 
from the mystic syllable Om (an 
ejaculation used at the beginning 
of a prayer). The Great Temple of 
Omkar is situated in the island of 
Mandhata in the Nerbudda. It is said 
that the island was originally called 
Baidurya Mani Parvat, out its name 
was changed to Mandhata as a boon 
from Shiva to Raja Mandhatri, the 17th 
monarch of the Solar Race, who per- 
formed a great sacrifice here to that 
deity. 

The area of the isle is about five- 
sixths of a sq. m., and a deep ravine 
cuts it from N. to S. At the N. the 
ground slopes gently, but terminates 
at the S. and E. in precipices 500 ft. 
high. At this point the S. bank of 
the Nerbudda is equally steep, and 
between the cliffs the river is exceed- 
ingly deep, and full of alligators and 



ttOUTS 4. tTHKARJI 



79 



Itfge fiBh. Hunter savi that the N. 
branch of the Nerbudda is called the 
Kayeri, and it is believed that a stream 
80 called enters the Nerbudda 1 m. 
higher up, passes unmixed through it, 
and again leaves it at Mandhata, thus 
making it a double junction of two 
holy rivers. 

On both sides of the river the rocks 
are of a greenish hue, very boldly 
stratified. It is said that the Temple 
of Omkar and that of Amreshwar on 
the S. bank of the river are two of the 
twelve great temples which existed in 
India when Mahmud of Ghazni des- 
troyed Somnath in 1024 A.D. During 
the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries, 
the S. banks were deserted and over- 
grown with jungle, and when the 
Peshwa desired to repair the temple it 
could not be found, so a new one was 
built, with a group of smaller ones. 
Afterwards part of it was found, and 
the late Raja Mandhata built a temple 
over it ; but its sanctity and even its 
name have been appropiiated by that 
which the Peshwa built. 

The Raja Mandhata, who is hered- 
itary custodian of the temples, is a 
Bhilala, who claims to be 28th de- 
scendant of the Chauhan Bharat Sing, 
who took Mandhata from Kathu Bhil 
in 1165 A.D. The old temples have 
suffered from the Mohammedans, and 
every dome has been overturned and 
erexy figure mutilated. The gateways 
are finely carved. The oldest temple is 
that on the Birkhala rocks at the E. 
end, where devotees used to cast them- 
selves over the cliffs up till the year 
1824, when the custom was abandoned. 
The temple consists of a courtyard, 
with a verandah and colonnades sup- 
ported by massive pillars boldly carved. 
On the hill are the ruins of a very fine 
Temple to Siddeshvara Mahadeva^ which 
stood on a plinth 10 ft. high. Round 
the plinth was a frieze of elephants, 5 
ft. high, carved in relief with remark- 
able skill, on slabs of yellow sandstpne, 
bnt all but two of the elephants are 
mntilated. 

In front of the Temple to Ch/uri Som- 
mft is an immense bull carved in a fine 
green stone, and 100 yds. farther is a 
pillar 20 ft long. On the island itself 



all the templet are Shivite, bat on the 
N. bank of the Nerbudda are some old 
temples to Vishnu, and a group of Jain 
temples. Where the river bifurcates 
are some ruined gateways, and a large 
building on which are 24 figures of 
Vishnu, well carved in green stone. 
Among them is a large ^ure of the 
boar Avatar. On an image of ShiVa, 
in the same building, is the date 1S46 
A.D. Farther down the bank, in the 
Ravana ravine, is a prostrate figure 
18^ ft. long, with ten arms holaing 
clubs and skulls. On its chest is a 
scorpion, and at its right side a rat, 
and one foot rests on a prostrate human 
figure. 

The bed of the ravine is covered with 
huge basalt blocks slightly carved. 
The Jain Temples stand on an eminence 
a little back from the river. The 
largest is on a plinth of basalt, 5 ft. 
high. The E. wall is still complete. 
On each side of the doorway is a ngure 
with Shivite and Jain emblems curi- 
ously intermixed. The hills near these 
temples, as well as the island, are 
covered with remains of habitations. 

A great fair is held at the end of 
October, attended by 15,000 persons. 
According to a prophecy, the fulfilment 
of which the Branmans at Mandhata 
anxiously expect, the sanctity of the 
Ganges will soon expire and oe trans- 
ferred to the Nerbudda. The scenery 
around the island is beautiful.] 

58 m. Choral sta. From this point 
the ascent of the ghat commences and 
continues almost into Mhow. The 
scenery is very fine. On approaching, 
71 m.. Fatal Pani sta. look out on the 
1. for the waterfall of that name. 

74 m. Mhow sta. (R.), D.B., in the 
territory of Holkar, an important mili- 
tary cantonment of Britisn and native 
troops, headquarters of a first-class 
district command, 1900 ft. above 
sea-level, pop. 27,000. Troops are 
stationed here as provided in the Treaty 
of Mandsaur of 1818. Mhow has no 
special interest for a traveller. The 
buildings and institutions are those 
common to all places where troops are 
stationed. 

[From Mhow an expedition of SO m. 
may be made S.W. to the ruined city 



80 



BOUTE 4. KHANDWA TO AJMERE 



India 



of Manda» the ancient oapitd of the 
kingdom of Malwa. It is m the terri- 
tory of the Maharaja of Dhar, and 
the hest joute is by tonga or carriage 
to the town of Dhar (10 m.)* taking an 
iDtroduction from the political agent 
to the Maharaja, who will then make 
arrangements for the remaining 20 m. 
of the journey. Dhar is a walled town 
of some historical and archaeological 
interest, containing several ruined 
mosques. 

Another roate, avoiding Dhar, passes down 
the main road for about 10 m., and then 
strikes off Into the country past Naicha, 
where the ruins commence. A tent is neces- 
sary. Small game shooting may be obtained 
along the road, but it is advisable to get per- 
mission firom the general at Mhow, or at any- 
rate to inform the agent at Dhar. 

Mandu (1944 ft.) occupies 8 m. of 
ground, extending along the crest of 
the Yindhyas; and is separated from 
the tableland, with which it is on a 
level, by a valley. The traveller can 
pass the night in one of the temples, 
if he does not object to bats and bad 
air, but he will do better to take a tent 
with him and camp beyond the village, 
near the Jumma Musjid, on the verge 
of the great lake. Paths have been cut 
through the jungle to all the ruins of 
interest, the chief being the Jumma 
Musjid, less injured than any of the 
others, and said to be the finest and 
largest specimen of Afghan architecture 
exfcmt in India ; the Fort, the IFater 
Palace, the marble Mausoleum of Ho- 
sJiang GJiori, King of Malwa, who 
raised the city to great splendour ; and 
the Palace of Baz Bahadur, another 
king of Malwa. These once magni- 
ficent buildings are still, in their 
ruined state, very striking on account 
of their massive proportions. The 
fortifications were constructed by 
Hoshang Ghori, who reigned in the 
beginning of the 15th cent., and in 
whose time the city attained its greatest 
splendour. In 1626 Mandogarh was 
taken by Bahadur Shah, ruler of Gu- 
zerat, and annexed to his dominions, of 
which it remained part until their con- 
quest by Akbar in 1570. Of late years 
measures have been taken for the preser- 
vation of some of the most interesting 
ruins. According to Malcolm, Mandu 



WM founded in 818 A.D. Its histoir 
(written by a resident of Dhar) shonld 
be looked at before visiting the place. 
It will be found full of interest for any 
one who is at all acquainted with the 
ancient history of Malwa. Sir Thomas 
Roe, the Ambassador of James I. of 
England, entered Mandu in the train 
of Jehangir, part of the triumphal 
procession of the Great Mogul being 
500 elephants. Sir T. B. complains in 
his Memoirs of the lions which then 
infested the country, and killed one of 
his baggage ponies. The Rajas of the 
towns Mandu and Chitor were at feud 
with each other for many years (see 
Chitor). From June till Nov. the 
locality is very unhealthy. The place 
is very wild, the scenery fine, and game 
of various sorts, including panthers, 
abounds.] 

87 m. Indore sta., D.B. This place 
is the capital of the state, and the 
residence of Holkar the Maharaja. 
Pop. 76,000. 

Indore stands on an elevated and 
healthy site. Of recent years modem 
improvements have been introduced. 
Roads have been metalled, drains 
built, the water-supply cared for, and 
the principal streets lighted. Among 
the chief objects of interest are the Lai 
Bagh or garden, the mint, high school, 
market-place, reading-room, dispen- 
sary, ana large cotton-mill. There is 
considerable export trade in grain. To 
the W. of the city is an antelope pre- 
serve. Adjoining the town, on the 
other side of the rly., is the BriUsh 
JResidency, an area assigned by treaty, 
and containing not only the house and 
park of the Governor-Generars agent 
and the bungalows occupied by his 
staff and other officials, but a bazaar of 
some importance, and the central opium 
stores and weighing agency. The 
barracks for the Governor -General's 
native escort and the Rajkumar Oollege 
for the education of young native chiefs 
\ and nobles are also within the Resi- 
dency limits. Here is a Mission of 
the Presbyterian Church of Canada. 

The paiace of the Maharaja (1 m. 
from the rly. sta.), with its lofty, 
many-storied gateway, is situated al- 



ROUTE 4. FATEHABAD 



81 



most in the centre of the city, and is a 
conspicnous object from every part of 
it It faces £. and is in a small sqnare, 
with the Gonal Mandir to the S., 
which was built by Krishna Bai, H.H.'s 
mother. To the W. of the palace is 
the Sharafa Street, where the money- 
lenders, chiefly Marwaris, live. Close 
by is the Haldi Bazaar, where the 
dealers in opium live, and the Itwar, 
or Sunday Street, where a market is 
held on Sundays. At the end of this 
is the old jail. H.H. sometimes re- 
ceives guests in the Lai Bagh mentioned 
above, which is on the banks of the 
river, and contains a handsome villa. 
At one end is a house where several 
lions are kept, and there is also an 
aviary. In an upper room are portraits 
of many Hindu Kajas. In the lower 
story is a handsome hall of audience, 
which looks out on a ghat and on the 
Snrsuti river, which is dammed up 
here. From the terraced roof is a fine 
view over the country. 

The Sursuti river divides the city. 
The old capital of the Holkar family was 
Maheshvar in Nimar, on the banks of 
the Nerbudda, where is the magnificent 
Chattri (a monumental memorial) of 

I Ahalya Bai, an ancestress of Holkar. Sir 
John Malcolm says of this lady : "The 

j character of her administration was for 

; more than thirty years the basis of the 
prosperity which attended the dynasty 
to wnich she belonged. She sat every 
day for a considerable period in open 
durbar transacting business. Her first 
principle of government appears to 
have been moderate assessment and an 
almost sacred respect for the native 

, rights of village officers and proprietors 
of land. She heard every complaint 
in person, and although she continu- 
ally referred causes to courts of equity 
and arbitration, and to her ministers 
for settlement, she was always acces- 
sible, and so strong was her sense of 
duty on all points connected with the 
distribution of justice, that she is re- 
presented as not only patient, but un- 
wearied in the investigation of the 
most insignificant causes when appeals 
were made to her decision. It appears, 
above all, extraordinary how she had 
mental and bodily powers to go through 
[iTidia] 



the labour she imposed upon herself, 
and which from the age of 30 to that 
of 60, when she died, was unremitted. 
The hours gained from the ilffairs of 
the state were all given to acts of 
devotion and charity, and a deep sense 
of religion appears to have strengthened 
her mmd in performance of her worldly 
duties. Her charitable foundations 
extend all over India, from the Hima* 
layas to Cape Comorin, and from Som* 
nath to the Temple of Jagannath in 
the E." Ahalya Bai is certainly the 
most distinguished female character in 
Indian history. This short notice is 
given as it will probably add interest 
to the temples and ghats erected by her, 
which the traveller will find in almost 
every place of note he visits in India. 

112 m. Fatehabad junc. sta. (R.) 
From here a short branch line of 26 m. 
runs to 

[Ujjain (or Ujjaiyini) D.B.). This 
famous city (the Greek 'O/iJi'Ty) is situated 
on the rieht bank of the river Sipra, 
which falls into the Chambal after a 
total course of 120 m. Ujjain is in the 
dominions of the Maharaja Sindia of 
Gwalior in Malwa, of which it was once 
the capital. It stands in N. lat 23'* 1 1' 
10", and is the spot which marked the 
first meridian of Hindu geographers. It 
is said to have been the seat of the vice- 
royalty of Asoka, during the reign of his 
father at Pataliputra, the capital of 
Magadha, supposed to be the modem 
Patna, about 263 B.o. It is, however, 
best known as the capital of the cele- 
brated Vikramaditya (Valour's sim), 
founder of the era called Samvat, which 
begins 57 B. c. He is said to have driven 
out the Shakas or Scythians, and to 
have reigned over'almost all N. India. 
At his court flourished the Nine Gems 
of Hindu literature, viz. Dhanvantari, 
Kshapanaka, Amarasinha, Shanku, 
Vetala-bhatta, Ghata-karpara, Kali- 
dasa, Varanruchi, and Yaraha-mihira. 
Of these the poet Kalidasa has obtained 
a European celebrity. Ujjain, as well 
as the whole province of Malwa, was 
conquered W Ala-ud-din Khilji, who 
reigned at Delhi 1295-1317 A.D. In 
1387 A.D. the Mohammedan Viceroy 
declared himself independent. His 
name was Dilawar Khan Ghori, of 

o 



8S 



BOUTS 4. KHANDWA TO AJMERE 



tniia 



Afghan ori^n, who raled from 1387 
to 1405, and made Mandu his capital 
In 1531 Malwa was conquerea by 
Bahaduf Shah, King of Guzerat, and in 
1571 by Akbar. In 1658 the decisive 
battle between Anrangzib and Murad 
and their elder broSier Dara, was 
fought near this city. In 1792 Jas- 
want Bao Holkar took Ujjain, and 
burned part of it. It then fell into 
the hands of Sindia, whose capital it 
was till 1810, when Daulat Rao Sindia 
Temoved to Gwalior. 

The ruins of ancient TJijain are 
situated about 1 m. to the N. of the 
modem city, which is oblong in shape, 
and 6 m. in circumference, Burrounaed 
by a stone wall with round towers, and 
on all sides by a belt of groves and 
gardens. The principal bazaar is a 
spacious street, flanked by houses of 
two stories, and having also four 
mosques, many Hindu temples, and a 
palace of Maharajah Sindia. Near the 
palace is an ancient gateway, said to 
nave been part of Vikramaditya's fort. 
At the S. end of the city is the Observa- 
tory, erected by Jai Sing, Rajah of 
Jeypore, in the time of the Emperor 
Munammad Shah. The same prince 
eracted observatories at Delhi, Jeypore, 
Benares, and Muttra (see Benares 
Observatory).] 

161 m. Butlam June. sta. (R.), D.B. 
(Branch line W. by Godhra Anand 
junction for Baroda, £. to Ujjain), is the 
capital of a native state and the resi- 
dence of the chief. It was founded by 
Ratna, ^reat- grandson of Uday Sing, 
Maharajah of Jodhpur. Ratna was at 
the battle of Fatehabad, near Ujjain, 
in which Jaswant Rao Rath or, with 
30,000 Rajputs, fought Aurangzib and 
Murad, with the whole Mogul army. 
Tod, vol. ii. p. 49, says, ''Of all the 
deeds of heroism performed that day, 
those of Ratna of Katlam by universal 
consent are pre-eminent. " Outside the 
town the chief has a very charming villa 
and garden, in which he entertains 
guests. The palace in which the Prince 
resides is within the walls, and is a fine 
new building, with a handsome reception 
room. The town is a great emporium 
for opium. There is a Chauk or 
tquare, built by Munshi Shahamat 



'Ali, who administered the state during 
the Raja's minority. Beyond this 
square is the Chandni Chauk, in which 
the bankers live ; and this leads to the 
Tirpoliya Gate, outside which is the 
Amrit Saugar tank, which in the rains 
is very extensive. In the town is a 
college with 500 students. 

213 m. Mandasor sta. A fortified 
town, remarkable as being the place 
where in 1818, at the end of the 
Pindari War, a treaty was made between 
the British Government and Holkar. 
Here severe fighting occurred in 1857 
between the rebels and a brigade of 
British ti'oops moving from Mhow to 
relieve the British officers besieged in 
the fort of Neemuch. Early in that 
memorable year Mandasor became the 
headquarters of a serious rebellion 
which threatened all Malwa. 

243 m. Neemuch sta. 3^ (R.), D.B., is 
on the Rajputana and Malwa Rly. line. 
A cantonment of British troops con- 
taining the usual barracks and sub- 
sidiary buildings, also a small fort 
Neemuch was about the most southerly 
place to which the mutiny extended. 
In 1857 the place was garrisoned by a 
brigade of native troops of all arms of 
the Bengal army. This force mutinied 
and marched to Delhi, the European 
officers taking refusje in the fort, where 
they were besieged by a rebel force from 
Mandsaur, and defended themselves 
gallantly until relieved by a brigade 
from Mliow. Some 42 ladies and non- 
combatants found refuge at Oodeypur. 

278 m. Chitor sta. 3^ (Branch line 
to Debari for Oodeypore p. 85). The 
Gambheri river is crossed by a massive 
old bridge of gray limestone, with ten 
arches, all of pointed shape, except the 
sixth from the W. bank, which is semi- 
circular. The gateways and towers 
which existed at either end of the bridge 
have now disappeared. Unfortunately 
the bridge is deficient in water-way, so 
that floods pass over the parapets and 
cut into the banks, and consequently 
the ford has to be used. The date and 
builder of the bridge are not known, but 
it is popularly said to have been built 
by Ari Sing, son of Rana Lakshman, 
both of whom were killed in the siege 
by 'Alau-ud-din, about 1308 a.b. 



ROUTE 4. CHITOR 



83 



Wlien Chitor was the capital of 
Mewar, the city was up in the fort, 
and the buildings below were merely 
an outer bazaar. The modern town, 
called the Talehti or Lower Town of 
Chitor, is little more than a walled 
village, J with narrow, crooked streets, 
resembbng an outwork to the lower 
gate of the principal W. entrance to 
the great Fort. 

The abrupt rocky hill crowned by 
this magnificent Fort rises 600 ft. above 
the surrounding country, and is a very 
conspicuous object, thouch its great 
length of 3^ m. makes it look lower than 
it really is. The whole of the summit 
is covered with ruins of palaces and 
temples, and the slopes with, thick 
iungle. A single ascent 1 m. long 
leads to the summit, and is defended 
at intervals by seven very fine monu- 
mental gateways, large enough to con- 
tain guard-rooms and even fine halls. 
They are the Padal Pol, the nearly 
obliterated (Broken) Bhairo or Phuta 
Pol, the Hanuman Pol, the Ganesh Pol, 
the Jorla Pol, the Lakshman Pol, and 
the main gate, or Ram Pol. 

Immediately outside the Padal Pol 
on the L is an erect stone marking the 

SK)t where Bagh Sing, the chief of 
eolia Pratapgarh, was killed during 
the siege of Cnitor by Bahadur Shah of 
Guzerat, in 1636. 

Between the " Broken " and the Hanu- 
man gates there are on the rt. two 
chattris marking the spots where the 
renowned Jaimall of Bednor and his 
clansman Ealla were killed in Akbar's 
siege, in 1568. Kalla carried his 
wounded chief down to have a last 
stroke at the enemy, and died fighting. 
The 39 memorial stones are mudi 
venerated, as if marking the shrine of 
some minor deity. 

Facing the great gate is a pillared 
hall, vLBed as a guardhouse, and ap- 
parently of ancient construction. From 
the top of this hall, on which there are 
two four-pillared chattris, a fine, view of 
theplain is obtained. 

The Ram Pol is a large and hand- 
•ome gateway, crowned by a Hindu 

^ For a striking account of this wonderful 
fort, see The NaulakJva and Letters c/MarguBf 
both by Bndyard Kipling. 



horizontal arch, in which the upper 
courses of either side, projecting in- 
wards, overlap each other till they 
meet, or nearly so, being then slabbed 
over. This is the construction of all 
the gateways on the ascent, except the 
Jorla, though in one, the Lakshman, 
the lower angles of the projecting 
courses are sloped off, giving the whole 
the outline of a regular pointed arch. 
Inside the gate, on each side, is a fine 
hall, supported on square-shaped and 
slightly tApering antique pillars. 

Within, directly facing the gate, 
the hill again rises steeply, «nd at the 
foot of this upper rise is a chattri mark- 
ing where Patta Sing fell. 

The site of the old city is every- 
where covered with ruins.' The chief 
objects of interest are the Towers of 
Fame and Victory, the only two remain- 
ing of a great number of similar monu- 
ments which probably once adorned the 
brow of Chitor. 

The old Jain Tower of Fame stands 
up grandly on the E. rampart. This 
tower is called the small Kirthana, 
which is a contraction of Kirthi 
Stambh. Fergusson thus describes it: 
"One of the most interesting Jaina 
monuments of the age (the first or 
great age of Jaina architecture, which 
extended down to about the year 1300, 
or perhaps a little after that) is the 
tower of Sri AUat (Rana AUuji). It is 
a singularly elegant specimen of its 
class, about 80 ft. in height, and 
adorned with sculptures and mouldings 
from the base to the summit. An 
inscription once existed at its base, 
which gave its date as 896 A.D., and 
though the slab was detached, this is 
so nearly the date we should arrive at 
from the style that there seems little 
doubt that it was of that age. It was 
dedicated to Adnath, the first of the 
Jaina Tirthankars, and his figure is 
repeated some hundreds of times on 
the face of the tower ; but so far as I 
could perceive, not that of any of the 
other tfaina saints. The temple in the 
foreground, S. side, is of a more modem 
date, being put together, principally, 
of fragments of other buildings, which 
have disappeared." 

The tower consists of seven stories, 



64 



ROUTE 4. KHANDWA TO AJMERE 



India 



with an internal narrow and cramped 
■stairoase ; the top storey is open, ana its 
roof, which rests on pillars, and has been 
much damaged by lightning, has bushes 
growing on it. Its construction is locally 
attributed by some to Khatan Bani, wite 
of. Khata Bana, and by others to Allata 
Bana, who ruled a.d. 950 or according 
to Tod A.D. 895. Fragments of an in- 
scribed stone are on the ^oond under 
a tree just N. of the tower. 

From the W. ridge the view opens out, 
and a semicircular valley is seen with the 
Elephant reservoir close to the cliff and 
a background of trees, out of which rises 
the magnificent Jaya-stambh or Towvr 
of Victory. Of this Mr. Fergusson says : 
"To Kumbo, who reigned from 1418-68, 
we owe this tower, which was erected to 
commemorate his victory over Mahmud, 
kine of Malwa, in 1439. It is a Pillar 
of victory, like that of Trajan at Borne, 
but of iniinitely better taste as an archi- 
tectural object. It has nine storeys, 
each of which is distinctly marked on 
the outside. A stair in the centre 
leads to each storey, the two upper ones 
being open and more ornamented than 
those below. It stands on a base 47 ft. 
square and 10 ft. high, and is 30 ft. 
square riidng to a height of 122 ft., the 
whole being covered with ornaments and 
sculptures to such an extent as to leave 
no plain part, while this mass of decora- 
tion is kept so subdued that it in no way 
interferes with the outline or general 
effect. The old dome was injured by 
lightning, and a new one was substi- 
tuted by H. H. Sarup Sing. The stair 
is much wider and easier than that in 
the Jain tower (the small Kirthan), and 
in the inside are carvings of Hindu 
deities with the names below. In the 
top storey are 2 of the original 4 slabs 
with long inscriptions. The tower took 
7 to 10 yrs. to build, from 1548 to 
1558. On the road at the comer of the 
lower platform is a square pillar record- 
ing a sati in 1468, A.D." 

Close by the gate of the Sun, on the 
E. rampart, are two large tanks, and ad- 
joining them is the fine Palace of Bana 
Knmbo, the builder of the Tower of 
Victory, a fine example of the domestic 
architecture of Bajputana before the 
Ifussolman invasion, showing all the 



beauty of detail which characterises 
such buildings in general In front is 
a court surrounded by guard-rooms and 
entered by a vaulted gateway. 

The Palace of Batoa Sing (or Bhim) 
is a very pleasing example of the style of 
the Hindu architecture of this country 
in the 13th cent That of his wife 
Baai Padmani is a laree and beautiful 
building overlooking the tank. From 
one of these palaces Akbar carried off 
the famous gates now in the fort at Agra. 

The Temple of Vriji, built by Rana 
Eumbo about 1450, is a massive build- 
ing with a sikra (or tower) of annsn* 
ally large proportions. Adjoining it 
is a temple, in the same style, 
built by his wife, the famous Mira Bai, 
of which the chief peculiarity is that 
the procession path round the ceU is 
an open colonnade with four small 
pavilions at the corners. 

At the highest point in Chitor a broad 
terrace has been made, whence there 
is a magnificent view. 

Near the Tower of Victory is the 
Hahasata, a small wooded terrace, the 
pleasantest spot on the hill, which was 
the place of cremation of the Banas 
before Oodeypur was founded. Below, 
on a lower terrace, are the Gaumukh 
springs and reservoir. The springs 
issue from the cliff at places where are 
cow-mouth carvings, hence the name. 
To the S.W. is a large carved stone 
temple, built by Bana Mukalji. On 
the oack wall is a huge carved head. 

A branch line runs from Chitor to 
Debari, whence there is a regular service 
of vehicles toOodeypore, 8 miles distant 
Dabok, where livea Colonel Tod, the 
first Besident and author of the" Annals 
of Bagastan," lies in ruins a few miles 
south of Debari. 

About 1 m. before reaching the capi- 
tal, the Arh river is crossed, with 
the old ruined town of that name 
on its banks. This stream collects 
the whole drainage of the Girwa, 
the natural outlet from which was 
dammed up with an immense masonry 
embankment by Maha Bana Udai 
Sing. He thus formed the Udai 
Saugar Lake, the surplus waters from 
which, escaping, form the Birach river, 

Oodeypo]*e, or Udaypur, the marvel- 



ROUTS 4. OODEYPOSS 



85 



lofiBly pioturesqne capital of the state 
of Mewar, the residence of the Maha- 
lana, Samp Sing, and of the British 
Kesident, to whom a suitable intro- 
duction shonld be brought. 

It is difficult to conceive anything 
more beautiful than the situation of this 
place. It mav be described as the centre 
of the Lake District of India. Some of 
the best views are obtained from the 
palace, the embankment, or the Dudh 
Talao, more especially in the morning, 
when the early sun lights up the marble 
of the water palaces, wi^ the dark 
water beyond, and the still darker back- 
ground of the hills. 

The City is surrounded by a bastioned 
wall, which towards the S. encloses 
several large gardens. The W. side is 
further protected by the lake, and the 
N. and £. sides by a moat supplied 
from the lake, while on the S. the 
fortified hill of Eklinjgarh rises steep 
and rugged. The principal gateways 
are the Hathi Pol or " Elephant Gate," 
to the N. ; the Kherwara Gate, to the 
S. ; the Suraj Pol, or **Gate of the 
Sun," on the E. ; and the Delhi Gate. 
On the side towards the lake is a 
handsome TirpoHya^ or three-arched 
water gateway. Another gate with 
massive arches opens on a bridge, and 
leads to a suburb on the W. of the lake. 
The beautiful Fold Lake lies to the 
W. of the city. It is said to have been 
constructed in portions at different 
periods. Udai Sing probably com- 
menced it. The N. portion is called the 
Sarup Saugar, having been constructed 
by Maha Rana Samp Sing. The groves 
and palaces on the islands are so beauti- 
ful that the traveller will be glad to 
pass the whole day tliere ; but the boats 
on the lake belong to the Maha Bana, 
and are only obtainable through the 
Besident There is fine makseer and 
other fishing in the lake, for which 
permission must be obtained. In one 
of the Palaces the Emperor Shah Jehan, 
then Prince Salim, took shelter from 
the displeasure of his father Jehangir. 
Here are retained some relics of the 
Prince, and there is a handsome shrine 
of polished stone. Heire too the 42 
refugees from Neemuch, at the time of 
the Mutiny, were received and pro- 



tected by the Maha Rana Sarup Sing. 
From another of the palaces, Outram 
when taunted by the Maha Rana, 
sprang into the lake, swarming though 
it was with alligators, who were being 
fed, and swam to shore. The fine 
Hindu Temple is a perfect example of 
the Indo- Aryan style. ** The porch is 
covered with a low pyramidal roof, 
placed diagonally on the substructure, 
and rising in steps, each of which is 
ornamented with vases or urns of 
varying shapes. The tower is orna- 
mented by four flat bauds, of great 
beauty and elegance of design, between 
each of which are 35 little repetitions 
of itself, placed one above the other in 
5 tiers, the whole surmounted by an 
amalaka, and an um of very elegant 
desi^. Every part is carved with great 
precision and delicacy." (Ferguson.) 

A day should be spent in a visit to 
the Itoyal Palace on the brink of the 
lake, iS. permission can be obtained 
from the Resident. The modern part 
of the palace, close above the lake, 
is the part most accessible. *' It is a 
most imposing pile of granite and 
marble, of quadrangular shape, rising 
at least 100 ft. from the ground, ana 
flanked with octagonal towers, crowned 
with cupolas. Although built at various 
periods, uniformity of design has been 
well preserved ; nor is there in the East 
a more striking structure. It stands 
upon the very crest of a ridge, running 
parallel to, but considerably elevated 
above the mar^n of the lake. The 
terrace, which is at the E. and chief 
front of the palace, extends throughout 
its length, and is supported by a triple 
row of arches, from the declivity of 
the ridge. The height of this arcaded 
wall is full 50 ft., and although all is 
hollow beneath, yet so admirably is 
it constructed, that an entire range of 
stables is built on the extreme verge 
of the terrace, on which all the forces 
of the Maha Rana, elephants, cavalry, 
and infantry, are often assembled. 
From this terrace the city and the valley 
lie before the spectator, whose vision is 
bounded only by the distant hills; 
while from the summit of the palace 
nothing obstmcts the view over lake 
and moi^ntain." There is a hospital. 



86 



ROUTE 5. ITARSI JUNCTION TO OAWNPORE 



India 



charch, and home of the U.P. Church 
of ScotiancL 

A drive should be taken along the 
principal street of Oodeypur from the 
Hathi Pol through the main bazaar to 
the Palace, gradually rising along the 
side of the ndge and passing the great 
Jag[d^ Temple. Another arive leads 
fErough' ^thebazaars from either the 
Delhi or Suraj Pol Gate to the Oulab 
QarcUn, which, with its stately trees, 
beautiful flowers, walks and fountains, 
is well worth a visit. Passing through 
it, go to the Dudh Talao or ''muk 
tank,*' a branch of the Pechola Lake, 
and by a picturesque road round it re- 
turning to the D. S. by the outside road. 

Another visit may be made to Ahar^ 
3 m. to the E. of the lake, where are 
the cenotaphs of the Maharanas. These 
chattris containing the royal ashes stand 
in what is called the Mahasati or royal 
place of cremation, which is enclosed by 
a lofty wall and is adorned by many fine 
trees. The most remarkable are those 
of Sangram Singh 11. , a large and 
beautifol structure, and of Amara Singh, 
grandson of Udai Singh.^ Besides the 
modem village of Ahar, there is the older 
town, where are ruined temples, which 
are tiie chief objects of interest, and also 
some still more ancient mounds. 

If he has time, the traveller may go to 
see the great lake at Kankrol% or Kaj- 
nagar, called the Bajsamudra, 30 m. to 
the N. of Oodeypur. The retaining wall 
of this lake is of massive masonry, in 
many places 40 ft. high. The Band or 
Ghat is 1115 ft. long, with pavilions and 
torans or ornamental arches all of 
marble ; behind is an embankment 35 
yds. wide. It was erected (1660) as a 
famine work. There is a fair cart-track 
to this place. 

The Dhibar, or Jaisamand lake, 
is about 20 ra. S.E. of Oodeypur city 
through a wild country; it is about 
9 m. long by 5 m. broad, and is one of 
the most beautiful sights in India.] 

379 m. NuBseerabad sta., D.B. 
The military cantonment for Ajmere. 
The station was originally laid out in 
1818 by Sir David Ochterlony. It is a 
long, straggling place. Some interest 
is attached to Nusseerabad from the 
1 S^e Pergusso^, 



fact that when the mutiny broke oat 
in 1867, the Bombay CSavalry (Ist) were 
compelled to remain neutral — ^thoufh 
loyally inclined— as the families of lie 
native officers and men were at the 
mercy of a Bengal regiment, who 
mutinied and marcned on Ajmere. A 
cavfdry skirmish took place near where 
the railway station now stands, in 
which several officers lost their lives. 
None of the officers' bungalows of the 
1st cavidry were touched. One officer, 
on his return to Nusseerabad in more 
peaceful times, found even his clock 
on mantelpiece as he left it. Good 
small -game shooting and mg-sticking 
are to be had in the neignbourhood. 
Here is a Scottish (U. P. ) Mission. 
393 m. Ajmere June. sta. (sec Rte. 6.) 



ROUTE 5 
Itaesi Junction to Cawnpoek, 

THROUGH BhOFAL, BhILSA, AND 

Jhansi. 

Itarld June. sta. 464 m. from Bombay 
on the G.I. P. Railway (see Rte. 1). 

11 m. HoBhangabad sta., D.B. A 
town with population of 16,000 ; the 
headquarters of a district of the same 
name. The place contains nothing to 
detain a traveller. Passing oi;it of Hosh- 
angabad the railway crosses the Ner- 
budda on a fine bridge. About 4 m. 
N. of the Nerbudda river the ascent 
of the ghat commences, and at the top 
the line runs on the tableland of 
Malwa, which has an average elevation 
of 1600 ft 

57 m. Bhopalsta.(R.).D.B. [Branch 
to nj,jain]. The town stands on the N. 
bank of a fine and extensive lake, 4} m. 
long and 1^ broad. Bhopal is the capital 
of a native state, under the Central 
Indian Agency. It has an area of 8200 
sq. m. The dynasty was founded by Dost 
Muhammad, an Afghan chief in the 
service of Aurangzib, who took advan- 
tage of the troubles that followed the 
Emperor's death to establish his inde- 
penaence. His family havealways shown 
their friendship for the British. In 1778, 
when Greneral Goddard made his famous 
march across India, Bhopal was the 
only Indian state whfch 8nowe4 itself 



ROUTE 6. BHILSA 



87 



Mendly. In 1S09, when General Close 
commanded another expedition in the 
neighbourhood, the Nawab of Bhopal 
applied to be received under British 
protection, but- without success. The 
Nawab then obtained assistance from 
the Pindaris, in the gallant struggle he 
maintained to defend himself against 
Sindia and Raghoji Bhonsla, in the 
course of which his capital underwent 
a severe but iueffectual siege. 

In 1817 the British Government in- 
tervened and formed an alliance with 
the Nawab of Bhopal, who was in 
1818 guaranteed his possessions by 
treaty, on condition of furnishing 600 
horse and 400 infantry, to maintain 
which five districts in Malwa were 
assigned to him. He was soon after- 
wards killed by a pistol accidentally 
discharged by a child. His nephew, an 
infant, was declared his successor, and 
betrothed to his infant daughter, but 
the Nawab's widow, Khudsya Begam, 
endeavoured to keep the government 
in her own hands, and the declared 
heir resigned his claim to the throne 
and to the hand of the Nawab's daughter 
Sikaudar Begam in favour of his brother 
Jehangir Muhammad. After long dis- 
sensions, Jehangir Muhammad was in- 
stalled as Nawab, in 1837,' through the 
mediation of the British. He died in 
1844, and was succeeded by his widow, 
Sikandar Begam, who ruled till her 
death in 1868. She left one daughter. 
Shah Jehan Begam. The State main- 
tains 694 horse, 2200 foot, 14 field cuns 
and 43 other guns, with 291 artillery- 
men, and pays £20,000 to the British 

i Government in lieu of a contingent. 

: The name of Bhoi)al is said to be 
derived from that of its founder, Raja 
Bhoj, and the dam by which he formed 
the Tank, dam being in Hindu pal. 
Thus Bhoj pal has been coiTupted into 
Bhopal. The city proper is enclosed 
by a masonry wall, 2 m. in circuit. 

The traveller should visit the Falace 
of the Begam, which is not of much 
architectural beauty, but is a large and 
imposing building; the Citadely from 
the wsdS of which a fine view of the 
lake and surrounding country is ob- 
tained ; the Jwrnma Musjidy built by 
the late Khudsya Begam ; the MoH 



Musfid, built by the late Sikandar 
Begam (it somewhat resembles the 
Mosque at Delhi) ; the MirU and Ar- 
senal, and the Gardens of the Khudsya 
and Sikandar Beganis. 

The town of Bhopal is well kept and 
lighted, and fairly clean. In the city 
proper, water has been laid on to all 
the houses. The Water-works were 
built by the Khudsya Begam, and are 
much superior to those of most Indian 
citiesn The smaller lake E. of the town, 
2 m. long, was constructed by Chota 
Khan, minister of Nawab Hyat 
Muhammad Khan, a former ruler of 
Bhopal. The dam is of masonry, and 
is an imposing work. . 

90 m. Bhilsa sta. A fortified town 
in the Gwalior state. Pop. 7000. The 
town is situated on the rt. or E. bank 
of the river Betwa, and is perched on 
a rock of 1546 ft. above sea-level, and 
has a fort enclosed by a castellated 
stone wall, and surrounded by a ditch ; 
the suburb outside has some spacious 
streets containing good houses. In the 
fort lies an old gun, 19J ft. in length, 
with a bore of 10 in,, said to have been 
made by order of the Emperor Jehangir. 
After changing hands several times, 
Bhilsa was finally, in 1570, incorporated 
with the Empire of Delhi by Akbar. 
The tobacco produced in the vicinity 
of the town is considered the finest in 
India. Bhilsa is now chiefly note- 
worthy as a famous place of Hindu pil- 
grimage to the temples, picturesquely 
situated in the bed of the Betwa river, 
and as giving its name to the remark- 
able and interesting series of Buddhist 
Topes found in its neighbourhood.^ 

Mr. Fergusson says, in his History 
of Architecture : " The most extensive, 
and perhaps the most interesting group 
of topes in India, is that known as the 
Bhilsa Topes: within a district not 
exceeding 10 m. E. and W., and 6 m. 
N. and S., are five or six groups of 
topes, containing altogether between 
25 and 30 individual examples." 

1 These are described in General Cunningo 
ham's BhiUa Topes, 1 voL 8vo. 1854; also in 
Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship. Onehalf 
of this book and 45 of its plates, besides wood- 
cuts, are devoted to the illustration of the 
Great Tope. A cast of the B. gateway is in the 
South Kensington and Edinburgh MustJunis, 



88 



ROUTE 5. ITABSI JUNCTION TO CAWNFORE 



India 



Notvithste&ding all that has been 
written «bottt them, we know very little 
that is certain regarding their object 
and their history. 

5 m. from Bhilsa is Sanctai, s^c where 




Plan. 



there is a group of 11 topes. 
the principal is — 



Of these 



cended by a broad double ramp on one 
side. It was probably used for proces- 
sions round the monument. The centre 
of the mound is quite solid, being of 
bricks laid in mud, but 'the exterior is 
faced with dressed stones, over which 
was cement nearly 4 in. thick, origin- 
ally adorned, no doubt, with paintings 
or ornaments in relief. 

As is usual in these Buddhist topes, 
the building is surrounded by ** rails," 
exhibiting the various steps by which 
the modes of decorating them were 
arrived at, with 4 gateways or torans 
(3 in 8itu)y covered with most elaborate 
sculptures, quite unequalled by any 
other examples known to exist in India. 
The period of erection probably ex- 
tended from about 250 b.c. to the Ist 
cent, of the Christian era ; the rails 
were constructed first and the gate- 
ways at intervals afterwards. 

Besides the group at Sanchi, there is 
at Sonari, 6 m. off, a group of eight 
topes, of which two are important struc- 
tures in square courtyards, and in one 
of these numerous relics were found. 
At Sadhara, 3 m. farther, is a tope 101 
ft. in diameter, which yielded no relics. 




Section Great Tope at SanchL 



The Great Tope, a dome 106 ft. in 
diameter and 42 ft. high. On the top 
is a fiat space 34 ft. in diameter, once 
surrounded by a stone railing. In the 
centre was a ** Tee," intended to repre- 
sent a relic-casket. The dome, 42 ft. 
high, rests on a sloping base 120 ft. in 
diameter, and 14 ft. high, and was as- 



In one tope, 24 ft. in diameter, were 
found relics of Sariputra and others 
like those found at Sanchi. 

At BkojpuTy 7 m. from Sanchi, are 
37 topes, the largest 66 ft. in diameter, 
and in the next to it important relics 
were found. At Andher^ 5 m. W. of 
Bhojpur, is a group of three small but 



ROUTE 5. SAUaOR 



89 



▼ery interestiiig topes. *' As far as can 
be at present ascertained," says Mr. Fer- 
gnssoD, " there is no reason for assuming 
that any of these topes are earlier than 
the ace of Asoka, 220 B.C., nor later 
than the 1st century A.D., though their 
rails may be later." 

In 1883, by order of the Government 
of India, the main group of buildings 
received much attention. The fallen 
gateways were set up. The sacred rails 
were secured, and, where fallen, were 
re-erected. The body of the stupa was 
restored to its original shape, and the 
processional paths were cleared. Where 
it was necessary to put in new stone 
for structural purposes the surfaces have 
been left quite plain. 

148 m. Bina junc. sta. (R.) A line 
from here runs S.E. over an undulating 
country to Sanger and Dummon. 

[47 m. Saugor, D.B. Principal town 
and headquarters of Saugor district, 
Central Provinces. A military canton- 
ment Pop. 44,000. Saugor stauds 1940 
ft. above sea-level, on the borders of 
a fine lake, nearly 1 m. broad, from 
which it derives its name. The lake is 
said to be an ancient Banjara work, but 
the present city dates only from the 
lend of the 17th cent, and owes its 
! rise to a Bundela Rajah, who built a 
' small fort on the site of the present 
structure in 1660, and founded a village 
called Parkota, now a quarter of the 
modem town. Saugor was next held 
by Ohatar Sal, and formed part of 
the territory left by him on his death 
to his ally the Peshwa. Qovind Pandit 
was appointed by the Peshwa to ad- 
minister the country, and his descend- 
ants continued to manage it till 
shortly before it was ceded to the 
British Government by the Peshwa Baji 
Bao in 1818. During this period the 
town was twice plundered by the Pin- 
dan chief Amir Ehan and his army, 
and again by Sindia in 1804. During 
the Mutiny of 1857 the town and fort 
were held by the English for eight 
months, until the arrival of Sir Hugh 
Bose. During that time the whole of 
tlie surrounding country was in posses- 
sion of the rebels. 



Saugor town is well built, with wide 
streets. The large bathing-ghats on the 
banks of the lake, for the most part 
surrounded with Hindu temples, add 
much to its appearance. 

The existing Fwt at Saugor was com- 
pleted by the Marathas about 1780. 
It stands on a height N. W. of the lake, 
commanding the whole of the city and 
surrounding country, and consists of 20 
round towers, varying 'from 20 to 40 ft. 
in height, connected by thick curtain 
walls. It encloses a space of 6 acres, 
for the most part covered with old 
Maratha buildings two stories high. 
The British Government have con- 
structed a magazine, a large building 
now used for medical stores, and a bar- 
rack for the European guard. The 
only entrance is on the L. side. The 
building is now used as the tahsil, and 
as the office of the executive engineer. 
The large castellated jail, capable of 
containing 600 prisoners, is situated 
about J m. E. of the lake ; the Deputy 
Commissioner's Court is on a hill over- 
looking the city and lake ; the Sessions 
Court-house, a little to the N. ; and the 
city kotwali, or station-house, under 
the western walls of the fort In 1862 
an unhealthy swamp lying N.E. of the 
lake, which cut off the quarter called 
Gopalganj from the rest of the city, 
was converted into a large garden with 
numerous drives and a piece of oi-na- 
mental water. The civil station begins 
with the mint, about 1 m. E. of the 
lake, and extends northwards for 1 m. 
till joined by the military cantonments, 
which extend in a north-easterly direc- 
tion for 2^ m., with the church in the 
centre.] 

182 m. Lalitpnr sta., D.B. The head- 
quarters of a district of the same name. 
Pop. 11,000. Formerly unimportant, 
this place is now becoming more 
prosperous. Buddhist remains built 
into the walls of modern buildings 
indicate that some large shrine once 
existed in the neighbourhood. 

207 m. Talbahat sta. A picturesque 
town with a large piece of artificial, 
water covering more than 1 sq. m. 
The water is retained by damming the 



90 



ROUTE 6. ITARSI JUNCTION TO CAWNPORE 



India 



streams that flow through a rocky 
barrier about 800 ft high. The ridge 
is covered with old battlements and 
defences. The fort was destroyed by 
Sir Hugh Rose in 1858. 

238 m. Jhansi June, sta.3^ (R.), D.B. 
centre of the Indian Mid. Bly. system. 
The main line runs N.K to Cawn- 
pore, a branch N. to Gwalior and Agia, 
and another £.. through Banda to 
the £. I. Rly. at Manikpur. Jhansi 
is one of the main halting-places for 
troops proceeding up country. It is 
well worthy of a visit on account of its 
Fort, which the British Government 
have exchanged with Maharaja Sindia 
for Gwalior. 

The Province of Bundelkand, in 
which Jhansi is situated, has for ages 
been one of the most turbulent and 
difficult to manage in all India. In 
the early part of the 17th century the 
Orchha state was governed by Bir 
Sing Deo, who built the fort of Jhansi, 
8 m. to the N. of his capital, which is 
situated on an island in the Betwa 
river. He incurred the heavy dis- 
pleasure of Akbar by the murder of 
Abul Fazl, the Emperor's favourite 
minister and historian, at the instiga- 
tion of Prince Salim, afterwards known 
as the Emperor Jehangir. A force was 
accordingly sent against him in 1602 ; 
the country was ravaged aud devastated, 
but Bir Sing himself contrived to 
escape. On the accession of his patron, 
Salim, in 1605, he was naturally 
pardoned, and rose into great favour ; 
but when, on the death of that em- 
peror in 1627, Shah Jehan mounted 
the throne, Bir Sing revolted. His 
rebellion was unsuccessful, and although 
he was permitted to keep possession of 
his dominions, he never regained all 
his former power and independence. 
During the troubled times which suc- 
ceeded, Orchha was sometimes in the 
hands of the Mohammedans and some- 
times fell under the power of Bundela 
chieftains. In 1732 Chatar Sal found 
it expedient to call in the aid pf the 
Marathas, who were then invading the 
Central Provinces under their first 
Peshwa, Baji Rao. They came to his 
assistance with their accustomed promp- 



titude, and were rew{U*ded on the Raja's 
death, in 1734, by a bequest of one- 
third of his dominions. The territoiy 
so granted included portions of the 
modem division of Jhansi, but not the 
existing district itself. In 1742, how- 
ever, the Marathas found a pretext fw 
attacking the Orchha State, and an- 
nexing that amongst other territories. 
Their general founded the city of Jhansi, 
and peopled it with the inhabitants of 
Orchna. 

The district remained under the rule 
of the Peshwas until 1817, when they 
ceded their richts to the E. I. Com- 
pany. Under British protection, native 
kajas ruled until their folly and in- 
competency ruined the country, and 
when the dynasty died out in 1853 
their territories lapsed to the British 
Government. The Jhansi State, with 
Jaloun and Chanderi Districts, were 
then formed into a Superintendency, 
while a pension was eranted to the 
Rani or widow of the late Raja Rao. 
The Rani, however, considered herself 
aggrieved, both because she was not 
allowed to adopt an heir, and because 
the slaughter of cattle was permitted 
in the Jhansi territory. Reports were 
spread which excited the religious pre- 
judices of the Hindus. 

The events of 1867 accordingly found 
Jhansi ripe for rebellion. In May it 
was known that the troops were dis- 
affected, and on the 5th of June a few 
men of the 12th Native Infantry seized 
the fort containing the treasure and 
magazine. Many European officers 
were shot the same day. The re- 
mainder, who had taken refuge in 
a fort, capitulated a few days after, 
and were massacred with their families 
to the number of 66 persons, in spite of 
a promise of protection sworn on the 
Koran and Ganges water. The Rani 
then attempted to seize the supreme 
authority, but. the usual anarchic 
quarrels arose between the rebels, during 
which the Orchha leaders laid siege 
to Jhansi and plundered the country 
mercilessly. On the 4th of April 1868 
the fort and town were captured by Sir 
Hugh Rose, who marched on to Ealpi 
without being able to leave a garrison 
at Jhansi. After his departui-e, the 



ROUTE 5. KALPI 



91 



rebellion broke out afresh, only the 
Gasarai chieftain in the N. remaining 
faithful to the British cause. On the 
nth August a flying column under 
Colonel Liddell cleared out the rebels 
from Mhow, and after a series of sharp 
contests with various guerilla leaders, 
the work of reorganisation was fairly 
set on foot in November. The Rani 
herself had previously fled with Tantia 
Topi, and finally fell in a battle at the 
foot of the rock fortress of Gwalior. 

The siege of Jhansi occupied Sir 
Hugh Rose's army from 21st March 
till 4th April 1858, and cost us 843 in 
killed and wounded, of whom 86 were 
officers. The engineers lost 4 officers 
leading the attacking parties at the final 
escalade. Malleson, quoting Sir Hugh 
Rose, gives the following description of 
i Jhansi at the time of the investment : — 
I " The great strength of the Fort of 
< Jhansi, natural as well as artificial, 
and its extent, entitle it to a place 
' among fortresses. It stands on an 
elevated rock, rising out of a plain, and 
commands the city and surrounding 
country. It is built of excellent and 
I most massive masonry. The fort is 
difficult to breach, because composed'of 
granite; its walls vary in thickness 
from 16 to 20 fL It has extensive and 
elaborate outworks of the same solid 
constniction, with front and flanking 
embrasures for artillery-fire, and loop- 
holes, of which in some places there were 
five tiers for musketry. On one tower, 
called the ' white turret,' since raised in 
height, waved in proud defiance the 
standard of the high-spirited Rani. 
The fortress is surrounded on all 
sides by the city of Jhansi, the W. and 
part of the S. face excepted. The 
steepness of the rock protects the W. ; 
the fortified city wall springs from 
the centre of its S. face, and ends 
in a high mound or mamelon, which 
protects by a flanking fire S. face. The 
mound was fortified by a strong circular 
bastion for five guns, round part of 
which was drawn a ditch, 12 ft. deep 
and 15 ft. broad of solid masonry. 

" The city of Jhansi is about 4 J m. in 
circumference, and is surrounded by a 
fortified and massive wall, from 6 to 12 
ft thick, and varying in height froT(\ 



18 to 80 ft., with numerous flanking 
bastions armed as batteries, with ord- 
nance, and loop-holes, with a banquette 
for infantry. The town and fortress 
were garrisoned by 11,000 men, com- 
posed of rebel sepoys, foreign mercen- 
aries, and local levies, and they were 
led by a woman who believed her cause 
to be just" 

It is being modernised and supplied 
with strong armament. The views 
from the top and from the road round 
the rampart are very extensive. 

The old civil station (Jhansi Naoa- 
bad) attached to Jhansi before 1861 
remains the headquarters of the dis- 
trict, and is under British rule. 

[7 m. from Jhansi, on the river Betwa, 
is the interesting native fort of Orchha, 
well worth a visit] 

Between Jhansi and Cawnpore the 
country abounds in black buck. Num- 
erous old fortified villages are seen 
from the rly. train. 

808 m. Orai ( Vrai) sta. (R.) A thriving 
place of 8000 inhabitants. The head- 
quarters of the Jaloun district Before 
1839 the place was an insignificant 
village. There are some handsome 
Mohammedan tombs and the usual 
public offices. 

829 m. Kalpi sta. on the Indian 
Midland Railway. The town is situ- 
ated on the right bank of the Jumna 
amongst deep rugged ravines. The 
river here is crossed by an iron girder 
bridge. Tradition says that the town 
was founded by Basdeo or Vasude va, who 
ruled at Eamba from 330 to 400 a.d. 

During the Mogul period Kalpi. 
played so large a part in the annals of 
this part of India that it would be im- 
possible to detail its history at length. 
After the Marathas interfered in the 
aflairs of Bundelkund, the headquarters 
of their government were fixed at Kalpi. 
At the tmie of the British occupation 
of Bundelkund in 1803, Nana Gobind 
Rao seized upon the town. The British 
besiegied it in December of that year, 
and, after a few hours' resistance, it 
surrendered. Kalpi was then included 
in the territory granted[to Raja Himmat 
Bahadur, q^ whpse death, in 1304, it 



92 



ROUTE 5a. AQBA to MANIKFUB 



onoe more lapsed to Govemineiit. It 
was next handed over to Gobind Bao, 
who exchanged it two years later for 
villages farther to the W. Since 
that time Kalpi has remained a British 
possession. After the capture of Jhansij 
and the rout of the mutineers atEoonch, 
they fell back on Kalpi, which through- 
out the previous pperations they had 
made their principal arsenal. Here, on 
22d May 1858, Sir Hugh Rose (Lord 
Strothuairn) again defeated a large 
force of about 12,000 under the Rani of 
Jhansi, Rao Sahib, and the Nawab of 
Banda, who then fled to Gwalior. 

Kalpi was formerly a place of far 
greater importance than at the present 
day. The East India Company made 
it one of their principal stations for 
providing their commercial invest- 
ments. The western ontskirt of the 
town, along the river side, contains a 
large number of ruins, notably the 
tomb called the 84 Jiomes, and 12 
other handsome mausoleums. At one 
time the town adjoined these ruins, 
but it has gradually shifted south- 
eastward. Ganesganj and Temanganj, 
two modern quarters in that direction, 
at present conduct all the traffic. The 
buildings of the old commercial agency 
crown some higher ground, but are now, 
for the most i)art, empty. A ruined 
fort, situated on the steep bank of the 
Jumna, overhangs the ghat 

874 m. Oawnpore junc. sta. (see 
p. 260). 



ROUTE 5a 

Aqba to Gwalior, Jhansi, Banda, 
AXD Manikpur. 

Starting from the Agra Fort Station 
(p. 168) by the Indian Midland Rail- 
way, the traveller reaches at 



86 m. Dholpnr sta. (R.), the chief town 
oftheuative state of that name. Inl658 
Aurangzib defeated and killed his elder 
brother Dara-Shikoh at Ran-ka- 
Chabutara, 3 m. E. of Dholpur. The 
imperial princes, competitors for the 
crown, 'Azini and Mu azzim, fought a 
great battle in 1707 at the village of 
Barehta near Dholpur, and the former 
was killed, on which Mu'azzim became 
emperor, with the title of Bahadur Shah. 

The sights of Dholpur are not numer- 
ous. The Palace is a moderately hand- 
some and very commodious building. 
The tank of Much Kund, about 2 m. 
from Dholpur, is about i m. long, and 
contains several islets, on which are 
pavilions. The banks are lined with 
temples, but none of them are apcient 
or remarkable. There are alligators in 
the tank, but though crowds of pilgrims 
bathe in the waters, there is no story 
of any of them being carried off. 

The river Ohambal runs through 
this state, and is bordered everywhere 
by a labyrinth of ravines, some of which 
are 90 ft. deep, and extend to a distance 
of from 2 to 4 m. from the river banks, 
near which panthers are sometimes 
found. The floods of the Ghambal are 
very remarkable. The highest recorded 
flood above summer level rose no less 
than 97 ft. There is a very fine Bridge 
over the stream about 4 m. from Dhol- . 
pur, built of the famous red sandstone 
of Dholpur, a ridge of which, from 560 
to 1074 ft. above sea -level, runs for 
60 m. through the territory, and sup- 
plies inexhaustible quarries. 

77m.GWALIOB8ta.3^(R.),D.B. The 
capital of Maharaja Sincda, and &mous 
for its fort, one of the most ancient and 
renowned strongholds in India. 

For many years a strong brigade of 
British troops was maintained at MoraVf 
a few m. K of the fort The latter 
was garrisoned by British troops from 
1858 to 1886, when it was restored to 
the Maharajah's custody, and Gwalior 
and Morar were made over to him in 
exchange for Jhansi 

Histozy. 

General Cunningham, in vol. ii. of 
the Keperts of the Arekaoiogicdl Sur 



ROUTE 6a. GWALlOtt 



dd 



My, gives a mdst valuable account of 
- Gwalior. He says that of the three 
16th and 17th cent, authorities for the 
early history of Gwalior, Eh$irg Rai 
says Gwalior was founded 3101 b.c. ; 
that Fazl 'All assigns 275 A. d. as the 
year of its foundation ; and that this 
date is also adopted by Hiraman. 
Tieffenthaler, Wilford, and Cunning- 
nam a^ree in fixing on this later date. 
Aocording to Cunningham, Toramana 
was a tributary prince under the Gup- 
tas, against whom he rebelled, and 
became sovereign of all the territory 
between the Jumna and Nerbudda, 
and in the reign of his son, 275 
A.i>., the Sun Temple was built, the 
Snr^j Kund excavated, and Gwalior 
founded, by Suraj Sen, a Eachhwaha 
chief, who was a leper, and coming 
when hunting to the hill of Gopagiri, 
on which the Fort of Gwalior now 
stands, got a drink of water from 
the hermit Gwalipa, which cured him 
of his leprosy. In gratitude for that 
he built a fort on the hill, and called 
it **Gwaliawar," or Gwalior. Suraj 
Sen got a new name, Suhan Pal, from 

i the nermit, with a promise that his 

\. descendants should reign as long as 
they were called Pal; so 88 reigned, 

I but the 84th was called Tej Kara, and 
having discarded the name of Pal, lost 

I his kingdouL 

' This Kaohhwaha dynasty was suc- 
ceeded by seven Parihara princes, who 
ruled for 103 years till 1232 A.D., when 
Gwalior was taken by Altamsh, in the 
2l8t year of the reign of Sarang Deo. 

, General Cunningnam found an in- 
scription on an old stone sugar-mill at 
Chitauli between Nurwar and Gwalior, 
which is dated Samwat 1207 = 1150 
A.D., in the reign of Ram Deo, which 

res with and strongly corroborates 
dates he has accepted. 
The capture of Gwalior by Altamsh 
was commemorated in an inscription 
placed over the gate of the Urwahi, 
and ti^e Emperor Babar states that he 
saw it, and the date was 630 a.h. = 
1232 A.D. Briggs, in a note to Firish- 
tah, says it is still to be seen, but 
General Cunningham sought for it in 
vain. From 1232 to Tiniar's invasion 
in 1398 the Emperor of Delhi used 



Gwalior as a state prison. In 1375 
A.i>. the Tumar chief, Bir Sing 
Deo, declared himself independent, 
and founded the Tumar dynasty of 
Gwalior. 

In 1416 and 1421 the Gwalior chiefs 
paid tribute to Ehizr Ehan of Delhi, 
and in 1424 Gwalior, being besieged 
by Hushang Shah of Malwa, was de- 
livered by Mubarak Shah of Delhi. 
In 1426, 1427, 1429, aud 1432, the 
Eing of Delhi marched to Gwalior, and 
exacted tribute. Dimgar Sing, 1425, 
commenced the great rock sculptures 
at Gwalior, and his son Eirti Sin^, 
1454, completed them. In 1465 Husam 
Sharki, king of Jaunpur, besieged 
Gwalior, and obliged it to pay tribute. 
Man Sin^ acknowledged the supremacy 
of Bahlol Lodi and of Sikandar Lodi, 
but the latter in 1505 marched against 
Gwalior, fell into an ambuscade and 
was repulsed with great loss. In 
1506, however, he captured Himmat- 
garb, but passed by Gwalior, which he 
despaired of reducing. In 1517 he 
made great preparations at Agra for 
the conquest of Gwalior, but died of 
quinsy. Ibrahim Lodi had sent an 
army of 30,000 horse, 300 elephants, 
and other troops, against Gwalior, and 
a few days after they reached that place 
Man Sing died. He was the greatest 
of the Tumar princes of Gwalior, and 
constructed many useful works, amongst 
others, the great tank to the N.W. of 
Gwalior, called the Moti JhU, Cun- 
ningham says his palace affords the 
noblest specimen of Hindu domestic 
architecture in N. India. He was a 
patron of the Fine Arts, and an elephant 
sculptured in his reign, with two riders, 
was admired by the Emperor Babar, 
Abu -1- Fazl, and the traveller Finch. 
After Man Sing's death his son, Vikra- 
maditya, sustained the siege for a year, 
but at last surrendered, and was sent 
to Agra. 

Babar sent Bahimdad with an army 
to Gwalior, which he took by a strata- 
gem, suggested by the holy Muhammad 
Ghans. In 1542 Abu-1-Easim, Gover- 
nor of Gwalior, surrendered his fortress 
to Sher Shah. In 1545 Salim, son of 
Sher, brought his treasure from Chunar 
to Gwalior, and in 1558 died at the 



d4 



ftOUTE 5a. AGRA TO MANlKPtJtt 



latter place. Bana Sah, son of Yikram, 
tried to seize Gwalior, and fought a 
groat battle, which lasted for three days, 
with Akbar's troops there, bnt was de- 
feated. He then went to Chitor. In 
1761 Gwalior was taken by Bhim Sing, 
the Jat Rana of Gohad, and in 1779 
captured by Major Popham from the 
Marathas, into whose hands it had 
fallen, and restored to the Rana of 
Gohad. It was a^ain taken by the 
Marathas under Mahadaji Sindia in 
1784, and again captured by the English 
under General Wnite in 1803, and re- 
stored to them in 1805. In 1844, after 
the battles of Maharajpur and Paniar, 
it was a third time occupied by the 
British. 

At the time of the Mutiny the great 
Maratha prince, Sindia, had, besides 
10,000 troops of his own, a contingent 
consisting of 2 regts. of Irregular 
Cavalry — 1168 men of all ranks, 7 
regts. of Infantry aggregating 6412 men, 
and 26 guns, witn 748 Artillerymen. 
This force was officered by Englisnmen, 
and the men were thoroughly drilled 
and disciplined, and were, in fact, ex- 
cellent soldiers, as they proved by de- 
feating and almost driving into the 
river General Windham's brigade at 
Cawnporc. 

At this time Sindia was in his 2dd 
year, an athletic and active man, and 
a first-rate horseman and fond of 
soldiering. It is admitted that he 
could handle troops on parade as well 
as most men, and he possessed an 
extraordinary liking for the military 
profession. Had he decided to throw 
m his lot with the rebels he might 
have marched to Agra, which was only 
65 m. distant, and with his powerful 
army must have made himself speedily 
master of that city ; and the results 
might have been temporarily disastrous 
to the British. ButSindia'sableminister, 
Dinkar Rao, knew something of the 
power of the English Grovemment ; 
knew that though he could have ob- 
tained a temporary success he would 
be certainly overpowered in the end. 
He therefore persuaded Sindia to deal 
Bubtilely with nis dangerous army, and 
by delays and evasions kept them for a 
time firom issuing from their canton- 



ments and adding their formidable 
strength to the rebel army. He conld 
not, however, prevent them killing their 
English officers. 

Seven officers and several ladies and 
children escaped the showers of bullets 
that were aimed at them, and reached 
the Residency,' or Sindia's Palace. 
These were sent on by the Maratha 
Prince to the Dholpur territory, where 
they were most kindly treated and sent 
to Agra. 

For some months Gwalior was quiet, 
thouffh the country round was in 
rebellion, and on the 22d May 1858 a 
very important battle was fought in 
front of JKalpi in which the mutineers 
led by Tantia Topee and the Khanee 
of Thausi were severely defeated by 
Sir Hugh Rose. They retreated in the 
direction of Gwalior. 

On the 1st June Sindia with all his 
army moved out from Gwalior to meet 
them. The engagement took place about 
2 m. K of Morar. Malleson thus de- 
scribes it : — 

"He had with him 6000 infantry, 
about 1600 cavalry, his own bodyguard 
600 strong, and 8 guns, ranged in 3 
divisions, — his guns centre. About 7 
o'clock in the morning the rebels ad- 
vanced. As they approached, Sindia's 
8 guns opened on them. But the 
smoke of the discharge had scarcely 
disappeared when the rebel skirmishers 
closed to tiheir flanks, and 2000 horse- 
men charging at a gallop, carried the 
guns. Simultaneously with their 
charge, Sindia's infantry and cavalry, 
his bodyguard alone excepted, either 
joined the rebels or took up a position 
indicative of their intention' not to 
fight. . . . The rebels then attacked 
the bodyguard, who defended them- 
selves bravely, but the contest was too 
unequal, and Sindia turned and fled, 
accompanied by a very few of the sur- 
vivors. He did not draw rein till he 
reached Agra." 

The Rhanee thereupon seized the 
Fort of Gwalior and proclamed the 
Nana as Peishwa. On hearing of this 
Sir Hugh Rose, on the 4th June, 
marched upon Gwalior. As he neared 
it he was joined by Sir Robert Napier 
(Lord Napier of Magdala), who took 



ttOtJTfi 6a. GWALtolt 



d5 



command of the 2nd Brigade, and by 
the Hyderabad troops. On the 16th he 
came into touch with the rebels at 
Bahadurpore, near Morar. In spite 
of the long and fatiguing march which 
hisforce had endured, Sir Hugh attacked 
the enemy at once, and drove them 
firom their position. 

"The main body of the enemy, driven 
through the cantonments, fell back on 
a dry nullah with high banks, running 
round a village which they had also 
occupied. Here they maintained a 
desperate hand-to-hand struggle with 
the British. The 71st Highlanders 
suffered severely, Lieutenant Neave, 
whilst leading them, falling mortallv 
wounded ; nor was it till the nullan 
was nearly choked with dead that the 
▼illa^ was carried. The victory was 
com]^eted by a successful pursuit and 
slaughter of the rebels by Captain 
Thompson, 14th Light Dragoons, with 
a wing of his regiment 

" The result, then, had justified Sir 
Hugh's daring. Not only had he dealt 
.a heavy hlow to the rebels, but he 
gained a most important strategical 
point." 

(The visitor to the Fort sees this 
battle-field below him to the E. and S.) 

Early next morning (the 17th of 
June), Brigadier Smith marched irom 
Antri and reached Kotah-ki-serai, 5 m. 
to the S.E. of Gwalior, without opposi- 
tion. There he discovered the enemy 
in great force, and showing a disposi- 
tion to attack. ** Reconnoitring the 
ground in front of him, he found it 
verv difficult, intersected with nullahs 
ana impracticable for cavalry. He dis- 
covered, moreover, that the enemy's 
guns were in position about 1500 yds. 
n-om Eotah-ki-serai, and that their 
line lay under the hills, crossing the 
road to Gwalior. Notwithstanding 
this, Smith determined to attack. 
First he sent his horse artillery to the 
front, and silenced the enemy s guns, 
which limbered up and retired. This 
accomplished, Smith sent his infantry 
across the broken ground, led by Raines 
of the 95th. Raines led his men, 
covered by skirmishers, to a point about 
60 yds. from the enemy's works, when 
the skirmishers made a rush, the rebels 



falling back as they did so. Raines then 
found himself stopped by a deep ditch 
with 4 ft. of water," but surmounting 
the difficulty he gained the abandoned 
entrenchment. ** Whilst he was con- 
tinuing his advance across the broken 
and hilly ground. Smith moved his 
cavalry across the river Umrah, close 
to Kotah-ki-serai. They had hardly 
crossed when they came under fire 
of a battery which till then had 
escaped notice. At the same time a 
body of the enemy threatened the 
haggage at Kotah-ki-serai. Matters 
now became serious. But Smith sent 
back detachments to defend the baggage 
and rear, and pushed forward. The 
road, before debouching from the hills 
between his position and Gwalior, ran 
for several hundred yards through 
a defile along which a canal had been 
excavated. It was while his troops 
were marching through this defile that 
the principal fighting took place. 
Having gained the farmer end of the 
defile, where he joined Raines, Smith 
halted the infantry to guard it, and 
ordered a cavalry charge. This was 
most gallantly executed by a squadron 
of the 8th Hussars, led by Colonel 
Hicks and Captain Heneage. The 
rebels, horse and foot, gave way before 
them. The hussars captured two guns, 
and continuing the pursuit through 
Sindia's cantonment, had for ■ a 
moment the rebel camp in their pos- 
session. 

" Amongst the fugitives in the rebel 
ranks was the resolute woman who, 
alike in counsel and on the field, was 
the soul of the conspirators. Clad in 
the attire of a man and mounted on 
horseback, the Rani of Jhansi might 
have been seen animating her- troops 
throughout the day. When inch by 
inch the British troops pressed through 
the pass, and when reacning its summit 
Smith ordered the hussars to charge, 
the Rani of Jhansi boldly fronted the 
British horsemen. When her comrades 
failed her, her horse, in spite of her 
efforts, carried her along with the 
others. With them she might have 
escaped, but that her horse, crossing 
the canal near the cantonment 
stumbled and fell. A hussar, close 



M 



tlOUTB 5a. AQRJL to UA^flKPUR 



India 



upon her track, i^orant of her sex 
and her rank, cat ner down. She fell 
to rise no more. That night, her 
devoted followers, determined that the 
English should not hoast that they 
had captured her even dead, burned 
her body." 

Following up the operations above 
described late into the night of the 
19th June, Sir Hugh regained the 
whole place — Morar, the city, the 
Lashkar — everything but the Fort, 
which was held* by a few fanatics, who 
had fired on our advancing troops 
whenever they could throughout the 
day, and reoommenced the following 
morning. 

"On the morning of the 20th, 
lieutenant Rose, 26th Bombay Native 
Infantry, was in command with a de- 
tachment of his regiment at the kot- 
wali, or police-station, not far from the 
main gateway of the rock fort. As the 
guns from its ramparts continued to 
nre, Rose proposed to a brother officer. 
Lieutenant Waller, who commanded a 
small party of the same regiment near 
him, that they should attempt to 
capture the fortress with their joint 
parties, urging that if the risk was 
ffreat, the honour would be still greater. 
Waller cheerfully assented, and the 
two officers set off with their men and 
a blacksmith, whom, not unwilling, 
they had engaged for the service. 
They crept up to the first gateway 
unseen. Then the blacksmith, a 
)K>werful man, forced it open ; and so 
with the other five gates that opposed 
their progress. By the time the sixth 
gate had been forced the alarm was 
given, and when the assailants reached 
the archway beyond the last gate, tliey 
were met by the fire of a gun which 
had been brought to bear on them. 
Dashing onwaras, unscathed by the 
fire, they were speedily engaged in a 
haud>to-hand contest with the garrison. 
The fiffht was desperate, and many 
men fell on both sides. The gallantry 
of Rose and Waller and their men 
oarried all before them. Rose especially 
distinguished himself. Just in the 
hour of victory, however, as he was 
indtuAg his men to make the final 
d^aige, which proved 8uccossfiil» a 



musket was fired at him from behind 
the walL The man who had fiied the 
shot, . a mutineer from Baraili, then 
rushed out and cut him down. Waller 
came up, and despatched the rebel ; 
too late, however, to save his friend. 
But the rock fortress was gained," and 
continued in British hands till 1886. 

The New City or Laahkar.— When 
Daulat Rao Sindia obtained possession 
of Gwalior in 1794-1805, he pitched 
his camp on the open plain to the S. 
of the fort. As the camp remained, 
the tents soon disappeared, and a new 
city rapidly sprung up, which still 
retains the name of Lashkar, or the 
camp, to distinguish it from the old 
city of Gwalior. The Sarafa, or mer- 
chants' quarter, is one of the finest 
streets in India. In the Phul Bagh is the 
Modern Palace of Maharaja Sindia 
(not shown to visitors). In the centre 
of Lashkar is the Barak, or Old Palace, 
and near it are the houses of the chief 
Sardars, or nobles, of the state. 

The new buildings worthy of a visit 
are the Dufferin Sarai, the Victoria 
College, and the Tayagi Mao Memorial 
Hospital. The modem Temple was 
erected by Sindia's mother, and is 
mentioned by Fergusson. 

Since the occupation of the Lashkar, 
the Old City has been gradually decay- 
ing, and is now only one-third as large 
as the New City. But the two together 
still form one of the populous places in 
India. 

The Old City of Gwalior is a crowded 
mass of small flat-roofed stone houses. 
Flanking the city to the N. stands a 
curious old Pathan archway, the re- 
mains of a tomb. Outside t^e gates is 
the JunmuL Mnsjid, with its gUt pin- 
nacled domes and lofty minarets. Sir 
W. Sleeman says {Rambles, i. 347): 
"It is a very beautiful mosque, with 
one end built by Muhammad Khan, in 
1665 A.D., of the white sandstone of 
the rock above it It looks as fresh as 
if it had not been finished a month." 
It has the usual two minars, and oTtf 
the arches and alcoves are carved pas- 
sages from the Koran in beautiful Enfilr 
characters. 

Beyond the stream, and just on tbs 
outskirta of the city, is the noble tomb 



ROUTE 5a. GWALIOR FORT 



97 



of the Muliamxnad Ghana, a saint 
venerated in the time of Babar and 
Akbar. It is of stone, and is one of 
the best specimens of Mohammedan 
architectnre of the early Mogul period. 
It was built in the early part of 
Akbar's reign, and is a square of ^00 
ft., with hexagonal towers at the four 
comers, attached at the angles instead of 
the sides. The tomb is a hall 43 t. 
8q., with the angles cut off by pointed 
arches, from which springs a lofty 
Pathan dome. The walls are 5i ft. 
thick, and are surrounded by a lofty 
yerandah, with square bays in centre 
of each side, enclosed by stone lattices 
of the most intricate and elaborate 
patterns. These are protected from 
the weather by very bold eaves, sup- 
ported on long stone slabs resting on 
brackets. The building is of yellowish 
gray sandstone. The dome was once 
covered with blue glazed tiles. The 
whole is choked with whitewash. 

Tomb of Tansen, the famous musi- 
dan, is a small open building 22 ft. 
aq., supported on pillars round the 
tombstone. It is close to the S.W. 
eomer of the large tomb ; hence it is 
ifhonght he became a Moslem. The 
I tamarind tree near the tomb is much 
I visited by musicians, as the chewing of 
j tiie leaves is alleged to impart a won- 
I derful sweetness to the voice. Lloyd, 
: m 1820, in his Jov/mey to Kwnawar, i. 
p. 9, says that this is still religiously 
oelieved by all dancing girls. They 
stripped the original tree of its leaves 
till it died, and the present tree is a 
I seedling of the original one. 

To see GKralior Fort cm order is 
j necessary : it can be obtained at the 
I Kesidency Office, or from the keeper of 
I the Mnsafir Ehana (the Maharaja's 
; bungalow for strangers). The rest- 
house keeper will make arrangements 
for the elephant which the Maharaja 
kindly puts at the disposal of visitors, 
to meet them at the foot of the steep 
ascent to the Fort. 

"The great fortress of Gwalior," 
says General Cunningham, "is situated 
on a precipitous, flat-topped, and iso- 
lated nill of sandstone,** which rises 300 
ft. above the town at the N. end, but 
[India] 



only 274 ft. at the upper gate of the 
principal entrance. The hill is long and 
narrow ; its extreme length from N. to 
S. is If m., while its breadth varies from 
600 ft to 2800 ft The walls are from 
80 to 35 ft high, and the rock imme- 
diately below them is steeply but 
irregularly scarped all round the hill. 

The objects of chief interest are all in 
the Fort, with the exception of the tomb 
of Muhammad Ghaus, which is passed 
on the way there. Notice especially the 
gateways, the Man, Karan, and Vikram 
palaces, the Sas Bahu temples, the Jain 
and the Teli-Ea-Mandir temples, and 
the gigantic rock-cut figures. 

The view from the Fort is varied and 
extensive, but, except during the rainy 
season, when the hills are green, the 
general appearance of the country is 
brown and arid. To the N., on a 
clear day, may be seen the gigantic 
temple of Sahamiya, about 30 m. 
distant, and still farther in the same 
direction the red hills of Dholpur. 
To the W. and within gunshot lies the 
long flat -topped sandstone hill of 
Hanuman, with a basaltic peak at the 
N. end, and a white-washed temple on 
its slope, whence the hiU has its 
name. Beyond, far as the eye can 
reach, nothing is seen but range after 
range of low sandstone hills. The 
conical peak of the Raipur hill towers 
over the lower ranges in the S., and to 
the E. the level plains, dotted with 
villages, lengthen till they pass out of 
sight On me plain below lies the Old 
City of Gwalior, encircling the N. end 
of the fortress, and to the S. , upwards 
of 1 m. distant, is the New City of 
Lashkarf literally **cainp." 

The main entrance to the Fort is on 
the N.E. The ascent was formerly by 
many flights of broad steps alternating 
with pieces of paved level road, but 
these nave been removed, and there is 
now a continuous road. The entrance 
on the N.E. is protected by 6 Gates 
which, beginning from the N., are — 

The *-<4towgrm gate built by Mu'tamad 
Khan, Governor of Gwalior, in 1660, 
and called after Aurangzib, one of whose 
titles was 'Alamgir. It is quite plain, 
and the inscription is obliterated. 
Inside is a small courtyard, and an 



98 



ROUTE 6a. AGRA TO MANIKPUB 



India 



open hall in which the Mohammedan 
^ovemorssat to dispense juatice, whence 
it is called the Outeherry, 

The BadalgaTh or Hmdola cate has 
its name from the outwork Baaalgarh, 
which was called from Badal Sing, the 
uncle of Man Sing. This gate is also 
called Hindola, from hindol, ' *aswing, " 
which existed outside. It Ib a fine 
specimen of Hindu architecture. An 
inscription on an iron plate records 
its restoration by the Qovemor Saiyad 
'Alam in 1648. 

Close under the rock to the rt. is 
the stately Chijari Palace, built for the 
queen of Man Sing. It measures SOO 
ft. by 280 ft., and is two stories high. 
It is built of hewn stone, but is much 
mined. 

The Bhairon or Bansur gate has its 
name from one of the earliest Kach- 
hwahaBngahs. It iscalled Bansur, from 
bansoTj ''an archer," lit. ''a bamboo- 
splitter," a man who had the charge 
or it On one of the jambs is an in- 
scription dated 1485 a.d., a year before 
the accession of Man Sing. 

The Oamssh OaU was built by Dun- 
gareli, who reigned 1424 to 1454. Out- 
side is a small outwork called KaJmtar 
KKana, or "pigeon house," in which 
is a tank called Nur Sauffar, 60 ft x 
89 ft and 25 ft deep. Here, too, is a 
Hindu temple sacred to the hermit 
OwaUpa, from whom the fort had its 
name. It isasmallsquareopen pavilion, 
with a cupola on 4 pillara. ^ere is 
also a small mosque with an inscription 
which Cunningham thus translates : — 

In the reign of the great Prince 'Alamgir, 

Like the fUll-shining moon, 

The enlightener of the world, 

Praise be to God that this happy place 

Was by M'utamad Khan completed 

As a charitable gift. 

It was the idol-temple of the vile Owali. 

He made it a mosque 

Like a mansion of Paradise. 

The Khan of enlightened heart, 

Nay, light itself from head to fbot. 

Displayed thedivinelightlikethat of mid-day. 

He closed tixe idol temple. 

Then follows the chronogram giving 
a date corresponding to 1664 A.D. 

Before reaching the Lakshman Oate 
is a temple hewn out of the solid 
rook and called C^uUur-bht^-mandir, 
** shrine of the four-armed," sacred to 



Vishnu, inside which, on the left, is a 
long inscription, dated Samwat 933= 
876 A. D. It is 12 ft. sq., with a portieo 
in front 10 ft by 9 ft. supported by four 
pillars. There is a tank here, and 
opposite to it the tomb of Taj Nizain, 
a noble of the Court of Ibrahim Lodi, 
who was killed in assaulting this gata 
in 1518 A.D. Between the gates on tha 
face of the rock are carvings of Mahadeo 
and his consort, and about 50 Lingams. 
There was a colossal group of the Boar 
incarnation, 15^ ft high, which Cun- 
ningham thinks to be one of the oldest 
sculptures in Gwalior ; it is quite 
defaced. A fi^re of an elephant over 
the statue has oeen cut away to form a 
canopy. 

The Hathiya Pwwr, or Elephant Gate, 
was built by Man Sing, and forms part 
of his palace. Here was tiie carving of 
an elephant, which Babar and Abu-l- 
Fazl praised. 

There are three gates ontheN.W. side 
of the Fort, which have the general 
name of DHonda Faur, from an earlv 
Eachhwaha Bajah. In an upper outwork 
the state prisoners used to be confined. 

The S. W. entrance is called Ohar- 
gharj Paur, or Gurgling Gate, either 
from a well of that name inside, oc 
from a redoubt. It has five gates in 
succession, three of which were breached 
bv General White. This entrance is 
also called Popham by the natives, in 
memory of its capture in 1780 by 
Captain Bruce, brother of the tra- 
veller, who was an officer of Popham's 
force. The escalading party had grass* 
shoes furnished them to prevent them 
slipping, and the cost of these shoei 
is said to have been deducted froml 
Popham's pay. 

Gwalior has always been thought 
one of the most impregnable fortre^! 
in Upper India, and is superior to; 
most in an unfailing supply of waterj 
in tanki, cisterns, and weUs. Theii 
are several wells in the Urwahi outn 
work, and the water in them is alway^ 
sweet and wholesome, and is now ths 
only ffood drinking water in the fort 
The Huraj Eund, or Sun pool, was 
built about 275 to 300 a.d. , and is the 
oldest in the fort It is 350 ft by 180 
ft., with a variable depth. It is situ- 



BOUTB 5a. GWALIOB FOBT 



99 



ated abont 500 ft. N.W. of the Sas- 
bahu Temple. The Trikonia Tank is 
at the extreme N. point of the Fort, 
near the Jayanti-thora, where are two 
inscriptions, dated 1408 A.D., and a 
little earlier. The Johara tank is in 
the N. of the Fort, in front of Shah 
Jehan's palace, and has its name from 
the Johar, or sacrifice of the Rajput 
women there when Altamsh took the 
place. The Sas-bahu tank, ''mother- 
m-law and daughter-in-law,'-' is near 
the Padmanath temple, and is 250 ft 
by 150 ft., and 15 ft. to 18 ft deep, 
but usually dry, as the water runs 
through. The Grangola Tank is in the 
middle of the Fort, is 200 ft. sq., and 
always has deep water on the S. side. 
The Dhobi tank, at the S. end of the 
Fort, is the largest of all, being 400 ft. 
by 200 ft., but it is very shallow. 

There are six Palaces, or mandirs, 
in the Fort. (1) The Oujari, already 
mentioned. 

(2) The Han Sing Palace (1486- 
1516, repaired in 1881), rt. on entering 
the Fort, is on the edge of the E. clifT 
It was also called the Chit Mandir, 
or painted palace, as 'Hhe waUs are 
coTered with a profusion of coloured 
tiles — bands of mosaique candelabra, 
Brahmin ducks, elephants, and pea- 
cocks — enamelled blue, green and gold, 
giyinff to this massive wall an unsur- 
passed charm and elegance. The tiles 
of this great windowless wall possess 
a brightness and delicacy of tint un- 
blemished by the 10 centuries which 
they have weathered. Nowhere do I 
remember any architectural design 
capable of imparting similar lightness 
to a simple massive wall. The secret 
of these enamelled tiles has not yet 
been discovered " (Rouselet). It is two 
stories high, with two stories of under- 
ground apartments, now uninhabitable 
from the bats. The E. &ce is 300 ft. 
long and 100 ft. high, and has five 
massive round towers, surmounted by 
open-domed cupolas, and connected at 
top by a battlement of singularly beauti- 
ful open lattice-work. The S. face is 
160 ft. long and 60 ft. high, with three 
round towers connected by a battlement 
of lattice- work. The N. and W. sides 
are much ruined. The rooms are 



arranged round two courts, — small but 
with singularly beautiful decoration. 

(3) The Palace of Vikram is between 
the Man and Earan palaces, and con- 
nected with them by narrow ealleries. 

(4) The Karan PaZace should be 
called the Eirti Mandir. It is long 
and narrow, and of two stories. It has 
one room 43 ft. by 28 ft., with a roof 
supported by two rows of pillars. There 
are smaller rooms on either side, and 
bath-rooms below, with some fine 
plaster-work on the domed ceilings. 
Close by to the S. is a hall (1516 A.D.) 
36 ft. sq., and the roof is a singular 
Hindu dome supported on eight curved 
ribs, of which four spring from the side 
pillars and four from the angles of the 
building. Internally the &p of the 
dome is a flat square formed by the 
intersection of the ribs. The roof is 
flat, and once had a pavilion on it. 

(5) The Jehangiri and (6) S?iah 
Jehan PaZaces, at the N. end of the Fort, 
are of rubble plastered, and are quite 
plain and of no architectural interest. 

There are 11 Hindu temples which 
have been desecrated by the Mohamme- 
dans, but are still visited by Hindus at 
stated times. These are (i.) the OvjcUipa, 
and (ii.) the Ohatwr-bhvjf both already 
mentioned, (iii) The Jayanti-thora 
was destroyed by Altamsh in 1232 
A.D., but its position is shown by the 
name given to the most N. point of the 
Fort, where there is a deep rock -cut 
well and some pillared arcades with 
inscrip^ons dated 1400 to 1419 a.d. 
(iv.) The TeU-Ka- Mandir (probable 
date, 11th cent., restored 1881-83) 
is in the centi-e of the Fort, overlooking 
the UrwahL It is supposed to have 
been built by a Teli^ or oUrnan. It is 
60 ft. sq., with a portico projecting 11 
ft on the E. side. The sides slope 
upwards to 80 ft., where the building 
ends in a horizontal ridge 30 ft. long. 
It is the loftiest building in Gwalior. 
The doorway is 85 ft high, and has a 
figure of Garuda over the centre. It 
was originally a Vishnavite Tepaple, 
but since the 15 th cent, it has been 
Shivite. The whole of this very mas- 
sive building is covered with sculptures. 
The gateway in front of it was formed 
out of fragments^fo^^.ji^Jljh^pc^ br 



YSW^"? 



100 



RonTB 5a. agba to maniepub 



India 



Major Keith. The scnlptured frag- 
ments set up round the temple were 
also collected by him. 

(y. yI.) The Sas-bahn or SaMsra 
bahttf "mother-in-law" and "daughter- 
in-law," or 1000-armed templesi are two 
temples, a large and smaller one near 
the middle of the £. wall of the Fort. 
There is a long inscription inside the 
portico, with the date 1093 A. P. 
There are figures of Vishnu over the 
main entrances. The great temple, said 
to have been built by Rajah Mahipal, 
is 100 ft. long by 63 ft. broad. The 
entrance is to the N., and the adytum 
to the S. The temple is now 70 ft. 
high, but the top has been broken, 
and General Cunningham thinks it was 
once 100 ft. high. It stands on a richly- 
carved plinth. The central hall is 81 
ft. sq. It is crowded with four massive 
pillars to aid in bearing the enormous 
weight of its great pyramidal roof. 
The construction of the roof is worthy 
of study. The temple was dedicated 
in 1092 A.D. The small Sas-bahu is 
built in the shape of a cross, but consists 
of a single story, and is open on all four 
sides. The body is 23 ft. s(j., supported 
on twelve pillars. The plinth is 6 ft. 
high, and is decorated like that of the 
great temple. The pillars are round, 
with octagonal bases and bracketed 
capitals. The lower part of the shafts 
in both temples are ornamented with 
groups of female dancers. It is a fine 
specimen of the ornate style of medi- 
aeval Hindu architecture. 

(vii.) The Jain Temple was dis- 
covered by Gen. Cunningham in 1844, 
and is a small building placed against 
the E. wall of the Fort, midway 
between the Elephant Gate and Sas- 
bahu temples. It was built about 1108 
A.D. The four other temples, Surya 
Deva, Mala Deva, Dhonda Deva, and 
Maha Deva, are of less importance. 

*'The Rock Sculptures of Gwalior," 
the same authority writes, **are unique 
in Northern India, as well for their 
number as for their gigantic size. 
They are all excavated in the steep 
cliff, immediately below the walls of 
the fortress, and are most of them easily 
accessible. There are small caves and 
niches in almost every place where the 



face of the rock is tolerably smooth 
and steep, but the more prominent 
excavations may be dividea into five 
principal groups, which I will designate 
according to tneir positions, as Irt, the 



Urwahi group ; 2a, the south-western 
group ; 3d, the north-western group ; 
4th, the north-eastern group ; 5th, uie 



south-eastern group. Of these the 
first and the last, wnich are by &r the 
most considerable, both in number and 
size, are the only sculptures that have 
attracted travellers. Most of them 
were mutilated, by order of the Emperor 
Babar 1527 a.d., only 60 years after 
they were made. Babar himself records 
the fjMt in his Memoirs : * They have 
hewn the solid rock of this Adtoa, and 
sculptured out of it idols of larger and 
smaller size. On the south part of it 
is a large idol, which may be about 40 
ft. in height. These figures are perfectly 
naked, without even a rag to cover the 
parts of generation. Advsa is far from 
being a mean place ; on the contrary it 
is extremely pleasant. The greatest 
fault consists in the idol figures all 
about it. I directed these idols to be de- 
strayed, ' The statues, however, were not 
destroyed, but only mutilated, and the 
broken heads have since been repaired 
by the Jains with coloured stucco. 

"The Urwahi group is situated in the 
cliff of the S. side of the Urwahi valley, 
and consists of 22 principal figures, all 
of which are naked. The figures are 
accompanied by six inscriptions, dated 
Samwatl497, 1510 = 1440 A.D. and 1453, 
during the sway of the Turaara Rajahs. 
The chief statues are, No. 17, a colossal 
figure of Adinath, the first Jain pontiff, 
who is known by the symbol of a bull 
on the pedestal. This has a long in- 
scription dated 1440 a.d. in the reign 
of Dungar Sing, which has been trans- 
lated by Rajendralala Mitra (see Beng, 
As. Soc. Jour, 1862, p. 423). The 
largest figure of this group, and of all 
the Gwalior sculptures, is the colossus 
No. 20, which Babar says is 40 ft, 
high. Its actual height, however, is 
67 ft., or 6J times the length of the 
foot, which is just 9 ft. In front of the 
statue is a small figure with a squat- 
ting figure on each of its four faces. 
The extreme W. figure of this group, 



BOUTB 5A. book sculptures 



101 



Ko. 22, is a seated colossus upwards 
of 30 ft high, of Nemnath, 22d Jain 
pontiff, known by a shell on the pedes- 
tal Besides the 22 figures there are a 
few isolated excavations to the right 
and left, now inaccessible from the 
falling of the rock-cat steps. 

" Tjne south-western grmp consists of 
five principal figures, situated in the 
cUff immediately below the one-pillar 
tank, and just outside the Urwahi wall. 
No. 2 is a sleeping female 8 ft long, 
lying on her side, with her head to the 
S. and face to the W. Both thighs are 
straight, but the left leg is bent back 
nndemeath the right leg. The figure 
is highly polished. No. 3 is a seated 
group of a male and female with a 
child, who are Siddhartha and Trisala, 
the reputed father and mother of the 
infEint Mahavira, the last of the 24 Jain 
pontiffs. The sleeping female also is 
probably intended for Trisala, to whose 
womb, when she was asleep, the foetus 
of Mahavira is said to have been trans- 
ferred from its true Brahman mother. 

"The north-tvestem grovp is in the 



W. cliff of the Fort, immediately N. of 
the Dhonda gate. The figures are un- 
important, but one of them, Adinath, 
has an inscription dated Samwat 1527 
= 1470 A.D. 

**The Tunih-eastem group is in the 
cliff under the Mohanmiedan palaces, 
and above the middle gateways of the 
E. entrance. The sculptures are small, 
and unaccompanied by inscriptions, and 
are, therefore, unimportant. One or 
two of the caves are large, but now very 
difficult of access. 

**The sotUh-eastern group is in the 
long, straight cliff of the E. face, just 
under the Ganeola tank. This is by far 
the largest and most important group, 
as there are 18 colossal statues from 20 
to 30 ft high, and as many more from 8 
ft to 16 ft, which occupy the whole face 
of the cliff for upwards of J m. A few 
caves are blocked up, and occupied by 
surly mendicant Byragis, who refuse all 
admittance, but there is no reason to sup- 
pose they differ from the other caves." 

The details are here as tabulated by 
General Cunningham. 



Oavxs. 


SOULPTURBS. 


Dates. 


No. 


Front depth 
and height 


Names. 


Position. 


Height. 


Symbol. 


Samwat. 


A.D. 




Feet. 






Frtt 








1 


23x21x27 






ao 


^ — 


— 


— 


2 


10x10x10 


. 






. 


^ 


— 


8 


15x12x17 


Adinath 


StAiidins 


7 


BuU 


1530 


1478 






4 olhera 




— 


— 


15S0 


1473 


4 


15x14x16 


Adinatik 




U 


Wheal 


IA25 


1468 






Xeminatll 







MhuU 


132£ 


1468 


5 




Adluath 




— 


Bull 


1525 


1468 


6 


26x12x16 


Supadma 


Sitting 


15 


IjjUm 





— 


7 


15x10x20 




Htamllug 


20 


— 


— 


— 


8 


21X10X20 


Adinath 


Bitting 


6 


^- 





— 


9 


16X 7x28 


Male flgtire 


Standing 


21 


— 


— 


— 


10 


lOx 7x15 


Feii^ale 


Lyiiig 


.^- 


— 


■ — 


— 






Chandra pi abha 


Stahdiug 


12 


— 


■.^- 


— 






2 Othens 




12 


■^- 


— . 


— 


11 


12x 8X25 


Chandraprttbha 


Sitting 


21 


Creaetiht 


1^-2^ 


1469 


12 


31x10x25 


Simbhun^th 




21 


Uoi^e 


— 


— 


18 


40X10X25 


Neiniiiatli 


Standing 


SI 


Shell 


Jb27 


1470 






Sarabhiinath 


Sitting 


— 


— 


— 


— 






Mahavira 


standing 


— 


Horae 


1535 


1468 


14 


26x16x32 


Adtnath 


SEttlng 


nil 


Ltoii 


1525 


1468 


15 


26x16x33 


Adinath 


yittiiig 


24 


Ban 


■^^ 


— . 


16 


24X22X34 




. — 


1 \iO 


— 


^- 


— 


17 


80x 8X30 


KunthuTiath 


SSIiiiLding 


26 





^- 


— 






ShanLanath 




^ 


Go*t 


15^5 


1408 






Adinatb 




2d 


ADt«lopQ 

Wheel 




— 






And 4 oth«ri 




30 


— 


— 


18 15x10x80 




Standing 


26 




— 


— 


19 16X10X80 






26 


^^ 


— 


— 


20 12x 8X20 


Adinath 




s 


WLmI 


^ 


~- 


21 27X86X16 


■ 




— 


' — 


'^* 


^ 



102 



BOUTB 6a. AGRA TO IIAVIKPITR 



Iiidia 



The first European who describes 
these statues was Father Montserrat, 
who visited Gwalior on his way from 
Surat to Delhi, in the reign of Akbar 
(see As. Besearch^es, ix. p. 213). 

The Prisons are in a small outwork 
on the W. side of the fort, above the 
Dhonda gate. They are called the Nau- 
chokif nine cells, and are well lighted 
and well ventilated ; but must have 
been insufierablv close in the hot 
season. Here Akbar confined his re- 
bellious cousins, and Aurangzib his son 
Muhammad, and the sons of Dara and 
Murad. 



122 m. Datia sta. A town of 28, 000 
inhabitants, the residence of the Chief 
of the Datia state, which contains an 
area of 836 sq. m. 

The town stands on a rocky height 
surrounded by a good stone wall. It 
is full of picturesque houses and palaces. 

The Kaja's present residence stands 
within the town surrounded by a pretty 
garden. To the "W. of the town, beyond 
the walls, is a very large palace of 
great architectural oeauty, now un- 
tenanted. A group of Jain temples, 
4 m. distant, are curious. Datia is a 
place the lover of the picturesque should 
not pass by. 

138 m. Jhansijunc. sta. (seep. 90). 

From Jhansi 7 m. Orchha sta. is the 
old capital of Orchha state, the oldest 
and highest in rank of all the Bundela 
Principalities, and the only one of them 
that was not held in subjection by the 
Peshwa. It is built on botii banks of 
the Betwa. There is an imposing 
fortress, connected by a wooden bridge 
with the rest of the town, containing 
the former residence of the Rajah, and a 
palace built for the accommodation of 
the Emperor Jehangir. 

Tehri (Tekamgarh), the present 
capital, in the S. W. comer of the state, 
is about 40 m. S. from Orchha, with 
which town and Baumari it is connected 
by road. 

18 m. Barwa-Sangar sta., D.B. The 
town is picturesauely situated at the 
foot of a rocky riage on the shore of the 



Barwa-Saugar Lake, an artificial sheet of 
water formed by a masonry embank- 
ment 2 m. in length, constructed by 
Udit Sing, Baja of Orchha, between 
1705-37, containing two craggy, wooded 
islets. Below, a trs^t of land, extending 
over 4 m., is thickly planted with mango 
and other trees, often of ereat age and 
enormous size. N. W. of tne town rises 
a fine old castle also built by Udit Sing, 
but now uninhabited. 3 m. W. stand 
the remains of an old Chandel temple 
built of solid blocks of stone, carved 
with the figures of Hindu gods, much 
de&ced by Mussnlmans. The town 
consists of three divisions separated by 
stretches of cultivated land, and the 
houses are prettily embosomed in foli- 
age. 



40 m. Han sta., D.B. (pop. 23,500). 
Man Banipur is, next to Jnansi, the 
principal commercial town of Jhansi 
district. Its buildings are remarkably 

g'cturesque, in the style peculiar to 
undelkund, with deep eaves between 
the first and second stones, and hanging 
balconies of unusual beauty. Trees line 
many of the streets, and handsome 
temples ornament the town ; the prin- 
cipal being that of the Jains with two 
solid spires and several cupolas. An 
old bnck- built Fort with bastions 
adjoins the bazaar and contains the 
public oflSces. The town is of quite 
modem commercial importance, having 
risen from the position of a small agri- 
cultural village since 1785, through the 
influx of merchants from Ohhatarpur. 
Kharwa cloth is manufactured and 
exported to all parts of India. 

67 m. Jaitpnr sta. The town was 
formerly the capital of a native state. 
It is picturesquely situated on the banks 
of the Bela Tal. Probably founded in 
the early part of the 18th century by 
Jagatraj, son of the famous Bundela 
Baja, Chatar Sal, who built the large 
fort still in existence. The town 
resembles a collection of separate vil- 
lages, fully 2 m. in length, but very 
narrow. Handsome temple ; two forts, 
one of which could contain almost 
the whole population. 

The Bela Tal, a tank or lake dammed 



ROUTE 5a. MAHOBA 



103 



ap with solid masonry by the Ohandel 
ralers of Mahoba in the 9th century 
extends for 5 m. in circumference, but 
is now very shallow, the embankment 
having burst in 1869. 

86 m. Mahoba sta. D.B. The town, 
founded about 800 a.d. bv Raja Chan- 
dra Varmma, stands on the side of the 
Madan Saugar Lake, constructed by the 
Chandel Bajas, and consists of three 
distinct portions — one N. of the central 
hill known as the Old Fort ; one on 
the top of the hill known as the Inner 
Fort ; and one to the S. known as Dariba. 
Architectural antiquities of the Chandel 
period abound throughout the neigh- 
bourhood. The Ram Kund marks the 
place where Chandra Varmma, founder 
of the dynasty, died ; and the tank 
is believed to be a reservoir into which 
the united waters of all holy streams 
pour themselves. The Fort, now almost 
mtirely in ruins, commands a beautiful 
view over the hills and lakes. The 
temple of Munia Devi, partially reno- 
vated, has in front of its entrance a 
stone pillar inscribed to Madana Vftrm- 
ma. Of the lakes, confined by magni- 
ficent masonry dams, two have greatly 
silted up; but the Kirat and Madan 
Saugars, works of the 11th and 12th 
centuries, still remain deep and clear 
sheets of water. The shores of the 
lakes and the islands in their midst 
are thickly covered with ruined temples, 
monstrous figures carved out of the 
solid rock, pillars, broken sculpture, 
and other early remains, while on the 
hills above stand the summer-houses 
of the early Rajas, and shrines over- 
hang the edge. Relics of Jain temples 
and Buddhist inscriptions also occur. 
The existing monuments of Moham- 
medan date include the tomb of Jalhan 
Khan, constructed from the fragments 
of a Shivite temple, and a mosque also 
built of Chandel materials. 

The modern town contains a tahMly 
police-station, post office, school, dis- 
pensary, and D.B. 

[34 m. S. of Mahoba is the ancient 
decayed town of Kliajiiraho, formerly 
he capital of the old province of 
Jahoti. Hiouen Thsang mentions it in 



the 7th century ; and General Cunning- 
ham attributes to the same date a 
single pillared temple called Ganthai, 
and a nigh mound which probably 
conceals the ruins of a Buddhist mon- 
astery. Upwards of 20 temijles still 
stand in the town, and the ruins of at 
least as many more bear witness to its 
former greatness. In one alone General 
Cunningham counted over 800 statues 
half life-size, and 8 sculptured ele- 
phants of like proportions. The inner 
shrine of this edince constituted in it- 
self a splendid temple, and was crowded 
with figures. Captain Burt noticed 
seven large temples of exquisite carving, 
whose mechanical construction adapted 
them to last for almost indefinite 
periods. Most or all of these noble 
buildings and the inscriptions found 
in the neighbourhood must be referred 
to the Chandel dynasty, who ruled at 
Khajuraho apparently from 870 to 1200 
A.D. The modem village contains only 
about 160 houses.] 

119 m. Bandasta. i^ (R.), D.B., is a 
municipal town and the administrative 
headquarters of Banda district. It 
stands on an undulating plain 1 m. 
E. of right bank of the Ken river. 

The modem town derived its im- 
portance from the residence of the 
Nawab of Banda, and from its position 
as a cotton mart. After the removal 
of the Kawab in 1858 owing to his dis- 
loyalty during the Mutiny, the town 
began to decline, while the growth of 
Rajapur as a rival cotton emporium 
has largely deprived Banda of this 
trade. The town is straggling and ill 
built, but with clean wide streets. 
It contains 66 mosques, 161 Hindu 
temples, and 5 Jain temples, some of 
which possess fair architectural merit. 

Cantonments 1 m. from the town on 
the Fatehpur Road. 

162 m. Karwi sta. (pop. 4100). In 
1805 the town formed a cantonment for 
British troops, and in 1829 it became 
the principal residence of the Peshwa's 
representative, who lived in almost 
regal state, built several beautiful tem- 
ples and wells. Numerous traders from 
the Deccan were thus attracted to Earwi. 



104 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAT TO DELHI 



India, 



During the Mutiny Naravan Rao, after 
the murder at Banda of Mr. Cockerell, 
Joint-Magistrate of Karwi, assumed the 
government, and retained his independ- 
ence for eight months amid the subse- 
quent anarchy. The accumulations of 
his family constituted the great treasure 
afterwards so famous as the '^Kirwee 
and Banda Prize Money. " It was kept 
in a vault of the Bara, a large building 
forming the palace of Narayan Rao's 
family. Since the Mutiny the pro- 
^rity of Karwi has gradually declined, 
"niere is a magnificent t«mple and tank 
with masonry well attached, known as 
the Ganesh Bagh, built by Vinayak Eao 
in 1837. There are five mosques and 
as many Hindu temples. 

181 m. Hanikpor junc. sta. of K I. 
Rly. and Jubbulpore Kly. (see p. 36.) 



ROUTE 6 

Bombay to Delhi through Baroda, 
Ahmedabad, AncERE, Bandikui, 

AND JeYPORB. 

Rail. 890 m. Mail trains 40} hrs. in 
transit. Through fares approximately, 
first class 56 rs., second class 28 rs., 
and servants 9 rs. For some railway 
rules see Rte. 1, p. 26. The route 
is throughout by the B. B. and C. I. 
Rly. There is a chan^ of ^uge at 
Ahmedabad. The stations in^ombay 
are Colabay^ Chwrch Gate Station, and 
Grant Road, where ample time is given. 

9 m. Hahim sta., where the rly. 
crosses a causeway connecting the 
island of Bombay with the island of 
Salsette. The country is flat, studded 
with villages and cocoa-nut groves. 

The Scottish Orphanage, established 
here in 1859, is the only institution of 
the kind in the Bombay Presidency. 

10 m. Bandara sta., 1., on sea-shore, a 
favourite residence for persons who have 
daily business in Bombay ; it is nearly 
surrounded by water, and is cooler than 
Bombay. Several ciiapels built by the 
Portuguese still exist here, notably 
that of Movmi Uary^ held in respect 

*i It is advisable to start fh>m the Golaba 
terminus to ensure getting places. 



for miles around by all the iHhabitantu, 
Christian and otherwise. 

Here are a R. C. convent for orphans, 
and a school for orphan boys. 

18 m. Qoregaon sta. About 1 mile 
from the sta. are the famous Hindu 
caves of Jogeshwar. See " Sights m 
the vicinity of Bombay, No. (6), p. 25» 

22 m. Boriyli sta. is near the Gavel 
of Montpt'zir (see p. 22) and the roini 
of a Jesuit monastery of the 16tl 
century. The Caves of Kanheri (see pi 
23) are only 5 m. distant, but are mon 
easily visited from the Tald Lake. 

22 m. Bhayandar sta., on the 3 
edffe of the Baissein creek, which dividd 
Sal^tte from the mainland. Persoi 
who have made arrangements to visi 
the ruins of Bassein by boat or by steal 
launch, embark at this station. Thera3 
way here crosses the river by a very Iod 
bridge. On the right, and for some mill 
up the stream, the scenery is mo 
beautiful — the Eamandru^ Hills anfl 
Ghodbandar, with the quiet water be- 1 
tween them, forming a tropical landscape 
as icharming as can be seen in India.^ 

88 UL Basseiii Boad sta., ^D.B. 
The ruins are distant about 5 m. 

The first notice we have of Bassein 
is in 1532, when the Portuguese ravaged 
the neighbourhood and burned all the 
towns between it and Chikli Tara- 
pur. In 1534 they took Damsm, which 
they still hold, and obli^d Sultan 
Bahadur of Guzerat, thenhard pressed by 
the Emperor Humayun, to cede Bassein 
in pernetuity. "For more than 200 
years Bassein remained in the hands of 
the Portuguese, and during this time 
it rose to such prosperity that the city 
came to be called the Court of the 
Korth, and its nobles were proverbial for 
their wealth and magnificence. With 
plentiful supplies of both timber and 
stone, Bassein was adorned by many 
noble buildings, including a cathedral, 
5 convents, 13 churches, and an asylum 
for orphans. The dwellings of the 
Hidalgos, or aristocracy, who alone were 
allowed to live within the city walls, 

1 Write beforehand to station-master fi» 
a tonga. 



ROUTE 6. SURAIF 



105 



are described (6175) as stately build- 
ings " (Hunter.) On the 17th February 
1765 the Marathas invested Bassein, 
and the town surrendered on the 16th 
of May, after a most desperate resist- 
ance, in which the commandant, Silveira 
de Mineyes, was killed, and 800 of the 
garrison killed and wounded, while the 
Maratha loss ^vas upwards of 5000. On 
the 13th of November 1780 General 
Goddard arrived before Bassein, and on 
the 28th his tirst battery opened against 
it He had very powerful artillery, and 
one battery of 20 mortars, which shortly 
after opened at the distance of 500 yds., 
and did great execution. The place 
surrendered on the 11th December, on 
. which day Colonel Hartley, with a cover- 
ing army of 2000 men, defeated the 
Maratha relieving army of upwards of 
24,000 men, and killed its distmguished 
General, Bamchandra Ganesh. 

The Fori with the ruins stands on 
the Bassein Greek, a little away from 
the sea. The fort is now entered from 
the N. There is a road through the 
town from the rly. sta. 
The Old Town, 5 m. from the sta., 
I surrounded by walls and ramparts, 
i contains the ruins of the Cathedral of 
} St Joseph and other churches built by 
Roman CJatholic missionaries in the 
14th and 151ii centuries. Several in- 
scriptions remain, the earliest dated 
1586. A guide is necessary to point 
out the various ruins. Among them 
are the church of St Anthony, the 
Jesuits* church, and the churches and 
convents of the Augustinians and Fran 
ciscans. 

Fryer, describing the town in 1675, 
says: "Here were statelj dwellings 
graced with covered balconies and large 
windows, two stories high, with panes 
of oyster shell, which is the usual glaz- 
ing amongst them (the Portuguese) in 
India, or else latticed." 

Close to these venerable ruins is a 
modem temple of Shiva. 

116 m. Udvada sta., remarkable as 
containing the oldest Fire Temple in 
India. It is believed that the fire still 
kept alive is that which was originally 
brought from Persia by the Parsis and 
first kindled here in 700 A.D. 
108 m. fiamAn Road sta.,9^ D.B. 



Daman (7 m. W.) is a Portuguese 
settlement subordinate to Goa. It was 
attacked and taken in 1531, and again 
in 1535, and finally captured by the 
Portuguese in 1559. The town is situ- 
ated on the Daman Gunga river, which 
has a bad bar. Outside is a roadstead. 
The place in the days of small ships 
had a very considerable trade. It has 
a fort on each bank of the river. In 
the main fort, on left bank, are the 
ruins of an old monastery and two 
churches, — only Christians may reside 
within tiie walls. In it are the houses 
of the governor and his staff and the 
public offices. The smaller fort of St. 
Jerome opposite is more modem. 

125 m. Balsar sta. This place is 
occasionally used as a rest -camp, and 
near it is the village of Tithul on the 
sea -coast, where many inhabitants of 
Guzerat resort in the hot season. There 
are fine sands and a grand rolling sea. 

149 m. Navsari sta. (pop. 16,276, 
including 4,452 Parsis). The capital 
of the Gaekwar's southern possessions, 
and the headquarters, from the earliest 
days, of the Parsi commimity. Here 
the Zoroastrian Priesthood receive their 
initiation and confirmation. The Toum 
Hall is an imposing building. A 
Parsi has established here a manu- 
factory of essences and soaps on Euro- 
pean principles. 

167 m. BT7RAT sta. ifi (B.) The name 
is derived by Sir Henry Elliot and 
others from Sav/rastraf the ancient 
name of the peninsula of Kattywar, 
with which it was the principal port 
of communication. In the 12th cent 
the Parsis, who were driven from Persia 
200 yrs. before, and had settled in 
Sanjan 70 m. from Surat, found their 
way here on the death of the Sanjan 
chief. There are now some 89,900 
Parsis in India, but though many 
of them are still to be found here, 
the greater number — about 47,500 — 
are settled in Bombay. Amongst 
Indian cities it is not a place of anti- 
quity, but it had a large trade at the 
end of the 15th cent, and in the 18th 
was one of the most populous and 
important mercantile cities in India, 
the port being much frequented by 



106 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



British and other European traders. It 
is the seat of a collectorate, is situated 
on the river Tapti, and is surrounded 
on the land side by a wall about 5) m. 
round, with 12 gates. Except the main 
street running from the station road to 
the castle, the streets in Surat are nar- 
row and tortuous, and many of them 
still bear marks of the great fire in 
1837, which raged for neariy two days, 
when 9373 houses were destroyed, and 
many nersons perished. Again iu 1889 
a fire broke out which raged for over 
12 hrs., and destroyed 1350 shops and 
houses. In 1896 Lord Elgin here inaugur- 
ated the new " Rupee Railway " a local 
joint-stock enterprise, to run up the 
valley of the Tapti. 

The population of Surat as late as 
1797 was estimated at 800,000, but as 
Bombay rose Surat declined, until in 
1841 it had only 80,000 inhabitants. 
From 1847 its prosperity gradually in- 
creased, and the population now (1891) 
numbers 109,000. 

The Portuguese found their way to 
the place soon after their arrival in 
India, and in 1512 sacked the then open 
town. On the 19th January 1578 it 
surrendered to Akbar after a siege of 1 
month and 17 days. Early in the 17 th 
cent, the English began to visit it, and 
in 1612 the Mofful Emperor sent 
down 2k firman, authorising an English 
minister to reside at his court, and 
opening to English subjects the trade 
at Surat. In 1615 Captain Downton, 
with four ships, mounting 80 guns, 
defeated the Portuguese fleet, consist- 
ing of four galleons, three other large 
ships, and 60 smaller vessels, mounting 
in all 134 gims. This victory estab- 
lished the reputation of the Euglish 
for war, and their superiority over the 
Portuguese. The Dutch trade . with 
Surat commenced in 1616, and for some 
years the Dutch Factory competed 
successfully with the English at Surat. 
The French Factory was not founded 
till 1668, when the agents of the French 
East India Company, which Colbert had 
established in 1664, settled at Surat. 
On January the 6th of the same year 
the prosperity of Surat received a 
severe blow from Shiv^ji, the founder 
of the Maratha Empire, who with 



4000 horse surprised the eity, and 
|)lundered it for six days. He laid 
siege to the English factory, but all his 
attempts to take it failed on account 
of the ^lantry of the few factors who 
defended it. Their courageous defence 
so pleased Auvangzib, that he sent Sir 
G. Oxenden a robe of honour, and 
granted the English an exemption from 
customs. The walls of Surat up to 
this time were of mud, but they were 
now ordered to be built of brick. Surat 
was again partially pillaged by the 
Marathas in 1670, 1702, and 1706. 
About this time commenced the disputes 
of the rival London and English Com- 
panies ; and on the 19th of January 
1700 Sir Nichohu Waite, Consul for 
the King, and President of the Hew 
Company, arrived at Sural The 
struggle of the Companies continued 
till 1/08, when they were united. A j 
new era now began to dawn upon the ; 
English at Surat. They were fast ap- j 
preaching the period when they were i 
to acquire political influence m the ! 
city, which was then regarded as the i 
greatest emporium of W. India. 

In 1759 the Nawab signed a treaty ! 
by which the castle and fleet were | 
made over to the English with a yearly 
stipend of 200,000 rs. This arrange- 
ment was confirmed by the Emperor at 
Delhi, and the En^^lish authority was 
firmly established in Surat. In 1842 
the last titular Kawab died, and the 
flag of Delhi was removed from the 
castle. 

The Castle, so prominent in the 
early annals of the English in W. 
India, stands on the bank of the river, 
and was built by a Turkish soldier about 
1540. It is an uninteresting brick 
building with walls about 8 ft. thick, 
much modernised. There is a good 
view of the city and river from the 
S.W. bastion. Over the E. gateway is 
an inscription. 

Factories. — The remains of the Eng- 
lish Factory are near the way to the 
Eatargaon Gate, close to the river. 
The building is now a private dwelling. 
N. of it is the Portuguese Factory, where 
some records are still kept. A wooden 
cross marks the site of the church. 
Close to this are the vacant site of the 



ROUTE 6. BROACH 



107 



Frefnch Lodge and the PersmTi Factory, 
Adjoining the castle is the well-kept 
Victoricu Garden, of 8 acres. There is 
a fine view of the town from the Cloc^ 
Tower, 

In the English Cemetery^ N. of the 
city on the Broach Road, is (on the rt. 
on entering) the mausoleum of Sir 
George Oxendon, and near it the tomb' 
of his brother Christopher. 

The Dutch Cemetery is also curious 
from the great size of the monuments. 
The most striking is that of Baron van 
Rheede, a learned man, who was the 
author of the valuable work, " Hortus 
Malabaricus," and made valuable col- 
lections of books and curiosities, which 
he sent to Holland. 

The chief Mosques are — 

1. Khwajah Diwan Sahib's Mosque, 
built about 1530. He is said to have 
come to Surat from Bokhara, and to 
have lived to the age of 116. 2. The 
Nau Saiyad Mosque, "Mosque of the 
Nine Saiyads," on the W. bank of the 
Gopi Lake. 3. The Sayyad Idrus Mosque, 
in Sayyadpura, with a minaret, one of 
the most conspicuous objects in Surat ; 
it was built in 1639, in honour of the 
ancestor of the present Kazi of Surat. 
4. The Mirza Sami Mosque, built 1540 by 
Khudawand Khan, who built the castle. 

The Tombs of the Bohnui deserve a 
visit. There are two chief Parsi fire- 
temples, built in 1823. The Hindu sect 
of the Walabhacharis has three temples. 
The Swami Narayan temple, with uiree 
white domes, is visible all over the city. 
In the two old temples in the Ambaii 
ward the shrines are 15 ft. underground, 
a relic of Mohammedan persecution. 
The Shravaks, or Jains, have 42 temples, 
the chief of which are from 150 to 200 
years old. There are several steam 
Cotton MiUs here ; and carved sandal 
wood and inlaid work form important 
industries. 

Across the Hope Bridge 3 m. is 
Sander, built on the site of a very 
ancient Hindu city, destroyed by the 
Mohammedans in the 12th century. 
The Jumma Musjid stands on the site 
of the principal Jain Temple. In the 
fa9ade the bases of the Jain columns 
are still visible, and the great idol is 
placed head downwards as a doorstep 



for the faithful to tread on in entering 
the mosque. In another mosque are the 
wooden columns and domes oelonging 
to the Jain Temple, which are the only 
wooden remains of the kind in Guzerat. 
2 m. after leaving Surat the Tapti or 
Tapi river is crossed by a very long 
bridge, andclose to BTO&ohtheNerbudda 
or Narmada river is passed on the finest 
Bridge on the B. B. and 0. 1. Railway. 
From it a good view is obtained on left of 

203 nL Broacb sta. (R.) D.B. 
{Bharoch), is a plaoe of extreme 
antiquity, but uninteresting. Pop. 
37,000. Part of the town is within 
about i m. from railway station. The 
author of the PeHplus, 60-210 A.D., 
mentions Broach under the name of 
Barugaza. It was then ruled by a Guij- 
jara prince, probably a feudatory of some 
larger state, and subsequently fell imder 
the rule of the Ohalukyas. The Mos- 
lems appeared in the 8th cent., and 
Broach was ruled by them from 1297 
to 1772. In 1613 a.d. it was first 
visited by Aldworth and Withington, 
English merchants, and in 1614 a house 
was hired for a factory, permission to 
establish which was granted to Sir 
Thomas Roe by Jehangir in 161 6. The 
Dutch set up a factory in 1617. In 
1686 the Marathas plundered Broach. 
On the 18th of November 1772 the 
British troops stormed the place with 
the loss of their commander. General 
Wedderbum, whose tomb is at the 
N. W. comer of the Fort. On the 29th 
of August 1803 Broach was again taken 
by storm by the British. 

The Nerhvdda here is a noble river, 
1 m. in breadth. The city with its 
suburbs covers a strip of land 2^ m. long 
and I m. broad, hence by its inhabitants 
it is called Jibh, or * ^ the tongue. " The 
Fort stands on a hill more than 100 ft. 
above the river, and a massive stone 
wall lines the river bank for about 1 
m. The streets are narrow, and some 
of them steep. The houses are of plain 
brick, two stories high, with tiled 
roofs. In the Fort are the Collector's 
Office, the Civil Courts, the Dutch 
Factory, the Jail, the Civil Hospital, 
the English Church and School, the 
Municipal Office, and the Library. 



108 



BOUTJB 6. BOHBAT TO DELHI 



India 



The Dutch tombs are 2 m. W. of the 
Fort, and some 100 yds. off the road 1. 
Two of them are from 16 to 20 ft high. 

Opposite the Datch tombs are five 
Totoera of Silence, one of them about 
15 ft high. The second tower is still in 
use. Outside the £. gate on the river 
bank is the Temple of BhriguMiahi, from 
whom the town got the name of Brigu- 
kackha, oontractod into Bhamch. 

Broach is celebrated for its cotton ; 
there are two spinninj^ and weaving 
mUls and several ginning and cotton 
pressing factories. 

[10 m. to the E. of Broach is the 
celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimai 
Shukaltixth. It is on the N. or right 
bank of the Nerbudda, and here Ohan- 
akya, King of Ujjain, was purified of 
his sins, bavins arrived at this holy 
spot by sailing down the Nerbudda in a 
boat with black sails, which turned 
white on hisreachingShukaltrith. Here 
too Chandragupta and his minister, 
Chanakya, were cleansed from the ^ilt 
of murdering Ohandragupta's eight 
brothers, and here Chamund, King of 
.Aiihilwada, in the 11th century, ended 
his life as a penitent There are three 
sacred waters — the Kavi, tiie Hunkar- 
eshwar, and the Shukal. At the second 
of these is a temple with an image of 
Vishnu. The temple is not remark- 
able. There is a faxr here in November, 
at which 25,000 people assemble. Op- 
posite Mangleshwar, which is 1 m. up 
stream from Shukltirth, in the Ner- 
budda, is an island in which is the famous 
Banian Tree called the Kabir toad, or 
**the fig-tree of Kabir," from whose 
toothpick it is said to have originated. 
It has sufifered much from floods. 
Forbes, who visited Broach 1776-88, 
says in his Oriental Memoirs, L p. 26, 
it enclosed a space within its principid 
stems 2000 ft. m circumference. It had 
350 large and 3000 smaU trunks, and 
had been known to shelter 7000 men. 
Bishop Heber, in April 1825, says 
though much had been washed away, 
enough remained to make it one of the 
most noble groves in the world. A 
small temple marks the spot where the 
original trunk grew.] 

229 m. Miyagam junc. sta. This is 
a junction of a system of narrow gauge 



railways (2' 6") owned by the Gaekwar 
of Baroda and worked by the B.B. 
and 0. 1. Kly. Dabhoi is the place of 
chief interest on these lines, and may 
best be visited by leaving the main line 
at Miyagam ana rejoining it at Fish- 
vamitri jimction, 2 m. S. of Baroda sta., 
if the traveller intends continuing bis 
journey ; but for seeing the city of 
Baroda, it may be better to leave the 
train at Cfoya Gate sta. 

[From Miyagam 20 m. Dabhoi, a town 
belonging to the state of Baroda. Pop. 
15,000. The ancient Hindu architec- 
ture of this place is most interesting, 
and is little known. It appears to 
have escaped notice by James Fergusson, 
whomit would havedelighted. '&» Fort 
is said to have been built by the Yaghela 
king of Patau in the 13th century. 

The Baroda Oate is 31 ft high, 
with elaborately carved pilasters on 
either side. The carving represent 
the incarnations of Vishnu, and 
nymphs sporting with heavenly alliga- 
tors. Near this the interior colonnades 
in the Fort walls are very interesting. 
They afford shelter to the garrison. 
The roofs give an ample rampart, but 
they indicate no fear of the breaching 

Sower of artillery. Pass then through 
usty streets, in which the houses are of 
immense solidity, and built of burnt 
brick much worn by the weather, to the 
S. or Kandod gate, which is 29 ft 
high and 16 ft 4 in. wide. Trees have 
grown in the waUs and fractured them 
with their thick roots. The Hira Gate 
in the E. face of the town is 37 ft 
high, and a marvel of minute carving. 
On the spectator's left as he looks ont 
from inside the tower, is the temple of 
Maha Kali, and on his right beyond the 
gate and inside it is a smaller temple, 
now quite ruined. These gates are well 
worth attention. The Temple of Maha 
Kali is a wondrous example of carving, 
which when new must have been very 
beautifal, but is now much worn by 
the weather. The carving of the gate 
outside the town is elaborate. About 
10 ft. up in the N. face of the centre, a 
man and woman are carved 4 ft high, 
standing with a tree between them, 
like the old representations of Adam 
and Eve. To the left is the tall figure 



ROUTE ۥ BARODA 



109 



of a devil, with a ghastly leer. High 
in the centre face is an elephant, under 
which the hoilder of the gate is said to 
have been interred. On the N. side 
of the town is what was the palace, in 
■which the law courts now sit. There is a 
fine tank on this side and the Mori gate. 
(From Dabhoi a branch rly. runs 10 m. 
S. to Chandod sta., a celebrated place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, owing to its 
situation at the confluence of the 
Nerhudda and the Or, Thousands 
flock there every full moon. On the 
further side of the Nerbudda the ter- 
ritory of the Rajah of Rajpipla is 
entered). 

29 m. Bahadarpur sta. The line is 
in construction E. to 

38 m. Songir, where there are 
quarries of fine marble. 

(15 m. N.£. of Bahadarpur is the 
fortified mountain of Pawa/njga/rh and 
tho ruined city of Ghampanir, (see p. 
110).] 

Z4/ m. BARODA if. (R.) is the capi- 
tal of the very important Maratna 
state of the Graekwar, which with its 
dependencies covers an area of 8570 
sq. m. , with a pop. of 2,415,400. 

The GantGUTnent and Resident^ are a 
long m. N. from the railway station and 
adjoin one another. They are well 
laid out with open weU-planted roads. 

The city of Baroda is S. E. of the can- 
tonment, about 1 m. It is a large busy 
place, with a pop. of 116,400, but con- 
tains few sights to detain a traveller. 
The Yishvamitri river flows "W. of the 
town, and is spanned by four stone 
bridges, which exhibit great contrasts 
of style. The city proper is intersected 
at right angles by two wide thorough- 
fares, which meet in a market-place, 
where there is a fine pavilion of Moham- 
medan architecture. The new Lakshmi 
Villas Palace, seen from the railway 
towering above the town, cost 27 lacs 
of rupees. Passes to view it can be ob- 
tained from the Governor Gren.'s Agent. 
The suburban palace Mukhapura is 4 
m. S. of the city. There are also many 
other handsome modem buildings, 
amongst which may be mentioned the 
Marchioness of Dufferin's Hospital, the 
Baroda State Library , the Central Jail, 
the Baroda College, and the Anglo- 



Vernacular School, The 
Church was consecrated by Bishop 
Heber 1824, and in 1838 was almost 
entirely rebuilt. There is a good 
public garden between the canton- 
ments and the city on the banks of the 
Vishvamitri river. ^ 

The NaiOakhi Well is 60 yds. N. of 
the new palace. It is a beautiful 
structure of the Baoli class, described 
generally below. The water from it is 
pumped by steam into pipes leading to 
the city, the Afoti Bagh, and JVaaar 
Bagh,^ Twenty yds. beyond the Nazar 
Bagh Qate on the rt in a barrack are 
some small gold field-pieces mounted 
on silver-plated carriages. They con- 
tain 280 lbs. weight each of solid gold, 
and are drawn by splendid milk-white 
bullocks, stabled hard by. 

Baroda is supplied with water from 
the artifical Jjwa Lake, 18 m. distant, 
which possesses an area of 4*71 sq. m. 
It was completed in. 1892, at a cost of 
35 lakhs. 

The Baolis, in Guzerat, are large 
wells. The following account of these 
structures is given by Mr. A. Kinloch 
Forbes, in his interesting work on 
Guzerat, the Bos Mala : "Of the wells 
of this period there remain in different 
parts of the country examples of two 
kinds. Some are large circular wells 
of ordinary construction, but contain- 
ing gallened apartments ; others are 
more properly described as *tuav8* or 
* baolis,* The vxzv is a large edifice, 
of a picturesque and stately, as well as 
peculiar, character. Above the level of 
the ground a row of four or five open 
pavilions, at regular distances from 
each other, usually square in the 
interior, but sometimes, in the larger 
examples, passing into the octagonal 
form within, is alone visible ; the roofs 
are supx)orted on columns, and are, in 
the structures of the Hindu times, 
pyramidal in form. The entrance to 
the wav is by one of the end pavilions ; 
thence a flight of steps descends to a 
landing immediately under the second 
dome, which is now seen to be sup- 
ported by two rows of columns, one 

1 The Old Palace and Toshah Khana are well 
worth a visit. 

2 A much finer specimen ol this class ot 
wells is to be found at Ahmedabad. 



no 



BOUTB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



oyer the other. A aecond flight of 
steps contmnes the descent to a similar 
landing under the third pavilion, 
where the screen is found to be three 
oolunms in height In this manner 
the descent continues stage by stage, 
the number of the columns increasing 
at each pavilion, until the level of the 
water is at last reached. The last 
flight of steps frequently conducts to 
an octagonal structure, in this position 
necessarily several stories high, and 
containing a gallery at each story. It 
is covered by the terminating dome, 
and is the most adorned portion of the 
y)av. The structure, which is some- 
times 80 yds. in length, invariably 
terminates in a circular welL" 

At Baroda the traveller has entered 
the part of Guzerat that is most fertile 
and park-like. It will be a pity to 
pass through it in the dark. Nearly 
every village has its tank and its temple, 
large well-grown trees abound, and the 
fields, whidi are richly cultivated, are 
surrounded by high hedges of milk 
bush (Euphorbia timcaUi), The small 
game shooting is ezceptlonally good. 

[An expedition may be made from 
Baroda by the Gaekwcur's narrow gauge 
rly . to the fortified mountain of Fawan- 
garh, and the ruined city of Champanvr; 
the distance is about 88 m. Cham- 
pauir was long the residence of the 
kings. After many vicissitudes it was 
taken in 1484 by Mahmud Begada of 
Ahmedabad, whomadeithis capital, and 
in 1686 it was besieged by Humayun, 
Emp. of Delhi In person he scaled the 
precipices of the Fort by the aid of iron 
spikes driven into the rock, and opened 
the g|ate to admit his army. There are 
remains of many mo8(^ues, tombs, and 
tanks in the lower city; and in the 
forest for miles around may bo found 
the ruins of massive wells, minarets, 
and palaces, which testify to the former 
greatness of Champanir^]. 

270 m. Anand junc. sta. 

[(a) One branch line from this sta. ex- 
tendsN.E. to76m. OodhzaandBntlAm.] 

18 m. Dakor sta. There is a large 

1 For the architecture of Ghampuiir, Mah- 
madabad, etc., see Burgess Mohamnudan 
ArtMUdwre of Gujarat (L8Q6). 



lake, and a temple with an image much 
venerated by the Hindus. As many as 
100,000 pilgrims assemble in October 
and November. 

About 20 m. N. of Dakor is the 
walled town of 

Kapadvanj, D.B., noted for its in- 
dustry in 8oapt glass, and leather jars 
for **ghee" The glass is made by 
Mohammedans in large earthen fur- 
naces in form like huge slipper bathsi 
the floor sloping towards holes pre- 
pared to receive the melted sub- 
stance. The furnace inside is baked 
as hard and looks as white and slippery 
as ice. The component parts of 
the glass are alkali, us, an impure soda 
compound partly carbonate and partly 
silicate, se^j'i khdr, and a dark-coloured 
flinty sand from Jeypore. These are 
mixed together, placed in the furnaces, 
and thoroughly boiled for hours. 
When ready, the boiling mass is 
allowed to run into a trench to cool. 
It is then broken into small pieces, 
remelted, and in this liquid state made 
into bangles, beads, bottles, glasses, 
and fancy animals, chiefly peacocks. 
The last are extremely thin and brittle. 
This glass goes chiefly to Bombay and 
Eathywar. Midway between Dakor and 
Kapadvaoj are the hot springs of Las- 
sundra, the highest temperature being 
116°. The water is slightly sulphurous 
and efficacious in skin diseases. There 
is a small D.B. in the cantonment.] 

[(b) Another line runs S. W. 16 m. to 
Petlad, a commercial town, pop. 16,628. 

16 m. S.W. x)f Petlad is Cambay, 
the capital of the Native State of that 
name^ pop. 81,390. The town and 
port are of great antiquity. In A. p. 
913 Cambay is described by the Arab 
traveller Masudi as standing on the 
shores of a deep bay surrounded by 
towns, villages, farms, cultivated fields, 
trees, and gardens. It was governed 
by the kings of Anhilvada (the modem 
Patau), up to the end of the 13th cent. 
Mohammedan writers of the period cal) 
it the "first city in Hind." The beauty 
and wealth of the country led to its 
invasion by the Mohammedan Emperor 
Ala-ud-din in 1304, when the city was 
plundered and its temples destroyed. 

Cambay reached the height of its 



ROUTE 6. AHMEDABAD 



111 



glory under the Mohammedans at the 
latter end of the l6th and beginning 
of the 16th cents., and in 1583, letters 
carried by Fitch, Leedes, and New- 
berry jfrom Qneen Elizabeth, were ad- 
dressed to Akbar as King of Cambay. 
The Portugnese and Dutch had aiifady 
established factories here in 16X3 when 
the English appeared; it was still a 
fionrifihing city, but commenced to 
decline as Surat increased in import- 
ance. In the 18th cent it was 
plundered more than once by the 
Marathas ; at the same time the en- 
trance to the harbour began to silt up, 
and it has now become as unimportant 
a city as it was formerly great, 

Cambay was formerly a stronghold 
of the Jains and still possesses some 
of their MSS. second only to those at 
Patau. The Jwmma Musfid (1326), 
was built with fragments of Jain and 
Hindu Temples. 

The town is celebrated for the manu- 
fiactare of agate, cornelian, and onyx 
ornaments.] 

292 m. Hehmadabad sta. 30^ Pic- 
turesque view of riyer from rly. sta. 
In the morning and evening troops of 
monkeys play about quite near the 
train. Hehmadabad was founded by 
Mahmud Begada in 1479. There is a 
tomb IJ m. E. of the town, built in 
1484 in honour of Mubarak Sayyad, a 
minister of Mahmud. For simplicity 
of plan, and solidity and balance of 
parts, it stands almost first among 
Indian mausoleums. Begada also con- 
structed the Bhamara Baoli welL It 
has two stone arches, on which, it was 
said the king's swing was hung. It is 
74 fL long by 24 ft. broad, is entered 
by four winding stairs, and has eight 
underground chambers. 

[Kidxa {Kheda\ 7 m. from Hehma- 
dabad, by a good road shaded by fine 
trees (pop. 29,000), is the largest town 
in the district of that name. It consists 
i of two parts, the town proper and the 
suburbs. Kaira is said to be as old as 
1400 B.C. Copper-plate grants show that 
I the city was in existence in the 5th cent. 
i There are now only five European civil 
officers resident there. The chief in- 
i dustryisprintingclothforsarisandother 
native garments. In the centre of the 



town is the Court House, a building 
with pillars of a Greek order. Near it 
is a Jadn Temple, with beautiful dark 
wood carving. Outside the E. gate is the 
new Jail. Outside the S. gate are the 
Reading-room and Library and a Clock 
Tower, built in 1868. It was once a 
military cantonmenjt, but proved so 
unhealthy for Europeans that the troops 
were withdrawn. The large church was 
consecrated by Bishop Heber in 1822, 
and has a beautiful bell. It is the 
capital of a coUectorate of well- wooded 
fertile country. Wild hog may still be 
found in the district and the Nilgai 
{Portax pictw), antelope (Antilope 
bezoartica), and Indian gazelle {Gaaella 
Bennettii), are very common. The 
Sams is a tall and beautiful gray crane 
with a crimson liead. All these animals, 
assisted by monkeys, do great damage 
to the crops, but the cultivators protect 
them from sportsmen. -Wild-fowl, bus- 
tard {Ewpodotis JSdwardsii)y and fiorican 
{Sypheotides wwrUus^ partridges and 
quails, sand-ffrouse, plovers and bitterns, 
pea-fowl and green pigeon, are found 
everywhere. The Mahsir (BarJms 
Mosal), little inferior to the salmon, are 
found in the Hahi, Yatrak, Heshwa, and 
Sabarmati, and afford excellent sport 
with the rod and fly. There are few 
richer and more pleasing portions of 
India than the Eaira collectorate.] 

It may well be asserted that the lines 
of railway from Hehmadabad and Rut- 
lam to Delhi through northern Gnzerat 
and Rajputana, traverse a country more 
crowded with beautiful buildings and 
ruins than any in the known world. 

310 m. AHMEDABAD,^ June. sta. s^c 

This most beautiful city, covering an 
area of 2 sq. m. (148,412 inhab.), stands 
on the 1. bank of the Sabarmati river, 
which skirts its W. wall. The remains of 
an old wall, pierced by 12 gateways, 
surround it. 

Ahmedabad, once the greatest city 
in Western India, is said to have been 
from 1573 to 1600 the "handsomest 
town in Hindustan, perhaps in the 

1 No tourist should pass the ancient capital 
of the Sultans of Guzerat, the stronghold of 
the northern Jains, without pausing at least 
long enough (4 hrs.) to visit the Tombs qf tlie 
QtieeTis. The chief objects of interest marked 
with an asterisk. 



112 



ROUTE 6. BOHBAT TO DELHI 



Ifidia 



world." In Sir Thomas Roe's time, 
1616, we are told, **it was a goodly 
city as large as London." ft was 
founded in 1411 by Saltan Ahmad I., 
who made Asaval, the old Hindu town 
now included in the S. part of the city, 
his capital. It passed through two 
periods of greatness, two of decay, 
and one of revival. From 1411 to 1611 
it grew in size and wealth ; from 1612 
to 1572 it declined with the decay of 
the dynasty of Guzerat ; from 1672 to 
1709 it renewed its greatness under the 
Mogul emperors ; from 1709 to 1809 it 
dwindled with their decline ; and from 
1818 onwards it has again increased 
under British rule. 

The city is supplied with filtered water 
obtained from wells sunk in the bed 
of the river, nearly opposite Oomanpur. 

The Cantonment lies 8} m. N.E. of 
the city, and is reached by a good road 
lined by an avenue of trees, the haunt of 
thousands of parrots. Here there is an 
English Church, and there is another, 
Christ Church, in the Idaria Qiuirter, 
600 yds. S. of the Delhi Gate. 

It is hard to account for Ahmedabad 
being so little known to modem travel- 
lers from Europe. It certainly ranks 
next to Delhi and Agra for the beauty 
and extent of its architectural remains. 
Its architecture is an interesting and 
striking example of the combination 
of Hindu and Mohammedan forms. 
** Nowhere did the inhabitants of Ah- 
medabad show how essentially they 
were an architectural people as in their 
utilitarian works (wells [JBaolis] and in- 
lets to water reservoirs). It was a ne- 
cessity of their nature that every object 
should be made ornamental, and their 
success was as great in these as in their 
mosques or palaces " (see Fergusson). 

The Jaina feeding-places for hi/rds, 
which at the first glance look like 
pigeon-houses, to be seen in many of 
the streets, are a peculiar feature of 
Ahmedabad: they are extremely pic- 
turesque, ornamented with carving, and 
otten gaily painted. Many of the houses 
in the street have fronts beautifully 
orDamented with wood-carving, which 
is a speciality of the place (see below). 

A traveller pressed for time, having 
only one day at his disposal, might take 



the buildings in the city in the follow- 
ingorder : — 

The Jumma Musjid and Tombs of 
Ahmad Shah and his wives ; the Rani 
Sipari's Tomb and M<»que; Dastur 
Khan's Mosque; the Tin Darwazab; 
the Bhadr Azam Khan's palace ; Sidi 
Sayyad's Mosque ; Ahmad Shah's 
Mosque ; Shaikh Hasan's Mosque; the 
Bani (or Queen's) Mosque in Mirzapur; 
Muhafiz Khan's Mosque. 

With a second morning to spare, he 
should start earlyand see Sarkhej, across 
the river to the 8. W., giving himself ai 
least four hours for the trip. A second 
afternoon could be devoted to the Kan- 
kariya Tank and Shah 'Alam, S. of the 
city, and perhaps the modem Jain Tem- 
ple of Hatnising, outside the Delhi gate. 

Near the rly. sta. are the handsome 
lofty minarets and arched central gate- 
way, which are all that remain of a 
mosque* (1) destroyed in the struggle 
with the Marathas in 1763. 

The Juimna Husjid (8),* or prin- 
cipaZ mosqtie, stands near the centre of 
the city, on tiie S. side of the main street 
(Manik Ohauk), a little E. of the Three 
Gateways. It was built by Sultan 
Ahmad I. (Ahmad Shah) in 1424. Mr. 
Fergusson says : ** Though not remark- 
able for its size, it is one of the most 
beautiful mosques in the East." The 
mosque is entered from the N. by a 
flight of steps. On the S. is another 
porch leading into the street, and on the 
E. is the enclosure, in which is the tomb 
of the founder. The court is surrounded 
by a cloister. To the W. is the mosque 
proper. On the threshold of the main 
arch, embedded in the pavement, lies a 
black slab brought from Chintaman's 
Temple, which, according to Mr. Hope, 
is a Jain idol turned upside down for xhe 
faithful to tread on ; and touching it on 
the E. is a white marble crescent, where 
the Imam stands to pray. In the right- 
hand comer on entering is a galler][, 
which was probably usedforthemembera 
of the royal family. The roof, supported 
by 260 columns, has 16 cupolas with 
galleries round the three in front. The 
centre cupola is larger and much higher 
than the others. The 2 minarets lost half 

1 These numbers in brackets refer to the 
numbers on the accompanying plan. 



AHMEDABAD 

Town 

1. Ruined Mosque near 
the Railway Station 

2. Tombe of Ahmad Shah 
and hia wives 

3. Jumma Musjid 
Rani Sepne'a Mosque 
Dastur Khan's Mosque 

6. Haibat Khan's Mosque 

7. The Triple Gateway 

8. The Bhadr 
including 

9. Azam Khan's PcUaoe 
V). Ahmad ShcJi's 1^ Mosque 
U.The Manik Burj 
li.Sidi Said's Mosque 
13.Shah Wajihuddin's Tomb 
1^ Said A lam's Mosque 

15. The Rani'a Mosque in Murzepur 

16. Mosque of the Shaihh Hasan 
n.Muhafiz Khan's Mosque , | 
Vi.Swami Narayan'a Tempie\ 




IVatker Q^Boutall st. 



To face p. 112. 



ROUTB 6. AHMEDABAD 



113 



lor height in the earthquake of 16th 
Jm 1819. They are now 48 ft. high.' 
k a marble dao above the centre of 
^ three kiblahs or prayer-niches are 
be words in Arabic : ' 'This high and 
■►stretching moaqne was raised hy the 
bre who trusts in the mercy of God, 
ie compassionate, the alone to be wor- 
kipped?' The Koran says, "Truly 
lOBqueshelonf to God, worship no one 
be with Him? * * The slave who trusts 
t God, the Aider, Nasira'd dunya ya 
b Abnl Fath Ahmad Shah, son of Mn- 
Domad Shah, son of Sultan Mnzaffar." 
Through the £. gate is the Tomb of 
femad Shan (2), (repaired 1587). 
\a domed building has a portico to 
ie S. with 18 pilli^. The windows 
K of perforated stonework. The 
ntral chamber is 86 ft. square. It is 
tred with marble of different colours. 
h centre cenotaph is that of Ahmad 
kh, the one to the W. is that of his 
H, Muhammad Shah, and that on the 
i is that of his grandson, Eutb Shah. 
SO yds. to the E. across the street are 
B Tomtm of the qaeeiiB of Ahmad 
tah (2). * The houses are so close that 
tj onite shut out the fa9ade of the 
nsolemn, which is raised on a plat- 
tm. In the facade are 18 hiffhlj 
Bamented carved recesses. Inside is 
rectangolar court, with a corridor 
iming round it. In the centre are eight 
^ cenotaphs and several small ones, 
le centre tombstone is of white 
nble, finely carved, and is the tomb 
Uoghlai Bibi. It is of black stone 
marble, inlaid with white. This 
iflding is one of the finest in Ahmeda- 
d, but mnch out of repair. 
Itai Si]»azl*8 Mosque and Tomb (4) * 
» almost the most beautiful monu- 
Bits in Ahmedabad. Rani SifMui was 
e of the wives of Mahmud Bigadah, 
d mother of Prince Ahmad. Her 
•que and tomb were completed in 
14. '< They are the first of a series 
buildings more delicately ornate than 
f that preceded." * The mosaue has 
Bunarets, about 50 ft. high, having 
In 1781 Mr. Forbes, In his OrUntal 
Moire, said of them : "A circular flight of 
pi led to a gallery near the top of each, 
tttte fDrce at the arch of the upper gallery 
de both minarets shake, though the roof of 
> Bosque remained unmoved. 
^T^Wi Ahimtdabad. 

[Mte] 



four compartments taperinff up to the 
top. The roof is supported by a row 
of 6 coupled piDars with single ones 
behind. The roza, or tomb, is 36 ft. sq. 

Daitiir Khan's Mosque (6), built in 
1486 by one of Mahmua Bigadah's 
ministers. Remark the open stone 
screen-work that shuts in the cloister 
round the courtyard. In the gateway 
the marks of shot may be seen. A few 
yds. to the E. of Dastur Khan's Mosque 
IS Ata BhiVa Mounds the site of the 
fort of the Bhil chief, from whom the 
town of Asaval had its name. 

A little to the N.E. of the Jamalpur 
Gate is Haibat Xhaa'a Kosque (6), 
which is interesting as one of the earliest 
attempts to combine Mohammedan and 
Hindu elements. Haibat Khan was 
one of the noblemen of Ahmad Shah's 
court. The mosque is very plain. The 
front wall is pierced by three small 
pointed arches some distance apart. 
The minarets are small and witiiout 
ornament, and rise like chimneys from 
the roof. The central dome, of Hindu 
workmanship and of great beauty, is 
barely raised above the others. The 
piUars, taken from different temiles, 
display every variety of rich ornament. 
Except for the form of its dome, the 
outer porch would suit a Hindu temple. 

The Tin Darwaiah, or Three Gate- 
ways (7), built by Sultan Ahmad I,, 
is of stone richly carved. It crosses 
the main street a little to the N. of the 
Jumma Musjid. The terrace on the 
top of the gateway was formerly roofed 
over, but was thrown open in 1877. 
This gateway led into the outer court 
of the Bhadr, known as the Royal 
Square, and was surrounded, in 1688, 
by two rows of palm trees and tamarinds 
(J. A. de Mandelslo's Voyages^ 1662, p. 
76). Facing the Bhadr Gate is a muni- 
cipal garden. K. of the garden is the 
High School, and to the W. the Hema- 
bhai Institute, with a good library and 
newspapers and periodicals. Near it is 
the Mosque of Malilc ShalUui, with an 
inscription that says it was built in the 
reign of Kutb-ud-dm, by Sh'aban, son of 
'Imadu'l mulk, in 866 a.h. =1462 a.d. 

The Bhadr (8), (pronounced Bhvd- 
der) an ancient enclosure or citadel, 
biiilt by Ahmad Shah, 1411, and named 

I 



114 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAT TO DELHI 



India 



after the goddess Bhadra, a propitious 
form of Kali, is occupied by public 
offices. In the E. face is the Palacei 
built by 'Aiam Khan (9)» the 23d 
Viceroy (1635-42), who .was called 
Udaif "the white ant," from his love 
of building. It is now the jail. Over 
the entrance is a Persian chronogram, 
giving the date 1636 a.d. The N, 
entraaice to the Shadr is very handsome. 
The gate is 18 ft. high, under an arch- 
way, opening into a regular octagonal 
hail of great elegance, containing, in 
the upper story, an arched gaUery, 
and miving in front a low wall of 
open-cut stone, each gallery surmounted 
by a cupola. Underneath this hall is 
a fine vaulted chamber, entered by a 
flight of steps at each side, with a reser- 
voir and fountain in the middle. Close 
to the Jail is a temple to Bhadra Kali 
Mata. At the K.E. comer is 81di Say- 
yad^a Hosqna (12),* which forms paxt 
of the wall ; it is now the Mumlutdar's 
office. Two of its windows are filled 
with delicate stone traceiv of tree- 
stems and branches beautifully wrought. 
Mr. Fergusson, who cives an illustra- 
tion of one of the windows, says in his 
HiA. of Arch. : " It would be difficult 
to excel the skill with which the vege- 
table forms are conventionalised just 
to the eztent required for the purpose. 
The equal spacing also of the subject 
by the three ordinary trees and four 
palms takes it out of the category of 
direct imitation of nature, and renders 
it sufficiently structural for its situa- 
tion ; but perhaps the greatest skill is 
shown in the even manner in which the 
pattern is spread over the whole surface. 
There are some exquisite specimens of 
tracery in precious marbles at Agra and 
Delhi, but none quite equal to this." 

In the S.W. corner of the Bhadr is 
Ahmad Shah's Mosque (10), built by 
him in 1414, 20 years before the Jumma 
Musjid, being perhaps the oldest here. 
It is said to have been used as the king's 
private chapel. Left on advancing to- 
wards the mosque, was once die OanJ-i- 
Shahid or store of Martyrs, where were 
buried the Moslems killed in storm- 
ing the town. The fa9ade is almost 
bare of ornament, with ill-designed 
pointed arches. The two minarets are 



evidently unfinished. The mirnbary or 
pulpit, is adorned with what looks hke 
Laurel leaves. The architecture shows 
the first attempts at building a Moslem 
edifice in what had been a Hindu citv. 
The pillars still bear Hindu figures and 
emblems. The N. porch, leading into the 
latticed ladies' gallery, is Hindu throagb- 
out, and may be part of a temple. 

W. of this mosque is the Hanik Bmj 
(11) or Buby Bastion, built round the 
foundation-stone of the city. There is a 
small round tomb in the yard near the 
collector's office, which is said to be that 
of Ibrahim Kuli Khan, a Persian warrior. 

Shah Wajiha-din'8 Tomb (13), boik 
by Saiyad Murtaza Khan Bokhari, 11th 
Viceroy, 1606-1609, is a very beautiful 
monument. 

Sayyad 'Alam's Mosqua (14), built 
about 1420 by Abubakr HusainL The 
inner details are as rich as Hindu art i 
could make them. S. of this 170 ^ 
yds. is 

The Basi Hnsjid (Queen's Mowiiie) 
(15) in Mirzapwr, a few yds. to the S. 
of the D.B., built probably in Sultan 
Ahmad I.'s reign. There are two; 
minarets, unfinished or partly destroyed \ 
by an earthquake, and now only 33 ft 
high. The roof has three domes, and 
is supported by 36 plain pillars. To 
the N.K of the mosque is the roza or. 
tomb (restored). Under the dome are 
two cenotaphs of white marble ; the 
central one is the tomb of Rupavati, a< 
princess of Dhar. It is in good preserva- 
tion, while that on the W. side is 
much injured; both are ornamented 
with the chain and censer, a Hindu 
device. Mr. Fergusson has given a 
plan of this mosque, and says, ''The 
lower part of the minaret is of pure 
Hindu architecture. "We can follow 
the progress of the development of this 
form from the first rude attempt in the 
Jumma Musjid, through all its stages 
to the exquisite patterns of the Queen's 
Mosque at Mirzapur." 

The Mosque of Shaik Hasan Mn- 
hammad Chishti in Shahpur (16) is in 
the N. W. angle of the city, not far from 
the Sabarmati, 1565 a.d. The minarets 
are unfinished. "The tracery in the 
niches of their bases is perhaps superior 
to any other in the city.*' On the S. or 



ROUTE 6. ENVIRONS OF AHJIEDABAD 



11« 



left side of the central arch is a Persian 
Quatrain. This chronogram giyes the 
date 1566 A.D. 

N. of the city is the Mosque of 
Muhafiz Khan (17), which is 350 yds. 
to the K of the D.B., and was built in 
1465 by Jamal-ud-din Muhafiz Khan, 
governor of the city in 1471 under 
Mahmud Begadah. It is the bestpre- 
served of all the mosques ; and Hope 
says, *4ts details are exquisite," and 
he considers that the minarets of this 
mosque and those of Bani Sipari " sur- 
pass those of Cairo in beauty." * 

S. of this mosque is the modem Swaml 
IfArayan'B Temple (18), finishedin 1850. 
It has an octagonal dome, supported on 
12 pillars, and is a fine building. 

Close to it is the Panjrapol or Asylum 
far Animcds. The enclosure is sur- 
rounded by sheds where about 800 
animals are lodged. There is also a 
room where insects are fed. Close to 
the S. of it are nine tombs, each 18 ft. 
8 in. long, called the Nan Gaz Pin, 
"the Nine Yard Saints." They are 
most likely the tombs of a number of 
men killed in some battle. 

The Mosque, Tomb, and College of 
i Shnja'at Khan.— -This mosque has two 
'slender minarets and is divided by 
I piers into five bays, and over the kiblah 
I are written the creed and date =1695. 
I The walls, up to 6 ft, are lined with 
marble. The tomb is of brick, with a 
marble floor, much destroyed. It is called 
both the Marble and the Ivory Mosque. 
Ahmedabad is celebrated for its 
Hazidicraftsmen — goldsmiths, jewel- 
lers, etc., who carry the chopped form 
of jewellery (the finest archaic jewellery 
in India) to the highest perfection ; 
copper and brass- workers, as instanced 
particularly in the very graceful and 
delicate brass screens and pwndans 
(spice - boxes) ; carpenters, who have 
long been famous for their superior 
carving in shisJia/in, or mongrel black- 
wood, of which the finest specimens 
are to be foimd here ; stone-masons, 
lacquer -workers, carvers in ivory, — 
also for the manufacture of ** Bombay 
boxes"; mock ornaments for idols'; 
leather shields ; cotton doth (4 monster 
■team-factories) ; calico-printing, gold- 



steam-factories) ; calico-printing, gold- 
figured sUks, and gold and silver tissues ; 
kincobs, or brosa^es (the noblest pro- 
duced in India) ; sold and silver lace 
and thread, and all manner of tinsel 
ornaments. 

Its industrial importance is shown by 
the fact that "the Nagar-Sethj or city 
lord, of Ahmedabad is the titular head 
of all the Guilds and the highest person- 
age in the city, and is treatea as its 
representative by the Goveiument."^ 

Ca/rpets have also become a speciality 
of Ahmedabad, and the manufactories, 
as weU as the workshops of the other 
crafts are well worth visiting. 

ENVIRONS. — For 12 m. round Ahme- 
dabad the country is full of interesting 
ruins ; but here only the principal can 
be mentioned. Just outside the Delhi 
Gfate, rt. of the road, is the Hathi Sing's 
Temple (19),* a modem building, sui-- 
mounted by 53 pagoda domes. This 
and a rest-house and family mansion 
close by were finished in 1848, at a cost 
of 1,000,000 rs. The dimensions oi 
this temple are of the first order ; its 
style the pure Jain ; and it stands a 
convincing proof that the native archi 
tecture has not been extinguished by 
centuries of repression. In its sculp- 
tures may be seen representations oi 
the 24 holy mentor Tirthankars, and 
hundreds of other images, all similar, 
but each labelled on the base with the 
emblem of some distinct Jain. The 
entrance is from a courtyard surrounded 
by a corridor, where woollen slippers 
are provided, before ascending a portico 
richly carved and supported by pillars. 
The Temple consists of an outer and an 
inner chamber, both paved with coloured 
marbles chiefly from Makran in Rajpu- 
tana : in the latter is the image of Dharm- 
nath, who is represented as a beautiful 
youth, with a sparkling tiara of imitation 
diamonds. Mr. Fergusson says: "Each 
part increases in dignity to the sanctu- 
ary. The exterior expresses the interior 
more completely than even a Gothic 
design, ana, whether looked at from its 
courts or from the outside, it possesses 
variety without confusion, and an ap- 
propriateness of every part to the pur- 

1 Bee Rise Burgess, ArchitMtllXt Of 

AlunadalMia. 



116 



BOUTB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



pose intended." N.W. of thia is the 
ruined Tomb of Darya Khan (20), 
1453, minister of Mahmud Shah Begada. 
The dome is 9 ft. thick, and the largest 
in Guzerat. Not far beyond it is the 
Chota or small Shahi Bagh, of no 
architectural interest, now a private 
house, where it is said the ladies of the 
royal harem lived. Across the railway 
line is the Shahi Bagh, a very line 
garden-house, now the residence of the 
Commissioner of the Division. A sub- 
terranean passage is said to communicate 
between the two places. The building 
was erected in 1622 by Shah Jehan, 
when Viceroy of Ahmedabad, to give 
work to the poor during a season of 
scarcity. In uie 16th century this was 
the great resort for the people of the 
city. The Shahi Bagh is close to the 
railway bridge over the Sabarmati, 
which river it overlooks. Half a m. 
S. W. of the Shahi Bagh is lUyaxi Khan 
Chisti's Mosque (22), built in 1465 by 
Malik Maksud Yazir ; and i m. more to 
the S. W. is Achnt Bibi's Mosque (21), 
built in 1469, by 'Imadu'l mulk, one of 
Begada's ministers, for his wife Bibi 
Achut Euki, whose tomb is close by. 
There were seven minarets here, all of 
which were thrown down in the earth- 
quake of 1819. Returning from this 
point, the traveller nwiy drive to the 
N.E. side of the city, to Asarva, which 
is about i m. N.£. of the Daryapur 
Gate, where are the Wells of Dada Haii 
(23)* and Mata Bhawani. The real 
name of Dada is said by the local people 
to have been Halim, *' mild," and they 
call him Dada HarL He is said to have 
been the husband of the Dai, or Nurse 
of one of the Kings. There is an ascent 
from the road to the platform which 
surrounds the weU's mouth. A domed 
portico, supported by 12 pillars, gives 
entrance to 3 tiers of finely constructed 
galleries below ground, which lead to the 
octagonal well, and inscriptions in 
Sanscrit and Arabic The well beyond 
the octagonal one has pillars round it, 
and a fence wall. Beyond this is a 
circular well for irrigation. A very 
narrow staircase leads to the level 
ground, where by the side of the well 
are two stone mandaps. About 50 yds. 
to the W. is Dada BarCa Mo8que, one 



of the best decorated bnildinp at 
Ahmedabad, though no marble is em- 
ployed. The stone is of a duU reddisb- 
gray colour. The bases of the two 
minarets are richly carved. A portion | 
of them was thrown down by the earth- | 
quake of 1819. To the N. is the Boa | 
of Dada Hari or Halim, The N. door i 
is exquisitely carved, but the inside is \ 
quite plain. 

Mata Bhawani (24).— This weU ia 
about 100 yds. N. of Dada Hari's, but I 
is much older, and is thought to be of : 
the time of Earan, when Ahmedabed 
was called Earanavati. The descent '• 
to the water from the platform is by 
52 steps and pillared galleries as at 
Dada Mari. The porticoes are quite 
plain, and the well is altogether inferior 
to that of Dada Hari. 

Most of the houses in the Madhavpwa 
suburb are warehouses, and it is the 
great business quarter. Saraspur is a 
distinct walled town, the largest of the ' 
suburbs. It is E. of the rly. statioiL j 
In this suburb is the Jain Temple of I 
Chintaman (25), restored in 1868 by I 
Shantidas, a rich merchant, at a cost 
of 900,000 rs. Aurangzib defiled it by 
having a cow's throat cut in it, and, 
breaking the images, changed it into a 
mosque. The Jams petitioned the Em- 
peror Shah Jehan, who ordered his son 
to repair and restore the temple. But 
in 1666 Thevenot speaks of it as a 
mosque ( Voyages, v. p. 28). 

f m. S.E. of the Raipur Gate is 
the Hauz-i-Eutb, generally oalled the 
Kankariya Lake (26), or Pebble Lake. 
This reservoir, one of the largest of 
its kind in this part of India, is a 
regular polygon of 34 sides, each side 
190 ft. long, uie whole being more than 
1 m. round. The area is 72 acres. It 
was constructed by Sultan Eutb-ud-din 
in 1451, and was then surrounded by 
many tiers of cut-stone steps, with six 
sloping approaches, flanked by cupolas 
and an exquisitely carved water-sluice. 
In the centre was an island, with a gar- 
den called Nagina or the Gem, and a 
pavilion called Ghattamandal. In 1872 
Mr. Borrodaile, the collector, repaired 
the building, and made a road to the 
Rajpur Gate. On the K bank of the 
lake are some Duteh and Armeniitt 



ROUTE 6. ENYIBONB OF AHHEDABAD 



117 



tombs, Saracenic in style, with domes 
and pillars. They are a good deal 
niinea. The dates range from 1641 to 
1689. 

BarkheJ is 6 m. tx> the S.W. of the 
Jamalpore Gate, whence a dvmini, or 
coTered cart on springs, with a good 
horse, will take two people comfortably 
in an hour. The start must be made 
in the early morning. The road crosses 
the Sabarmati river by a modem 
bridge. The river-bed during the day 
18 one of the most interesting sights 
in Ahmedabad. The sand is dotted 
with enclosures for the cultivation of 
melons, potatoes, and other vegetables, 
and the running water is lined with 
gaily -dressed women washing their 
dothes. Garments of every shape and 
of the brightest colours are laid out to 
dry. These persons are not profes- 
sional washerwomen,, but belong to 
many classes of society. The remains 
of a bridge will be seen near the cross- 
ing ; both it and the railway bridge 
were carried away by the great flood m 
1875, but the latter was at once restored. 
ISTear the bridge the city wall is from 
40 to 60 fL high. The road from the 
river's bank is good, with rich fields 
\ on either side, and at IJm. rt is the 
i massive brick. 

^ Hansoleum of 'Azam and Mozam, 

! biult probably in 1457. These brothers 

\ are said to have been the architects of 

; Sarkhej, and to have come from Ehor> 

I asan. The immense structure which 

contains their tombs is raised on a 

; platform. About 300 yds. from the 

principal buildings at Sarkhej there 

are two brick towers about 30 ft. high, 

the bases of which, close to the ground, 

; liave been so dug away that it seems a 

; miracle they do not fall. After another 

200 yds./ the road passes under two 

arches, leading into the courtyard of 

Sarkhej. To the left on entering is 

the fine mausoleum of Mahmud Bigadah 

and his sons, and connected with it 

by a beautiful portico another equally 

magnificent tomb on the border of the 

tank for his queen R^jabai. To the rt. 

38 the Tomb of the Saint Shaik Ahmc^ 

KhaUu Ocmj Bakfuhy called also Magh- 



rabi. Ganj Bakhsh lived at Anhalwada, 
and was the spuitual guide of Sultan 
Ahmad I., and a renowned Moham- 
medan saint; he retired to Sarkhej, 
and died there in 1446 at the age of 111. 
This magnificent tomb and mosque 
were erec&d to his memory. The tomb 
is the largest of its kind in Guzerat, 
and has a great central dome and many 
smaller ones. Over the central door of 
the tomb is a Persian quatrain. It gives 
the date 1473 a.d. Tne shrine inside is 
octagonal, surrounded by finely- worked 
brass lattice- windows. The pavement 
is of coloured marbles, and the dome 
inside*^ richly gilt, — from it hangs a 
long silver chain which once reached 
to the ground. The vast adjoining 
Moaqtie is the perfection of elegant sim- 
plicity: it has 10 cupolas supported 
on 18 pillars. The whole of these 
buildings, says Mr. Fergusson, ''are 
constructed without- a single arch ; all 
the pillars have the usual bracket 
capitals of the Hindus, and all the 
domes are on the horizontal principle." 
S. of the saint's tomb is that of his 
disciple Shaik Salahu-din. 

Mahmud Begurra excavated the great 
tank of 17i acres, surrounded it by 
flights of stone steps, constructed a 
richly -decorated supply -sluice, and 
built at its S.W. comer a splendid 
palace and harem (now in ruins). 

With the lake, the Sarkhej buildings 
form the most beautiful group in Ahme- 
dabad. They belong to the best period 
of the style, and have the special in- 
terest of being almost purely Hindu, 
with only the faintest trace of the 
Mohammedan style. Numbers of 
people bathe in the tank in spite of the 
alligators. A little S. of the lake is 
the tomb of Baba Ali Sher, a saint even 
more venerated than Ganj Bakhsh. It 
is small, ugly, and whitewashed. Close 
by are the remains of Mirza Ehan 
Khanan's Garden of Victory, laid out 
in 1584 affcer his defeat of Muzaffar 
III., the last Ahmedabad king. In 
the 17th century Sarkhej was so famous 
for indigo, that in 1620 the Dutch 
established a factoiy there. 

From Ahmedabad another expedition 
may be made to Batwa, which is almost 
5 m. due S. of the Rajpur Gate. Here 



118 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



InSk 



Burhanu-din Eutbu '1-Alam, thegrand- 
son of a famous aaint buried at Uch on 
theSutlej, is interred. He came to the 
court of Sultan Ahmad I., settled at 
Batwa, and died there in 1452. A 
vast mausoleum of fine design and 
proportions was erected to his memory. 
It resembles the buildings at Sarkhei 
but the aisles are arched and yaulted, 
and the dome is raised by a second 
tier of arches. The workmanship is 
most elaborate, but the building is 
unfortunately much out of repair. 
Adjoining it are a mosque and tank. 

The tomb of Shah ^Alam is 2 m. 
S.E. of the town on the Batwii road. 
Before reaching the tomb the road 
passes under two plain gateways, and 
then through one, with a Nakar Khana 
(music gallery) aboye the archway, and 
so into a rast court. To the W. is the 
mosque, which has two minarets of 
seven stories, handsomely carved and 
about 90 ft. high. The tomb of Shah 
'Alam, who was the son of the saint 
buried at Batwa, is to the £., and is 
protected by metal lattices : he was the 
spiritual guide of Mahmud Begadah, and 
oied in 1495. To the S. is an assembly 
hall built bv Muzaffar III. (1561-72), 
and partly destroyed by the British in 
1780 to furnish materials for the siege 
of the city. The tomb is said to have 
been built by Taj Khan Nariali, one of 
Mahmud's courtiers. Early in the 1 7th 
century Asaf Khan, brother of the 
Empress Nur Jehan, adorned the dome 
with gold and precious stones. The 
floor of the tomb is inlaid with black 
and white marble, the doors are of open 
brass work, and the frame in which 
they are set, as well as what shows be- 
tween the door-frame and the two stone 
pillars to the right and left is of pure 
white marble l^utifuUy carved and 
pierced. The tomb itself is enclosed 
by an inner wall of pierced stone. The 
outer wall in the N. is of stone trellis- 
work of the most varied design, and 
here Shaik Kabir, renowned for his 
learning, who died in 1618, is buried. 
The mosque was built by Muhammad 
Salih Badakhshi. The minarets were 
begun by Nizabat Khan, and finished 
by Saif Khan. They were much 
damaged by the earthquake of 1819, 



but have been repaired, and are now 
in good order. To the S. of the mosque 
is a tomb like that of the cmef 
mausoleum where the family of Shah 
'Alam are buried. Outside the vail 
to the W. is a reservoir, built by the 
wife of Taj Khan Nariali. 

Another day may be spent in visiting 
the Monastery of Pvrana, which is tt < 
the village of Giramtha, 9 m. S. of 
AhmedalMid. The mausoleums an 
those of Imam Shah, Nurshah, Surab- 
hai, Bala Muhammad, and Bakir 'AIL 
The legend is that Imam Shah came 
from Persia in 1449, and performed 
certain miracles, which induced Mo- 
hammad II. to give him his daughtar 
in marriage. On the anniversary of 
Imam Shah's death a fair is held, 
attended by many Hindus. 

There are many other interesting 
ruins near Ahmedabad, but these are 
the principal, and to see all wonld take 
months. 



Leaving Ahmedabad, the railway 
crosses the Sabarmati river quite close 
to the Shah-i-bagh on a fine bridge, 
which carries the rails for both gauges 
and a footway on one side. 

At 314 m. Sabarmati junc sta. the 
narrow gauge conrinues N. to Delhi, 
whilst the broad gauge turns "W. for 
Wadhwan and Kattywar (Rte. 7). 
The hew JaU here is one of the largest 
in the Presidency. 

The country going N. is flat and 
well cultivated. The beautiful and 
celebrated well at Adalaj is in this 
direction, but can perhaps be more 
easily visited by road. 

850 m. Mehsana junc. sta. This 
is one of the most important railway 
centres in Guzerat, as it is the junction 
for three branch lines constructed hy 
the Gaekwar of Baroda. They are: 
(1) a line passing through Visnagar, 
Vadnagar, and Eheralo, total distance 
27 m., general direction N.E. ; (2) 
a line to Patan, the historic coital ol 
Gu^erat, distance 24 m. N.W. ; (8] 



ROUTE 6. ENVIRONS OF AHMEDA6AD 



119 



ft liue to Tiramgam, 40 m. S.W., 
mftde to ooimeot the Rajputana and 
Eattywar metre-gauge lines of railway. 
(For Yiramgam see p. 152.) 

On these branch lines two places 
only need be noticed here. 

[Vadxiagsr, 21 m. N.E. (pop. 
16,941). This place, once very import- 
ant, is stated to have been conquered 
by a Bajput prince from Ayodhya in 
145 A.D. It probably occuj^ies the 
site of Anandpura, known in local 
history since 226 a.d. There are some 
interesting ruins, and the Temple of 
Hatkeshvar Mahadeo is worth a visit. 
It is now the religious capital of the 
Nagar Brahmans, a most influential 
class of men in Guzerat and Eatty war. 
It was long the chartered refuge of the 
Dhinoj Brahmans, a class of robbers 
who were protected -and taxed by suc- 
cessive native governments down to 
quite a recent date. 

Patan, 24 m. N.W. of Mehsana 
(pop. 32,646). The city stands on the 

: site of the ancient Anhilvada, capital 
of the Hindu kings of Guzerat : it was 

. taken by Mahmnd of Ghazni on his 
way to attack the temple of Somnath 
in 1024 A.D. The site for generations 

, has been a quarrv whence beautiful 
carved stones have been carried to other 
places. It is still famous for its 
ubraries of Jain MSS. There are no 
less than 108 Jain temples here.] 

Kadi the N. division of Baroda in 
which Sidhpur is situated is the only 
part of the whole of the Bombay Presi- 
dency in which Poppies are allowed to 
be grown. The opium is manufactured 
in Sidhpur at the State Stores, 

366 m. Unjha sta. A town in the 
Baroda territory of 11,287 inhab. and 
headquarters of the Kadwakanbis, 
a peculiar caste of amculturists. 
Marriages among them take place but 

I once in 11 years, when every girl over 
40 days old must be married on one or 

I other of the days fixed. Should no 
husband be found, a proxy bridegroom 
is sometimes set up and married to a 
number of girls who immediately enter 
a state of nominal widowhood until an 



eligible suitor presents himself, when 
a second marriage takes place. 

374 m. Sidhpnr sta. (pop. 16,224). 
It stands on the steep northern bank 
of the Sarasvati river, and the scene in 
the bed of the river during the day in 
the dry weather is specially gay. The 
place is of extreme antiquity, and con- 
tains the ruins of Eudra Mala, one of 
the most famous ancient temples in W. 
India. It was wrecked by Ala-ud-din 
Khilji in 1297 ; and much of it has been 
carried off since for building purposes. 
The stones are gigantic, and the carving 
superb, but very little of it remains. 
A row of small temples is converted into 
a mosque. The more modem temples 
are very numerous. 

393 m. Palanpur sta. (R.), D.B. 
The chief town of a native state of that 
name, the residence of a Political Agent. 
[Rly. N.W. to the military station of 
Deesa on the JR, Bonos 18 m. dis- 
tant.] 

425 m. Abu Road sta.:^ (R.), D.B. 
This is a well-built, attractive-looking 
place. Mount Abu looking down on it 
from the N.W. 

[The excursion to Mount Abu is 
one of the most interesting in India, 
more especially on account of the Jain 
temples. The ascent to it, 16J m., is 
by a very good road, fit for light- 
wheeled tratuc for about 5 or 6 m., 
through delightful scenery, with fine 
views across a wide valley towards Achil- 
ghar. Thence by pony or rickshaw 
(about 4 J hrs.) to the top of the mount. 
Although regarded as part of the Ara- 
valli range, Abu is completely detached 
from that chain by a valley about 15 m. 
wide. The plateau at the top is about 
14 m. by 4 m., and varies in height 
from 4000 to 5600 ft.^ 



1 The traveller should arrange to arrive at 
Abu Road sta. by a morning train, when 
he will have time to arrange for the trip up 
to Mount Abu in the evening (having pre- 
viously written or telegraphed to secure rooms 
there at the small hotel), allowing himself 
about 6 hours' daylight for the journey. The 
temples can be seen before noon the following 
day, the light lus^ge started downhill before 



130 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAT TO DELHI 



Indda 



MOUHT Abu 3^ is the headquarters of 
the Rajputana aidministration, and the 
residence of vakils or agents from a 
large number of native states. It is also 
a sanitarium for European troop and 
favourite hot -weather resort in the 
summer season. 

The height of the civil and military 
station is 4000 ft. ; the highest point is 
in the northern end. 

At the HeadquarUrs are the Eesi- 
dency, Churchy Latorence Asyliim Schools 
for children of soldiers, BarrackSy Cluh^ 
Bazaa/r of native shops, a considerable 
number of private houses on the margin 
of the Gem Lake, a most charming piece 
of artificial water studded with islands, 
and overhung by a curious rock that 
looks like a gigantic toad about to 
spring into the water. The BaUway 
Schools for children are outside the 
station tin the plateau. The surface of 
Mount Abu is very much broken up, so 
that the carriage roads are very few, 
but there are plenty of bridle-road^ and 
picturesque footpaths. 

The Dilwarra Temples, the great 
attraction of Mt Abu, are reached by a 
good bridle-path (2m.) A pass to visit 
them is necessary. 

When Europeans first settled at Abu 
the temples were unguarded and open 
to all comers, and were frequently mis- 
used by the lower classes of all races. 
They owe their improved condition to 
the- exertions of educated European 
officers, a fact the custodians sometimes 
forget in their conduct towards visitors. 
In spite of ilV usage and some very bad 
restoration, the Dilwarra temples are 
very beautiful, and find a fitting frame- 
work in their nest of mango trees, with 
green fields of barley waving at their 
feet, and surrounded on all sides by the 
everlasting hills. 

"The more modem of the two 
temples was built by the same brothers, 
Tejahpala and Vastupala, who erected 
the triple temple at Girnar. This one, we 
learn from inscriptions, was erected 
between 1197 and 1247, and for minute 
delicacy of carving and beauty of detail 
stands almost unrivalled, even in the 

breakfast, the visitor following in the after- 
noon in time to catch the evening train. It 
will be found cold at Aba in winter. 



land of patient and lavish labcur. It 
is said to have taken 14 years to build, 
and to have cost 18,000,000 rs. beffldn 
56 lakhs spent in levelling the hill on 
which it stands. 

**The other, built by another mer- 
chant prince, Yimala Sah, apparently 
about 1032 A.D., is simpler ana bolder, 
though still as elaborate as good taste 
would allow in any purely architectural 
object. Being one of the oldest as well 
as one of the most complete examples 
known of a Jain temple, its peculiar- 
ities form a convenient introduction to 
the style, and serve to illustrate how 
complete and perfect it had already 
become when we first meet with it in 
India. 

*'The principal object here, as else- 
where, is a cell lighted only from the 
door, containing a cross-legged seated 
figure of the saint to whom the temple 
is dedicated, in this instance Psurs- 
wanatha. The cell terminates upwards 
in a sikra, or pyramidal spire-like roof, 
which is common to all Hindu and 
Jain temples of the age in the north 
of India. To this is attached a ])ortico 
composed of 48 free-standing pillars; 
and the whole is enclosed in an oblong 
courtyard, about 140 ft. by 90 ft, sur- 
rounded by a double colonnade of 
smaller pillars, forming porticoes to a 
range of 55 cells, which enclose it on 
all sides, ezactiy as they do in Buddhist 
viharas. In this case, however, each 
cell, instead of being the residence of a 
monk, is occupied by one of those cross- 
legged images which belong alike to 
Buddhism and Jainism. Here they 
are, according to the Jain practice, all 
repetitions of the same image of Pars- 
wanatha, and over the door of each 
coll, or on its jambs, are sculptured 
scenes from his life. The long beams, 
stretching from pillar to pillar, sup- 
porting the roof, are relieved by curions 
angular struts of white marble, spring- 
ing from the middle of the pillar up to 
the middle of the beam " (Fergusson). 

Achilghar is reached by following 
the bridle-path past Dilwarra for about 
4 m., when the village of Uria is reached, 
where there is a bungalow. From this 
turn r. along a bad track for another 
1 m. to the first temple. It is sur- 



ROUTE 6. EXCURSION TO JODHPUR 



121 



rounded by a wall, approached by a 
Hight of steps, and beautifully orna- 
mented. S.E. of this are other temples 
on higher ground overlooking the 
valley. The view is magnificent. These 
are the buildings the traveller has seen 
in ascending the hill. S. of the first 
temple is the Agni Kund, a tank famous 
in Hindu mythology. On the bank is 
a marble image of Pramar with his 
bow, and near him three large stone 
buffaloes. This figure is superior in 
style and treatment to most ; and the 
same may be said of the statues in 
other temples around the Hill of Abu, 
specially of the brass figure at Gaumukh 
alluded to below. The Achilghar group 
is perhaps as attractive as the more 
renowned temples at Dilwarra, though 
not comparable in size or finish ; but 
the absence of modern work, and an 
air of antiquity, solidity, and repose, 
make them worthy of all admiration. 

Around Mount Abu in the plain and 
on the hillside are many temples, some 
very beautiful, and aU in charming 
spots ; but the traveller who wishes to 
visit them must have plenty of leisure 
and be a good walker, and must always 
be accompanied by a guide. It is 
very dangerous to leave a beaten path 
on the sides of Abu without a person 
who knows the country intimately. 

Qaumukhj a beautifully situated 
temple 600 ft. down the S.E slope, and 
3 m. from the church. Observe the 
brass figure facing the temple. 

Bishi KrisTiTUiy at the foot of the hill, 
S.E. side, 14 m. from the Civil Station, 
is easily visited from Abu Road rail- 
way station. 

Oautama, on S. side of the hill, W. 
of Gaumukh ; 5 m. from station. 
Lovely view. 

Devangan^ in the plain, S.W., 2 m. 
S. of Anadra, B.D.] 

528 m. Marwar Railway junc. sta. 

[Excursion to Jodbpur. 
From this point the Jodhpur-Bikanir 
Railway branches E. to 44 m. Zuni innc, 
sta. (from which a line diverges W. to 
the salt-works at Pachbadray distant 
60 m., and continues in K. direction). 
Many miles before reaching Jodhpur 



the fort can be distinguished rising 
abruptly out of the bare plain. 

64 m. JODHPXTB sta., D.B. the capi- 
tal of the Rajput state of that name, and 
of the country known as Marwar Carea, 
is the residence of the Chief and of a 
Political Agent, to whom it is necessary 
to bring an introduction asking for 
permission to see the place. 

The State of Jodhpur or Marwar 
covers an area of 37,000 sq. m. with a 
pop. of 1,750,500. The CUy was built 
by Rao Jodha in 1459, and from that 
time has been the seat of government. 
It stands on the S. extremity of a 
rocky range of sandstone hills run- 
ning E. and W., and is surrounded by 
a strong wall nearly 6 m. in extent, 
with seven gates, each bearing the 
name of the town to which it leads. 
Some of the houses and temples in the 
city are of stone richly carved. Amongst 
the most important buildings are the 
TempU in the Dhan Mundi (wheat 
market) and the Talati Mai* an old 
palace now used as the Darbar High 
School. 

The Fort stands up boldly some 800 
ft. above the city and the plain, and 
presents a magnificent appearance. The 
rock is on every side scarped, but 
especially at the N. end, where the 
palace is built on the edge of a per- 
pendicular cliff at least 120 ft. high. 
Strong walls and numerous round and 
square towers encircle the crest of the 
hill. A modern engineered road winds 
up the neighbouring slopes to a massive 
gateway. Here is the first of 7 barriers 
thrown across the zigzag ascent, having 
immense portals with separate guards 
in each. On the wall of the last are 
represented the hands of the 15 wives 
of one of the rajas who underwent 
saii at his death. 

At the top of the rock are the highly- 
interesting Old Palaces, Tliere are 
courtyards within courtyards, all solidly 
built andsurrounded by lattice windows 
of the most delicate and beautiful 
designs. Here in the Trea^sury are the 
Maharaja's jewels, a wonderful collec- 
tion, and well wortli seeing. Some of 
the pearls, emeralds, and diamonds are 
unusually fine. The silver trappings 
for elephants and horses should also 



122 



ROUTl 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



Inik 



be noticed. The view from the palace 
windows is most interesting and exten> 
siye, and shows the town nestling 
under the huge rock. 

There was formerly great scarcity of 
water, and the women had daUv to 
walk all le way to Mandor (see below) 
to fetch it, but now it has been brought 
up to the top of the Fort in pipes. The 
principal Tanks are — 

The Fadam Samgwr Tank, in the 
N.W. part of the city, excavated out 
of the rock, but of small size. In 
the same quarter is the Bami Swiigar^ 
at the foot of the W. entrance into the 
Fort, with which it is connected by 
outworks, and is chiefly reserved for 
the garrison and ladies residing in the 
Fort The Chdab Saugcur, to the E., 
is handsomely built of stone, and is 
capacious, with a smaller one adjoining 
it The Baiji ka Talao, S. of the city, 
is extensive, but not capable of holding 
water long. The modem Sardar Sattgar^ 
on N. E. 1 m. W. is a lake called Ak- 
herajji ka TalaOf which is a fine sheet 
of water, clear, deep, and extensive, re- 
sembling rather a natural lake than an 
artificial tank. 8 m. N. of the city is 
the BcU-Samandf a pretty tank, with a 
palace on the embankment and garden 
below, used by the Maharaja as a 
summer residence. The Canal from 
it to the city is a work of much im- 
portance. 

The chief Sport near Jodhpur is pig- 
stickingj the pigs being preserved by 
the Maharaja. 

A great religious fair is held here in 
March. 

S.E. of the city are the Baikabag 
Palace, where the late chief resided, 
and the Jubilee Buildi&g^ or public 
offices near it, designed by Col. Jacob. 
In the native style, with elaborate 
detail, they are extensive and beautiful, 
and deserve attention. 

The Palace of the present chief is 
further S. 

The Public Gardens, and fine stone 
houses of the officials, have now re- 
placed the barren tract that formerly 
touched the city walls on the S. side. 
These, and many other improvements, 
are due to the Prime Minister, Sir 
Partab Sing, G. O.S.I. 



At about i m. outside the N.E. angle 
of the city is a suburb of 800 houses, 
called the Maha Mandir, or"eieat 
temple." The roof of the temple i$ 
supported by 100 pillars, and tne in* 
terior is richly decorated. This subuA 
is defended by a stone wall, with a fei 
weak bastions. In it are two pedaceis 
in one of which the spiritual adviser « 
the late Maharaja lives. The othe 
is reserved for the spirit of his prede- 
cessor, whose bed is laid out in a stati 
chamber, with a golden canopy ovet 
the pQlow ; and has no living occupanf 
The priests, called NathSy have 1( 
nearly all their former prestige. 

Mandor. — This was the capital 
Marwar before the foundation of Jodl 
par. It is situated about 3 m. .to 
N. of Jodhpur. Here are the ChaUA 
or cenotaphs (much neglected), of tb 
former rulers, erected on the spottj 
where the funeral pyres consumed their 
remains. Some are fine massive build-l 
ings, — ^that dedicated to JjU Singf d. 
1724, being the largest and finest 
These * * proud monuments, " as Tod calls 
them,^ are built of **a close-grained 
freestone of a dark brown or red tint, 
with sufficient hardness to allow the 
sculptor to indulge his fancy. The 
style of architecture here is mixed, 
partaking both of the Shivite and the 
Buddhis^ but the details are decidedly 
Jain, more especially the columns. 
Across a little stream not many yards 
from here is a pantheon called the J^riM 
of the SOO million gods, containing a 
row of gigantic painted figures of divini- 
ties and heroes. At the end of the 
long building where these figures are 
arranged is a curious fresco of a sea- 
piece. Near this is the stone palace of 
Abhay Sing^ who succeeded Ajit Sing in 
1724. It is now quite deserted and 
given over to the bats. There are some 
fine bits of trellis screen-work in the 
garden.] 

128 m. Merta Bd. junc. for Bikanir. 
Merta, a fortified Marwar town of some 
importance, is some miles from the 
railway. Near this town was fought 
a decisive battle between the Marathas 
and Rajputs, in which the former, with 
the treacherous assistance of a large 

1 For full details see Col. Tod's Rajasthana. 



ROUTE 6. AJMERE 



123 



body of Pindharis under Amir Ehan, 
inflicted a crushing defeat upon the 
latter. 

[Ezcursion to Bikanir. 

35 m. Nagaur. A fortified town of 
importance in Marwar. The crenel- 
lated wall, houses, and groups of 
temples make an agreeable break in 
the monotonous rolling desert. 

103 m. Bikanir, the capital of the 
state of tbat name. The ruling chief 
is descended from a branch of the 
royal house of Jodhpur. The state has 
an area of upwards of 20,000 sq. m., 
and a pop. of about 400,000. The 
principal part of the state is desert, 
and the great depth (150 ft. to 800 ft.) 
at which water is found renders culti- 
vation or irrigation impossible. The 
chief wealth of the people is their flocks 
and herds, which feed on the bushes and 
scanty herbage. The Maharaja's palace 
at Bikanir itself is picturesque and 
imposing, viewed from a distance. But 
like most Hindu palaces, its interior 
is a mass of small irregular suites of 
rooms, due to the superstitious custom 
which forbids a chief to live in the 
apartments of his predecessor. "Pal- 
atial" loses its force as an adjective, 
applied to native Indian interiors. 
Some of the rooms in the palace are 
lined with willow-pattern plates and 
tiles set in the walls. The town is 
surrounded by a wall, and contains a 
few houses with handsome fronts of 
carved stonework, belonging to wealthy 
Jain merchants. A political agent 
resides here, and his garden, green with 
grass and bright with flowers, is a veri- 
table oasis in the desert, which beats 
with its sandy waves impotently on 
the surrounding wall. One of the 
deep wells should be seen and its depth 
viewed by a beam of light reflected 
from a mirror.] 

216 m. Sambhar stat 

Sarribhar Lake is situated on the 
border of the Jeypore and Jodhpur 
states. The surrounding country is 
arid and sterile, being composed of 
rocks abounding in salt, and belonging 



to the Permian system ; and the salt 
of the lake comes from the washing of 
these rocks. The bottom is tenacious 
black mud resting on loose sand. The 
lake is 21 m. long from E. to W. after 
the rains, and the average breadth at 
that time is 6 m. from N. to S., and 
the depth, 1 m. from the shore, is only 
2i ft. The water dries up from October 
to June, and leaves about an inch of 
salt in the enclosures, which are con- 
structed only where the black mud is 
of considerable thickness. 

From the 17th century the salt was 
worked by the Jeypore and Jodhpur 
Governments conjointly till 1870, when 
the British Government became lessees 
of both states. The works are on the 
E. and N. edges of the lake. The 
average yearly out-turn is from 300,000 
to 400,000 tons of salt, and the cost 
of storage and extraction is |d. for every 
82^ lbs. When the salt is formed 
men and women of the Barrar caste 
wade through the mud and lift it in 
large cakes into baskets. 

221 m. Phalera stat. N. junc. of 
R.M. and J.B. railways. 

Proceeding from Marwar junc. (p. 121) 
towards Ajmere, after leaving, 561 m., 
Haripnr sta., D.B., the line engages in 
a rocky ascent which continues to close 
to 582 m., Beawar sta., D.B., an im- 
portant town, and reaches 

615 m. Ajmere junc. sta., if. D.B. 
[From this place a line runs S. to Nus- ' 
seerdbadf Neemuchf RiUlam, Indore^ 
Mhow, and Khandwa (see Rte. 4).] 

Ajmere, the key to Bajputana (pop. 
67,800), is the capital of an isolated 
British district in the Rajput states. 
The district comprises two tracts known 
as Ajmere and Merwara (pop. 541,900). 
The Agent of the Governor-General for 
Rajputana, whose headquarters are at 
Abu, is ex-officlo Chief Commissioner 
of Ajmere. The city is of great an- 
tiquity and celebrity, and is situated 
in a valley, or rather basiu, at the foot 
of the rocky and picturesque Taragarh 
Hill (3000 ft. above the sea). It is 
surrounded by a stone wall with five 
gateways, and is well built, containing 
many fine houses of stone with orna- 



124 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAT TO DELHI 



India 



mental fagades. Ajmere was founded 
in 146 A.D. by Ajaypal, one of the 
Chohan kings. 

In 1024, Mahmud of Ghazni, on his 
way to Somnath in Kattywar, sacked 
Ajmere, and Akbar conquered it in 
1656. 

The memory of the Ajmere Chishti 
was held in particular respect by the 
great Akbar, who was accustomed to 
pay a yearly visit to his shrine. 
Several of these pilgrimages were made 
on foot from Agra and other places. 
The road from Fatehpur-Sikri to Aj- 
mere was so much used by Akbar that 
he caused "Kos Minars" (masonry 
columns answering to our milestones) 
to be erected along the route. Several 
of these miliars can still be seen from 
the railway. 

Thomas Coryat, in the 17th century, 
walked from Jerusalem to Ajmere, and 
spent £2 : 10s. on the journey. Sir 
Thomas Roe, the ambassador of James 
I., gives an account of the city in 
1615-16. In about 1720 Ajit Sing 
Rathore seized the city, which was 
recovered by Muhammad Shah, and 
made over by him to Abhay Sing. His 
son Ram Sing called in the Marathas, 
under Jay Apa Sindia, who, however, 
was murdered, and in 1756 Ajmere was 
made over to Bijai Sing, cousin of 
Ram Sing. In 1787 the Rathores 
recovered Ajmere, but after their defeat 
at Patau had to surrender it again to 
Sindia. On the 25th of June 1818 
Daulat Rao Sindia made it over by 
treaty to the English. 

The Residency is on the brink of 
the beautiful artificial lake called the 
Ana Saugar, constructed by Raja 
Ana in the middle of the 11th cent. 
It forms the source of the river Laoni, 
which finally unites with the Delta of 
the Indus. The Emperor ShahJehan 
erected a noble range of marble pavil- 
ions on the embankment. They were 
long the only public offices in Ajmere, 
but the chief one is now used as the 
official residence of the Commissioner. 
The central and most beautiful pavil- 
ion, in which the emperor often re- 
posed, has been restored at great cost. 
The walk along the bund ox embank- 



ment (which is public) is very ds- 
lightful, — quite the pleasantest sight 
in Ajmere. If the nying foxes still 
hang in the trees, they are worth ob- 
serving. They are sure not to be 
far off even if tiiey have changed thai 
quarters, as they love the vicinity of 
water. To the N. is the broad ezpanae 
of the lake, and to the S. under the ^ 
bund is the Public Garden, The dty is ' 
supplied with water from the new , 
lake, the Foy Saugar, formed by an 
embankment thrown across the valley 
6 m. higher up. The water of the spring 
known as the Digi, on the Nusseerabad 
side of Ajmere, is said to possess a high 
specific gravity, owing to the stratum 
of lead through which it passes. 

Akbar's Palace is outside the city 
proper, to the E., not far from the 
railway station. The entrance gate is 
very fine. It was an arsenal, and is 
now used as a tehsil. 

The mosque called the Arhai-din-ka- 
jhompra, or ''The Hut of two and a 
half Days," is just outside the city gate 
beyond the Dargah. It was built by 
Altamsh or Eutbu-din about 1200 
from the materials of a Jain temple. 
The name is derived from a tradition 
that it was built supematuraUy in two 
and a half days. Modern archaeologists 
assert that it was probably erected by 
the same architect who built the Kutb 
mosque near Delhi It is uncertain 
whether any of the undoubtedly Hindu 
pillars of which the mosque is built are 
now in situ. Their ornamentation is 
very complete, no two being alike. The 
mosque proper, supported by 4 rows of 
18 of these columns, derives its beauty 
from the materials of which it is con- 
structed. The screen in front of it is a 
work well deserving attention : it is 
the glory of the mosque, and consists 
of seven arches very similar to those 
with which Altamsh adorned the court- 
yard of the Kutb. In the centre the 
screen rises to a height of 56 ft 
Nothing can exceed the taste with 
which the Kufic and Tughra inscrip- 
tions are interwoven with the more 
purely architectural decorations and 
the constructive lines of the design. 

The bridle-path to Taragarh passes 
this mosque, and by a steep ascent 



BOUTE 6. AJMBRE 



125 



reaches the summit in 2 m. The tra- 
veller can ride or be carried in a chair, 
or jhdTnpan, The trip will occupy 
three hours. The view from the top is 
the principal reward for the trouble. 

One of the principal points of inter- 
est in Aj mere is the Dargah. It is ven- 
erated alike by Mohammedans and 
Hindus, and derives its extreme sanctity 
from being the burial-place of Khwajah 
Muin-ud-din Ohishti, who was called 
Aftab-i-MuIk-i-Hind. He died in 633 
A.H. = 1235 A.D. He was the son of 



the shoes on entering the Dargah. 
Passing through a lofty gateway, a court- 
yard is entered in which are two very 
large iron caldrons, one twice the size 
of the other. These are known as the 
great and the little deg. A rich pilgrim 
may offer, at the annual fair and pilgrim- 
age, to give a deg feast. The smallest 
sum with which to buy rice, butter, 
sugar, almonds, raisins, and spice to 
fill the large deg is 1000 rs., and be- 
sides this he has to pay about 200 rs. 
as presents and offerings at the shrine. 




The Arhai-din-ka-jhompra Mosque at Ajmere. 



Khwajah *Usman, and was called Chisti 
from a quarter in the city of Sanjar 
in Persia. He had gone into a chapel 
to pray, and his relative, the Ohishti 
from latehpur-Sikri, coming to see him 
on the sixth da^ foxmd him dead. Of 
this family of samts and courtiers, Farid- 
Q-din is buried at Pak-patan, in the 
Paujab; Nizam-uddin, Kutb-ud-din, 
andNasir-ud-dinatornear Delhi; Shaik 
Salim at Fatehpur-Sikri near Agra ; 
and Bandah Nawaz at 'Ealbargah in 
the Beccan* 
Woollen socks have to be put over 



After this gigantic rice pudding has 
been cooked by means of a furnace 
beneath, it is scrambled for, boiling 
hot. Eight earthen pots of the mix- 
ture are first set apart for the foreign 
pilgrims, and it is the hereditary privi- 
lege of the people of Indrakot,. and of 
the menials of the Dargah, to empty the 
caldron of the remainder of its contents. 
All the men who take part in this 
hereditary privilege are swaddled up to 
the eyes in cloths, to avoid the effect 
of the scalding fluid . When the caldron 
is nearly empty, all the Indrakotis 



126 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DBLHI 



India 



tumble in together and scrape it dean. 
There is no doubt that this custom is 
very ancient, though no account of its 
origin can be given. It is generally 
counted among the miracles of the 
saints that no lives have ever been lost 
on these occasions, though burns are 
frequent The cooked nee is bought 
by all classes, and most castes will eat 
it. The number of pilgrims at this 
festival is estimated at 20,000. 

The Tomb of the saint is a square 
building of white marble surmounted 
by a dome. It has two entrances, one 
of which is spanned by a silver arch. 
S. of it in a small enclosure with well- 
cut marble lattices is the Mazar or 
** grave" of Hafiz Jamal, daughter of 
the saint, and W. of it, close by her 
tomb is that of Chimmi Be^am, daughter 
of Shah Jehan. Christians may not 
approach within 20 yds. of these holy 
places. There are some very fine trees 
in the enclosure. 

W. of the sanctuary is a long, narrow, 
and very handsome mosque of white 
marble, buiU by Shah Jehan, It has 
11 arches, and is about 100 ft long ; 
a Persian inscription runs the whole 
length of the roof under the eaves. 
There is another masque within the 
enclosure — to the rt. on entering — 
built by Ahbar. Most of the outer 
doors are completely covered with 
horse-shoes, and many slips of writing 
are plastered on the walls. 

Before leaving the visitor will prob- 
ably have a necklace of flowers put 
round him, which it will be polite not 
to take off until he has gone some 
distance. A small present, say 1 r., 
should be given in return. 

To the S. of the Dargah enclosure is 
the Jhalra, a deep tank where ablutions 
are made, partly cut out of the rock and 
lined by steep flights of irregular stex)s. 

Ajmere is the headquarters of about 
1800 miles of metre-gauge rly. worked 
by the B.B. and C.I. Railway Co. 
Near the rly. sta. are very extensive 
workshops employing many thousand 
Hindu and Mohammedan workmen, 
who accomplish their tasks with a 
wonderfiiUy small amount of European 
supervision. Across the railway line 
£rom the city is an extensive civil 



station, inhabited almost exclusively 
by railway officials ; and beyond their 
houses S. is the Mayo College for the 
education of young Rajput princes 
opened by Lord Dufferin in 1875. It 
contains about 80 boys between the 
ages of 8 and 18 years. A visitor, 
even if pressed for time, ought to drive 
through the grounds. The central 
building is a handsome white marble 
pile, slightly marred by some incon- 
gruous details. The subsidiary build- 
ings have been erected by native 
builders for the chiefs as lodging- 
houses for their pupils and servants. 
Perhaps nowhere else in India is so 
much good modem native architecture 
to be seen. 

The Cantonment of Nnsseerabad is 
14 m. from Aimere (see p. 86). 

[The traveller who has leisure should 
visit the sacred Lake of Pushkax, about 
7 m. Permanent pop. 4000. 

The road skirts the W. shore of the 
Ana Saugar. At 3 m. from Ajmere is 
the village of Kausar, in a gap in the 
hills which divide the Ana Saugar from 
the Pushkar Lake. This striking pass 
through the hills is 1 m. lon^. Push- 
kar is the most sacred lake in India, 
in a narrow valley overshadowed by 
fine rocky peaks, and is said to be of 
miraculous origin, marking the spot 
hallowed by the great sacrifice of 
Brahma. Early in the Middle Ages 
it became one of the most frequented 
objects of pilgrimage, and is stUl visited 
during the great Mela (fair) of Oct. and 
Nov. by about 100,000 pilgrims. On 
this occasion is also held a great mart 
for horses, camels, and buUocks. 

Although the ancient temples were 
destroyed by Aurangzib, the 5 modem 
ones with their ghats on the margin of 
the lake are highly picturesque. That 
to Brahma is usually said to he the only 
one in India; but there are smaller 
shrines to Brahmaatseveral old temples. 
Over the gateway is the figure of the 
hanSf or * * goose, " of Brahma. The D. B. 
is in a native house on the lake, ^m 
which there is a good view.] 

658 m. Naraina stat. The village 
with a large tank is seen from the rly. 
It is the headquarters of the Dadu- 
panthi sect of reformers. Their reli- 



ROUTE 6. JETPORB 



127 



gioD, ethics, and teachiBg are embodied 
in a mass of poetry written by Dadu 
Panth and his disciples. A division of 
the sect is composed of military monks 
who serve in the armies of the Jeypore 
and neighbouring states. 

3^ 699 m. JETPORE (or Jaipur) sta. , :^ 
D.B. Pop. 143,000. Amber is the 
ancient capital, Jeypore the modem ; it 
is the residence of tne Maharaja, whose 
state covers nearly 15,000 sq. m. , with a 
pop. of 2, 500, 000, and the headquarters 
of the Resident. It derives its name 
from the famous Maharaja Siwai Jey 
(or Jaya) Sing. II., who founded it in 
1728. The town is surrounded on all 
sides except the S. by rugged hills, 
crowned with forts. That at the end 
of the ridge overhanging the city on the 
N. W. is the Nahargarh, or "tiger fort. " 
The face of the ridge is scarped and 
inaccessible on the S. or city side, while 
on the N. it slopes towards Amb^r. A 
masonry, crenellated waU, with seven 
gateways, encloses the whole city. 

Jeypore is the pleasant healthy 
capital of one of the most prosperous 
independent states of Rajputana, and is 
a very busy and important commercial 
town, with large banks and other trad- 
ing establishments. It is a centre of 
native manufactures, especially that of 
many kinds of jewellery and of coloured 
printed cloths and muslins. The 
enamel-work done here is the best in 
India, and the cutting and setting of 
garnets and other stones found in the 
state is a large branch of industry. 
The crowded streets and bazaars are 
most lively and picturesque. Tlie city 
is remarkable for the width and regu- 
larity of its streets. It is laid out in 
rectangular blocks, and is divided by 
cross streets into six equal portions. 
The main streets are 111 ft. wide, and 
are paved, and the city is lighted bygas.^ 

Passes to view the Maharaja's Palace 
and Stables and the old Palace of 
Amber may be obtained from the 



The Uaharaja's Palace, with its 
beautifol gardens and pleasure pounds 
\ m. long, adorned witn fountains, fine 
trees^ and flowering shrubs, occupies 
the centre of the city and covers \ of 
1 Sae LeUers cfMargm, by Budyard Kipling. 



its area. The whole is surrounded by 
a high embattled wall, built by Jey 
Sing, but many of the buildings in- 
cluded in it are of a later date. The 
Chandra Mahal, which forms the centre 
of the great palace, is a loft^ and strik- 
ing building, seven stories high, looking 
over the gardens. 

' On the ground-floor is the Diwan- 
i-Ehas, or private hall of audience, 
built partly of white marble, and 
remarkable even in India for its 
noble simplicity. On the top story 
there is a magnificent view over the 
centre city. To the 1. are the gaudily- 
furnished modem buildings containing 
the apartments of the Maharaja and his 
courtiers, and the zenana. 

East of the Chandra Mahal is the 
famous Jantra or Observatory, the 
largest of the five built by the celebrated 
royal astronomer Jey Sin^ (see Benares, 
Muttra, Delhi, and Ujjam). It is not 
under cover, but is an oj^en courtyard 
fuU of curious and fantastic instruments 
invented and designed by him. They 
have been allowed to go much out ot 
repair, and many of them are now quite 
useless, it being impossible even to 
guess what purpose they served in the 
wonderfully accurate calculations and 
observations of their inventor; but 
dials, gnomons, quadrants, etc., still 
remain of great interest to astronomers. 

Adjoining the Observatory are the 
royal Stables, built round large court- 
yards ; and beyond them is the Hawa 
Mahal, or Hall of the Winds* one of 
Jey Sing's chefs d^cRUvre, a fantastic 
and elaborate building, decorated with 
stucco, and overlooking one of the chief 
streets of the town. 

In the central court of the palace are 
the Raj Printing OiEce, the Clock 
Tower, and the Armoury. To the E. 
of the Diwan-i-'Am is the Parade 
Ground, girt with open colonnades, 
behind wnich are the Law Courts. 
Horses can mount to the top of the 
palace by inclined planed. 

Near the chief entrance rises the 
Ishwari Minar Swarga Sul, the " Min- 
aret piercing heaven,** built by Rajah 
Ishwari Sing to overlook the city. 

Public Garden, outside the city wall, 
is one of the finest gardens in India, 



128 



B0X7TB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



Indk 



70 acres in extent, and was laid out 
by Dr. de Fabeck at a cost of about 
400,000 rs. Attached to it are a fine 
menagerie and aviary. These gardens 
cost tne Maharaja 30,000 rs. a year to 
keep up. There is a fine sUUtie oj 
Lord Mayo. 

In the centre of the garden is the 
Albert Hall, a sumptuous modem build- 
ing, of which the Prince of Wales laid 
the first stone in 1876. It contains a 
large Darbar Hall and a beautiful 
museum, — an Oriental South Kensing- 
ton, suitably housed. The collections 
of modem works of art and industry, 
and also of antiquities, from every part 
of India, are very complete and highly 
interesting. There is a fine view n*om 
the top. 

The Mayo HoepitaL-— Beyond the 
gardens is the hospital, of rough white 
stone, with a clock tower. It can 
house 150 patients. 

The Ghmeh is on the way to the 
Railway Station, a little to the W. of 
the roaa. 

At the School of Art, a handsome 
modem building, are first-rate technical 
and industrial classes for teaching and' 
reviving various branches of native 
artistic industry, sueh as metal and 
enamel- work, embroidery, weaving, etc. 

The Maharaja's Colloge.— In Jey- 
pore public instraction has made greater 
progress than in the other states of 
Kajputana. The College, opened in 
1844 with about 40 pupils, had in 
1889 and 1890 a daily class attendance 
of 1000, and compares favourably with 
similar institutions of the kind in 
British India ; it is affiliated to the 
Calcutta University. 

The chattris, or cenotaphsj of the Ma- 
harajas at Grethur are just outside the 
N.E. city wall. They are in well- 
planted gardens, the trees of which 
are full of solemn-looking, gray-headed 
monkeys. The first seen on entering 
is Jey Sing's Chattri, the finest of all. 
It is a dome of the purest white marble, 
supported on 20 beautifully carved 
pillars rising from a substantial square 
platform, and profuselv ornamented 
with scenes from Hindu mythology. 
S.E. of Jey Sin^s Chattri is that of 
his son Madhu Sing, a dome rising fhsm 



the octagon on arches reversed. The 
only ornaments are carved peacocb. 
W. of this chattri is that of Pratap 
Sing, his son, completed by the late 
raler Bam Sing. It is of white marble 
brought from Alwar. 

The water which supplies Jeypow is 
drawn from a stream on the W . of the 
city, running into the Chambal. The 
pumping-station and high-level reser- 
voirs are nearly opposite the Chandpol 
Gate. 

[An expedition for the sake of the 
mew may be made by elephant or on 
foot to the Shrine of the Sun God at 
QaUa, an uninteresting building 350 ft. 
above the plain, and built on a jutting 
rocky platform, on the summit of a 
range of hills, about 1} m. to the £. of 
Jeypore, of which by far the finest view 
is obtained from this point. The way 
the sandy desert is encroaching on the 
town should be noticed. It has caused 
one large suburb to be deserted, and the 
houses and gardens are going to ruin. 
The sand has even drifted up the ravines 
of the hUls. This evil ou^ht to be 
arrested at any cost by planting.] 

[The excursion to Amb^r (5 m.), the 
capital of Jeypore till 1728, now rained 
and deserted, is most interesting, and 
will occupy a whole day. It is neces- 
sary to obtain permission to visit Amb^r 
from the Resident of Jeypore, and that 
official, as a rule, kindly asks the State 
to send an elephant to meet the traveUer 
at Chandrabagh, where the hill becomes 
too steep for a carriage. 

On the left of the road a line of 
fortified hills are passed ; these culmin- 
ate in the great Fort 400 feet above the 
old palace, connected with it and built 
for its defence. The picturesque atua- 
tion of Amber at the mouth of a rocky 
mountain gorge, in which nestles a 
lovely lake, has attracted the admira- 
tion of all travellers, including Jacque- 
mont and Heber. The name is first 
mentioned by Ptolemy. It was founded 
by the Minas, and still flourishing in 
967. In 1087 it was taken by the 



Rajput, who held it till it was deserted. 

The old Palace, begun by Man Sing, 

1600, ranks architecturally second only 



to Gwalior, though instead of standing 
on a rocky pedestal it lies low on the 



ROUTB 6. SANGANER 



129 



slope of the hill, picturesquely rooted 
ou its rocky base and reflected iu the 
lake below. The interior arrangements 
are excellent. The suites of rooms form 
vistas opening upon striking views. It 
is a grand pile, and though it lacks the 
fresh and vigorous stamp of Hindu 
originality which characterises earlier 
buudinss, the ornamentation and tech- 
nical details are free from feeble- 
ness. 

Entered by a fine staircase . from a 
great courtyard is the Diwan-i-'Am, 
a noble specimen of Rajput art, with 
double row of columns supporting a 
massive entablature, above which are 
latticed galleries. Its magnificence 
attracted the envy of Jehangir, and 
Mirza Raja, to save his great work 
from destruction, covered it with 
stucco. 

To the right of the Diwan-i-'Am steps 
is a small temple where a goat, offered 
each morning to Kali, preserves the 
tradition of a daily human sacrifice on 
the same spot in pre-historic times. 

On a higher terrace are the Raja's 
own apartments, entered by a splendid 
gateway covered with mosaics and 
sculptures, erected by Jey Sing, over 
which is the Suhag Mandir, a small 

Savilion with beautiful latticed win- 
0W8. Through this are further mar- 
vels, — a green and cool garden with 
fountains, surrounded by palaces, 
biilliant with mosaics and marbles. 
That on the 1. is the Jey MandlTy or 
HaU of Victory, adorned by panels of 
alabaster, some of which are inlaid, and 
others are adorned with flowers in alto- 
reUevo, "the roof glittering with the 
mirrored and spangled work for which 
Jeypore is renowned." Near the Jey 
Mandir a narrow passage leads down to 
the bathing-rooms, all of pale creamy 
marble. Above is the Jos Maiidirj 
"which literBtlly glows with bright and 
tender colours and exquisite inlaid work, 
and looks through arches of carved ala- 
baster and clusters of slender columns 
upon the sleeping lake and the silent 
mountains." 

At theN.E. angle is a balcony, whence 

there is a fine view over the town of 

Amber and the plain beyond to the 

hill which overlooks Ramgarh. Some 

[India] 



chattris outside the wall are those of 
chieftains who died before Jey Sing II. 
In the palace to the right is a chamber 
on the rt wall of which are views of 
Ujjain, and on the 1. views of Benares 
and Muttra. That opposite the Jey 
Mandir is called the SukhNavjos, ' * Hall 
of Pleasure. " In t;he centre of the narrow 
dark room is an opening for a stream to 
flow down into the groove or channel 
which runs through the hall. The doors 
are of sandal-wood inlaid with ivory. 

A steep path leads down to the 
Ehiri Gate, beyond which, as it leads 
to one of the forts, Kantalgarh, no one 
is allowed to pass without an order. 
At the bottom of this path there is a 
temple to Thakurji, or Vishnu. It is 
wiiite and beautifully carved, and just 
outside the door is a lovely square 
pavilion exquisitely carved with figures 
representing Krishna sporting with 
the Gopis. 

Ambfer formerly contained many fine 
temples, but most are now in ruins.] 

[Sanganer is about 7 m. to the 
S. of Jeypore, a nice drive past the 
Residency and the Moti Dongari, and 
garden where the Indian princes who 
are visitors to the Maharaja some- 
times encamp. 

A gateway leads into this town 
through two ruined Tirpoliyas, or triple 
gateways of three stories, about 66 ft. 
high. The second story has an open 
stone verandah, supported by four 
pillars on either side of the archway. 
Ascending the street is a small temple 
on the rt. sacred to Kalyanji or Krishna, 
the door of which is handsomely 
carved. Opposite is a temple to Sita- 
ram, with a pillar, 6 ft. high, of white 
Makrana marble called a Kirthi Kambh. 
On the four sides are Brahma with foui* 
faces, Vishnu, cross-legged, holding the 
lotus, Shiva holding a cobra in his rt. 
hand and a trident in his 1. , with Par- 
bati beside him and Ganesh. 

Higher up, on the 1., are the ruins 
of the Old Palace, which must once 
have been a vast building. N. by E. 
from this is the Sa/nganer Temple with 
three courts. Visitors are not allowed 
to enter the third. There are several 
other old shrines in the place.] 



130 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



Indilt 



766 m. Bandikui jun. sta. (R). Here I 
are railway workshops, church institute, 
and a considerable station for rail- 
way employes. The line for Bhurtpur, 
Muttray and Agra branches off E. (see 
p. 167). 

792 m. ALWAB (Ulwar) sta. , aOt D. B., 
is the capital of the native state of that 
name, and is under the political super- 
intendence of the British Government. 
It has an area of 3024 sq. m., a pop. 
of 683,000, and a revenue of about 
£235,000. The dress of the people is 
highly picturesque. The men often 
carry long matcnlocks or staves, and 
the saris of the women are embroidered 
and of bright colours. The Maharaja 
maintains an army of about 8000 men, 
under the command of an English 
officer, and is himself very English in 
his tastes. 

The City (90,880 inhab.) is the resi- 
dence of the Chief and of a Political 
Agent. It is beautifully situated on 
rising ground, dominated by the Fort, 
which crowns a conical rock 1200 ft. 
high, and is backed by a range of rugged 
mountains. A shady road between fields 
and native houses, and passing 1. the 
small R. Catholic Church, and then the 
prett;^ Scottish Mission Church, leads in 
1 m. from the rly. sta. to the chief of five 
vaulted gateways which pierce the city 
wall. Here the traveller is confronted 
by a formidable-looking brass gun, and 
passing on finds himself in the pictur- 
esque town : an irregular whitewashed 
street stretches before him, with a view 
of the high Fort at the end. About 
half-way along it, at the junction of four 
ways, the streets are spanned by a four- 
sided vaulted archway called the Tir- 
poliya, supporting the tomb of Tarang 
Sultan, d. 1350, brother of Feroz Shah. 

At the end of the street is a temple 
of Jaganath, and leaving it (1.) and 
passing round and up a slight incline 
the Boyal Palace is reached. It is a 
group of buildings partly detached and 
built in a variety of styles, separated 
from the base of the mountains by a 
little tank (see below). 

In the centre of the wall of the large 
court of the palace is an elegant build- 
ing called an Aftabi, and two chattris 



or cenotaphs of marble, adorned with 
carved lattice-work. The darbar-room 
is 70 ft. long, with marble pillars. 
The Shish Mahal is handsome, and over- 
looks the tank. Besides other state 
rooms, the palace contains a valuable 
Library, kept in excellent order, an| 
rich in Oriental manuscripts. The obi 
ornament of the collection is amatchle 
*• Gulistan," which cost about £10,00( 
*to produce ; it is beautifully illustrate 
with miniature paintings, the joj-^" 
work of three men. The MS. ¥ 
written by a German, • the miniature 
were painted by a native of Delhi, a 
the scrolls are by a Panjabi ; it \« 
finished in' 1848 by order of Mahai 
Raja Bani Sing. Another beautifl 
book is the "Dah Pand," written b 
Rahim 'ullah, in 1864. 

The Toshah Khana, or Jewel 
is rich in magnificent jewels, she^ 
only when both the Prime Ministt 
and the Political Agent are 
There is an emerald cup of large si 
and also one said to be a ruby, soi 
curious cameos, and massive silvB 
trappings, for horses and elephants. 

The Armoury contains a splendid 
collection of sabres and other weapons 
finely wrought and finished and studded 
with jewels ; also 50 handsome swords 
with hilts of gold. One or two are from 
Persia, but most of them were made at 
Alwar, and the imitation of the Ispahan 
steel is excellent. The arms of Bani 
Sing could only be worn by a man of 
great stature. His coat of mail weighs 
16^ lb., and the end of his spear 5 lb., 
and his sword weighs 6 lb. They are 
studded with large diamonds. There 
are a helmet and cuirass, Persian, of the 
16th century, and large enough for a 
man 7 ft. high. Both are perforated 
with small bullets. The Maharaja 
does not occupy this palace, but lives 
in another between 2 and 3 m. to 
the S. of Alwar, surrounded by fine 
gardens. 

The Kaja's Stables are worth a visit 
There are 500 horses, some of them 
very fine. Morning and evening the 
young animals are summoned from the 
jungle, by bugle, to feed ; their approach, 

1 It is well to write beforehand to the Political 
agent to ask permission to see the Jewel Bovm^ 



ROUTE 6. RBWARI 



131 



leaping over fences and walls, is a fine 
sight. 

The Tank with the buildings that 
surround it, and the Fort in the back- 
ground, forms one of the most pictur- 
esque spots in India. To the E. are 
the palace and zenana ; on the W. are a 
number of temples to Vishnu ; on the 
N. are smaller temples and shrines, 
shrouded by trees ; and raised upon the 
centre of a platform on the S. is the 
cenotaph or mausoleum of Bakhtawar 
Sing, a pavilion with white marble 
pillars. In the centre of the pavetnent 
are four small feet cut out in the marble, 
and at one comer a gun, at the next a 
dagger, and at the third a sword and 
sh^d. Visitors are required to take 
off their shoes. From this spot the 
view is very striking ; on the one side 
the tank and the Fort towering above 
it, and on the other the town and the 
wooded plain. 

Myriads of rock -pigeons fl^ about 
these sacred precincts, making the 
ground blue when they alight, and 
numbers of stately peacocks strut un- 
molested about the marble pavements. 

In the city the house may be visited 
in which the Elephant Carriage is kept. 
It was built by Bani Sing, and is used 
by the Raja at the Feast of the Dasahra. 
It is a car two stories high, and will 
carry 60 persons. It is usually drawn 
by four elephants. 

The Company Bagh (named after 
the E. I. C.) is a neat garden between 
the rly. sta. and the city. 

There is nothing to see in the Fort, 
but if the visitor desires to ascend for 
the purpose of enjoying the magnificent 
view over the valley and adjoining 
hills, he should get into SLJhampan, or 
chair, and be carried up. This ascent 
is steep and is paved with slippery and 
rugged stones. At about 150 ft. up 
there is a fine Ficus indica and .a hut, 
and here the steepest part of the ascent 
begins. It is called the Hathi Mora, 
"Elephant's Turn," because those 
animals cannot go beyond this point. 
There is another hut farther up at a 
» place called Ghazi Mard. It takes 
about 38 minutes to walk from that 
place to the gate of the Fort The 



scarp of the rock is 27 ft. high. In- 
side the Fort is a large ruined mansion 
of Kaghunath, formerly governor of the 
Fort On the left hand is a cannon 12 
ft. long. Thence to the inner Fort is 
100 yds. Here there is a commodious 
building, with rooms for about 20 
people and a darbar-rooin. 

The Tomb of Fath Jang, near the 
station on the Bhurtpur road, should 
not be passed over. Its dome is a con- 
spicuous object, and bears date, in 
Nagri, 1547, but the outside is poor in 
design compared with the interior, 
which is good. The building possesses 
a considerable amount of fine plaster- 
work in relief, with fiat surface patterns 
and rectangular mouldings as at the 
Alhambra. It is now converted into a 
corn-store for the Maharaja's horses. 
Fath Jang was a minister of Shah Jehan. 

1 m. N. of the city is the Jail, and 
2 m. to the S. is the Artillery Ground 
and Top Khana, *' artillery arsenal." 
On returning, the visitor may turn down 
a ravine, where, at the distance of 1 
m. , is the chattri of Pratap Sing, and 
a spring of water, as also temples to 
Shiva, Sitaram, and Earanji, and a 
small monument to the Queen of Pratap 
Sing, who undei-went sati. 

Alwar and the neighbourhood are 
supplied with water from the aitificial 
Lake of Siliserh, 9 m. S.W. of the city, 
a charming spot There are the Maha- 
raja's palace on the hill and the un- 
finished water palace on the lake, and 
abundance of fish. 

There is a great deal of game, 
including tigers, in the neighbourhood 
of Alwar. 

838 m. Bewari junc. sta. (R.), D.B. 
A railway line from here proceeds 
N.W. to Sirsa Ferozepur and Lahore, 
with a branch to Fazilki on the Sutlej 
river. 

Rewari was founded in 1000 a.d. by 
Raja Rawat. There are the ruins of a 
still older town E. of the modern walls. 
The Rajas of Rewari were partially 
independent, even under the Moguls. 
They built the fort of Gokulgarh, near 
the town, which is now in ruins, but 
was evidently once very strong. They 



132 



BOUTB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



coined their own money, and their 
currency was called Gokul Sikkah. It 
is a place of considerable trade, particu- 
larly in iron and salt. The Town Hall 
is handsome, as are the Jain Temples, 
close to the town. 

The rly, passes W. of the Kutb Minar 
and of the tombs and ruins S. of Delhi, 
a line of hills shutting them out from 
view, and when near the city turns E. 
(Here the Delhi, Umballa, and Ealka 
Rly. turns N.) The line enters through 
the W. wall, meeting in a fine' central 
station the E. I. Rly. and N. W. Rly., 
which enter the city over the Jumna 
river bridge from the E. 

890 m. Delhi jnnc. sta.,30c D.B. 
(198,600 inhab.) 



History. 

Little is definitely known of the 
history of Delhi prior to the Moham- 
medan conquest in 1193 a.d. It is 
.said that a city called Indraprastha 
was founded by the early Aryan im- 
migrants, under a king called Yudhis- 
thira, and that the fort of Indrapat, 
also called Purana Eilla, or "Old 
Fort," stands on the site of this city. 
The extensive ruins lying S. of modern 
Delhii and covering an area of about 
45 sq. m., are the remains of seven 
forts or cities, built by different kings. 
The oldest are the Hindu forts of Lal- 
kot, built by Anang Pal in 1052 a.d. ; 
and Rai Pithora, built by the king of 
that name, about 1180 a.d. The ruins 
of these two forts, and the iron pillar 
at the Kutb, are the only remains of 
the Hindu period. The five Moham- 
medan forts or cities were Siri, built by 
*Alau-din in 1304 a.d. ; Tughlakabad, 
built by Tughlak Shah, in 1321 a.d. ; 
the citadel of Tughlakabad, built by 
the same king at the same date ; 'Adi- 
labad, built oy Muhammad Tughlak 
in 1325 A.D. ; and Jahanpanah, enclosed 
by the same king. The name Delhi 
first appears in the 1st century B.C., 
but the area thus designated cannot 
now be determined. 

The modern town dates from the 
eommencement of the fort by Shah 



Jehan in 1638, whence it v 
Shahjehanabad. Delhi has 
quently attacked, and often ca] 
It was sacked by Timur, the M( 
1398 ; by Nadir Shah, the Pel 
1739 ; and by Ahmad Shah Di 
Afghan, in 1766. On the 10th 
1739, the small Persian 
which Nadir Shah had intr< 
into the city when he captured i| 
almost entirely put to the swoj 
the people. " On the 11th he ga^ 
troops, who had been summoned 
the Encampment outside the city, 
for a general massacre. From e 
till 12 o'clock Delhi presented a 
of shocking carnage, the horj 
which were increased by the 
that now spread to almost every qi 
of the capital. The Mogul Em] 
Muhammad Shah then interced< 
the people, and Nadir replied, 
Emperor of India must never 
vain," and commanded that the 
sacre should cease. A vast mull 
of persons had perished, however, 
when Nadir left Delhi he carried 
him immense treasures, estimated 
from 30 to 70 millions sterling, thr 
famous Peacock Throne, and the Kob^ 
i-Nur, diamond. 



In 1789 the Maratha chief, Mahaduji 
Siudia captured Delhi, and the Mara- 
thas retained it till, in September 1803, 
General Lake dofeated Louis Bourquin, 
commanding Sindia's army, and gained 
possession of Delhi and of the family 
and person of the Mogul Shah 'Alam. 
In October 1804 Delhi was besieged by 
the Maratha, Jaswant Rao Holkar, bat 
successfully defended by the British 
under General Ochterlony. From 
that time to 1857 the old capital oi 
India remained in the possession oi 
the British, although the descendants 
of the Mogul were allowed some show 
of royalty, and the name of king. 
Bahadur Shah succeeded in 1837; h« 
was about 80 years old when the 
Mutiny broke out. With his death 
at Rangoon in 1862, the last vestige 
of the Mogul dynasty disappeared.^ 

1 A list of sovereigns who reigned at Delbi 
fh>m 1198, will be found on p. uviii. 




5 

s 

r 

! 3 









T 



J} 



BOUTB 6. DXLHI 



133 



The Siege of Delhi, 1857.^ 

On the 10th of May 1857 there 
vere in the large cantonment of 
Meenit, about 40 miles from Delhi, 
a British force consisting of a battalion 
of the 60th Rifles, a regiment of 
Dragoons armed with carbines, and 
a large force of Artillery, though only 
two field-batteries were fully equipped. 
The Native troops were one regiment ' 
of Cavalry — the 3d, and two regiments 
of Infantry — the 11th and 20th. 
Eighty-five troopers of the 8d Cavalry 
had been imprisoned for refusing to 
nse the new cartridges, but were 
released on the day above mentioned 
by their comrades. On that day, 
Sunday, when the sun went down, 
the Sepoys broke into revolt. The 
English soldiers in the cantonment 
vere in amply sufficient numbers to 
have crushed the mutiny locally had 
they been commanded by a competent 
general, but General Hewitt does not 
leem to have comprehended the neces- 
«ity for vigorous action, and the 
mutineers, uter setting fire to the 
hoasesof the European officers, escaped 
to Delhi On the morning of the 
11th there was still time for the 
British Cavalry and Horse Artillery 
to have reached Delhi soon enough to 
liave saved many precious lives, but 
the General took no action. 

In the meanwhile the Native Cavalry 
•rrived at Delhi, entered the city, cutting 
down any Europeans met with, and then 
found their way to the Fort, and in- 
duced the 38th N.I. to join them. 
The church was subsequently destroyed, 
and all Christians met with put to 
death. There were no British troops 
Bther in the Fort, or in the cantonment 
about 2 m. outside the city. The 64th 
Kj. under Colonel Ripley was marched 
from the cantonment to the Fort, but 
at once fraternised ^itli the 38th, and 
allowed their officers to be shot down. 
Major Abbott with the 74th N.I. and 
two guns arrived next on the scene, 
but his regiment also joined the muti- 

I A traveller who desires a concise account 
of the siege of Delhi, etc., without military 
technicalities, cannot do better than refer to 
Holmes' Indian JfWiny. 



neers. Lieut. Willoughby, with two 
officers, and six non-commissioned 
officers defended the magazine, in the 
city, against enormous odds ; and 
finally exploded it, only three of them 
surviving. No assistance arriving from 
Meerut tnose who had taken refuge in 
the Fort attempted to escape. Many 
were shot down while doing so, and 
Delhi, with its well-fortified palace and 
strong city wall, was left in the hands 
of the mutineers. 

Instant measures were taken for the 
concentration of European troops and 
loyal native regiments upon Delhi. 
Sir H. Barnard took command of the 
troops collected at Kurnal, and ou 5th 
June reached Alipur, where he halted 
till the Meerut brigade joined him. 
On the 7th the latter brigade, after fight- 
ing two engagements with the rebels, 
arrived. On the following day the 
combined forces marched on Delhi, and 
found the rebels well posted and 
supported by 80 guns 6 ra. north of 
Delhi, at the village of Badli-ka-Serai. 
Attacking the mutineers, Barnard 
gained a complete victory. The most 
important result of this success was to 
give the British possession of "the 
Ridge," from which all subsequent oper- 
ations against Dellii were made. 

" On the left and centre of the Ridge, 
obliquely to the front of attack, the 
tents of the English were pitched a 
little to the rear of their old houses, 
and effectually concealed from the be- 
sieged. The position on the extreme 
right invited attack. It was sur- 
mounted b^ an extensive building 
known as Hindu Rao's house. A strong 
body of troops was posted here, and in 
an old observatory near it. About 800 
yds. to the left of Hindu Rao's house, 
and on the Ridge, was an old mosque, 
and again 800 yds. to the left was the 
Flag-Staff Tower, a double-storied circu- 
lar building — a good post for observa- 
tion, and strong enough to afford shelter 
to troops. At these four points Barnard 
established strong picquets supported 
by guns. Beyond Hindu Rao's house 
was the suburb of Subzee-mundee, which , 
with its houses and walled gardens, 
afforded shelter to the enemy, and was 
In fact the key of the English position. 



134 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



Beyond Subzee-mundee, towards the 
Kabul Gate, were the villages of Kish- 
engunge, iS-evelyangunge, Paharipur, 
and Teliwara, all strong positions which 
covered the enemy when they advanced 
to the attack, but were too near the city 
walls for us to occupy. A little to the 
S. of the Flaff-Stafi; but farther to the 
E., was Metcalfe House, on the banks of 
the Jumna, with substantial outbuild- 
ings, and a mound in their rear, which 
seemed to recommend it for occupation. 
Between it and the city was an old 
summer palace of the Emperor, the 
Kudsiya Bagh, with lofty gateways 
and spacious courtyards, and in a line 
between the latter and Hindu Rao's 
house was Ludlow Castle, the house of 
the late Commissioner Simon Frazer." 

To take this great walled city General 
Barnard had a force of about 3000 
British, one Ghoorka battalion, the 
Corps of Guides, the remnant of certain 
native regiments, and 22 guns. At 
first it was intended to assault the city 
by night, but as failure would have 
been disastrous, it was considered best 
to delay till the expected reinforce- 
ments had arrived. Between the 12th 
and 18th the rebels attacked the British 
position four times, in front and rear. 
Again on the 23d they attacked, having 
been reinforced by the mutineers from 
Nusseerabad. Fortunately the British 
by that time had received an additional 
850 men. 

On the 24th General Chamberlain 
arrived, and with him the 8th and 61st 
Europeans, the 1st Panjab Infantry, 
a squadron of Panjab Cavalry, and 4 
guns, raising the British strength to 
6600. The rebels had received an 
accession of about 4500 from Bareilly. 

On the 9th and 14th of July fierce 
engagements were fought on the right 
of the English position, near Hindu 
Rao's house, in and about the Subzee- 
mundee. In these engagements the 
British lost 25 officers and 400 men. 

"On the 17th of July Gen. Reed 
resigned the command, and made it 
over to Brig. -Gen. Archdale Wilson. 
At this time the besieging force was in 
great difficulties ; two generals had died, 
a third had been compelled by illness 
to resign, the Adj. -Gen. and Quarter- 



master-Gen. lay wounded in their 
tents ; and the rebels had attacked so 
often, and with such obstiimcy, that 
it had come to be acknowledged that 
the British were the besieged and not 
the besiegers. On the 18th of July 
the rebels made another sortie, which 
was repulsed by Col. Jones of the 60th 
Rifles. The Engineer officers then 
cleared away the walls and houses 
which had afforded cover to the eneiny, 
and connected the advanced posts with 
the main picquets on the Ridge. After 
this there were no more conflicts in the 
Subzee-mundee. On the 23d of July the 
enemy streamed out of the Cashmere 
Gate, and endeavoured to establish 
themselves at Ludlow Castle. They 
were driven back, but the English 
were drawn too near the city walls, 
and suffered severe loss. An order 
was then issued prohibiting pursuit, 
which had led to so many disasters. 
But reinforcements were now on their 
way from the Panjab, and were to be 
commanded by one of the best soldiers 
that India had ever produced — Gen. 
Nicholson. 

"On the 7th of August Nicholson 
stood on the Ridge at Delhi. He had 
come on in advance of his columa 
of 2600 men, which arrived on the 
14th. On the 25th he marched out 
towards Najafgarh with a strong 
force to attack the Sepoys, who had 
moved to intercept the siege train 
coming from Ferozepur. The march 
was a troublous one, through deep 
mud. He found the mutineers in three 
bodies, occupying two villages and a 
sarai in front, afi protected by guns. 
As the English passed the ford, the 
water being breast-high even there, 
the enemy poured upon them a shower 
of shot ana shell. Nicholson, at the 
head of the 61st and the Fusiliers, 
stormed the sarai, and captured the 
guns ; but the Sepoys fought well, 
and sold their lives dearly. Those who 
survived limbered up their guns and 
made for the bridge crossing the Najaf- 
garh Canal. Nicholson's men over- 
took them, killed 800, and captured 13 
guns. It turned out to be the Neemuch 
Brigade who were thus beaten. The 
Baraili Brigade had not come up 



ROUTE 6. THB 8IEGB OF DSLHI 



135 



Nicholson blew up the Najafgarh 
Bridge, and returned to camp. 

** On the morning of the 4th of Sep- 
tember the siege guns, drawn by 
elephants, with an immense number of 
ammunition waggons, appeared on the 
Ridge. On the 6th the rest of the Rifles 
from Meerut marched in. On the 8th the 
Jummoo contingent arrived, with Rich- 
ard Lawrence at their head. Many, and 
amongst them foremost of all Nichol- 
son, chafed at the delay which occurred 
in storming Delhi. The responsibility 
of the attack rested with Archdale 
Wilson, and he had stated the magni- 
tude of the enterprise in a letter to 
Baird Smith, of tne 20th of August. 
* Delhi is 7 m. in circumference, tilled 
with an immense fanatical population, 
garrisoned by full 40,000 soldiers, 
armed and disciplined by ourselves, with 
114 heavy pieces of artillery mounted on 
the walls, with the largest magazine of 
shot, shell, and ammunition in the 
Upper Provinces, besides some 60 pieces 
of field artillery, all of our own manu- 
facture, and manned by artillerymen 
drilled and taught by ourselves ; the 
Fort itself having been strengthened by 
perfect flanking defences, erected bv 
our own engineers, aud a glacis which 
prevents our guns breaching the walls 
lower than 8 ft from the top.* These 
circumstances led Wilson to write that 
the chances of success were, in his 
opinion, anything but favourable ; but 
he would yield to the judgment of the 
chief engineer. Many condemned his 
apparent reluctance to order the assault, 
but they have since acknowledged that 
they did him less than justice, for the 
principles of warfare were upon his side. 

"Investment by the English, with 
their limited means, being impossible, 
it was necessary to concentrate all their 
. breaching power on a portion of the 
walls selected for a front of attack. 
This was the Mori, Cashmere, and Water 
Bastions, with their connecting cur- 
tains. This front was chosen because 
the fire of the Mori Bastion alone com- 
manded the approach to it, and because 
there was excellent cover to within a 
short distance of the walls. On the 
evening of the 6th of September, a light 
battery, consisting of six 9 -pounders and 



two 24-ponnder8, under the command of 
Captain Remmington, was constructed 
on the plateau of the Ridge to protect 
the operations going on below. On the 
night of the 7th the first heavy battery 
was constructed at 700 yds. from the 
wall. It consistedoftwo parts connected 
by a trench. The right portion held 
five heavy guns and a howitzer, the func- 
tion of which was to demolish the Mori 
Bastion. The left held four guns to keep 
down the fire of the Cashmere Bastion. 
While darkness lasted the enemy only 
fired twice, but when the morning re- 
vealed the British plans, the rebels 
poured in a shower of shot and shell, 
but the English persevered in their 
work, and before sunset the rebel 
battery was silenced. The English 
had lost 70 men in the trenches. The 
left section of their battery maintained 
a fire on the Cashmere Bastion during 
the greater part of three days, but at noon 
on the 10th it took fire and the guns 
were of necessity withdrawn. By that 
time No. 2 Battery had been finished 
— the left section immediately in the 
front of Ludlow Castle, and the right 
section 90 yds. to the front of it. Both 
were within 600 yds. of the city ; the 
right section had seven howitzers and 
two 18 -pounders, and the left section 
nine 24-pounders. 

'* This battery did not open fire till 
No. 3 Battery was completed. It was 
built behind part of the Custom House, 
at 180 yds. from the Water Bastion, 
on which it was to play. The enemy 
poured in such an incessant fire of 
musketry, with occasional shells, that 
it was impossible to work in the day, 
and difficult at night Meantime a 
powerful mortar battery was con- 
structed in the Kudsiya Bagh. At 8 
A.M. on the 11th of September the nine 
24-pounders in the left section of No. 
2 Battery opened with terrific effect on 
the Cashmere Bastion. The enemy re- 
plied and severely wounded the com- 
mandant of the heavy guns, but their 
fire was soon silenced by No. 2 Battery, 
aided by the mortars in the Kudsiya 
Bagh. Then the walls of Delhi began 
to fall, and whole yards of parapet came 
down. At 11 A.M. on the 12tn No. 8 
[Battery unmasked and pounded the 



186 



BOUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



Water Bastion into ruins. All through 
the 12th and 13th the roar of 50 heavy 
guns was heard day and night, without 
intermission. On the 13th Alexander 
Taylor, of whom Nicholson said, * If I 
survive to-morrow I will let all the 
world know that Aleck Taylor took 
Delhi,' announced that the breaches 
were practicable. 

"The arrangements for storming 
Delhi were forthwith made. The Ist 
Column under Nicholson consisted of 
300 men of the 76th Foot, 250 of the 
1st Fusiliers, and 450 of the 2d Pan jab 
Infantry. It was to storm the breach 
in the curtain near the Cashmere 
Bastion. The 2d Column, under Brie. 
Jones, C.B., was to storm the breach 
in the Water Bastion, and it con- 
sisted of 250 men of the 8th Foot, 
250 of the 2d Fusiliers, and 350 of 
the 4th Sikhs. The 3d Column, 
under Col. Campbell of the 52d, 
was to assault the Cashmere Gate, 
and consisted of 200 men of the 52d 
Foot, 250 of the Eumaon Battalion, 
and 500 of the Ist Panjab Infantry. 
The 4th Column, under Major Charles 
Reid, who so long and ^llantly held 
the post at Hindu Eao's house, was to 
enter the city by the Lahore Gate. It 
consisted of 860 men of the Sirmur 
Battalion, the Guides, and other corps. 
The 5th Column, the Reserve, was com- 
manded by Brig. Longfield, and con- 
sisted of 1700 men. Besides these five 
columns, Hope Grant with 600 sabres 
of the 9th Lancers and Sikh Horse, 
whose duty it was to prevent sallies 
from the Lahore and Ajmere Gates, 
were for long under heavy fire. 

"On the night of the 13th Lieuts. 
Medley and Lang explored the Cash- 
mere breach, and Greathed and Home 
that of the Water Bastion. The morn- 
ing of the 14th was fine and still. 
Nicholson laid his arm on Brig. Jones's 
shoulder, and asked him if he was 
ready. He then rejoined his own 
Column, gave the order to storm, and 
immediately the heayy guns, which 
were roanng at their loudest, became 
silent. The Rifles sounded the ad- 
vance, and the Ist and 2d Columns 
ascended the glacis. The fire of the 
enemy was terrible, and the Engineers 



Greathed and Ovenden were the first 
to fall. The stormers carrying the 
ladders were led by Captain Barnes 
and Lieut. M etje. When Baines reached 
the Water Bastion he had only 25 
men left out of 75. Both he and 
Metje were carried disabled to the 
rear. The 1st Column was divided 
into two sections. Nicholson him- 
self led one, and Col. Herbert of 
the 75th the other. Nicholson was 
the first to mount the wall. In the 
other section Lieut Fitzgerald, who 
was the first to ascend, was shot dead. 
His place was soon supplied, and soon 
both sections of the 1st Colunm had 
carried the breach near the Cash- 
mere Bastion, and taken up their posi- 
tion at the Main Guard. The 2d 
Column, entered by the breach in the 
Cashmere curtain, doubled along the 
open space to their right, and cleared 
the ramparts to the Mori Bastion, 
where the rebel gunners fought gal- 
lantly, and were bayoneted at their 
guns. The Column then advanced 
and took the Kabul Gate, on which a 
soldier of the 61st planted a flag. From 
the Lahore Gate the enemy kept up a 
galling fire. Nicholson collected. a 
number of men to storm this gate. As 
he advanced he found himself in a long 
narrow lane lined with marksmen on 
both sides. Some of the enemy's guns 
were brought to bear on the attacking 
column, and the men fell fast. Major 
Jacob of the 1st Fusiliers received his 
death -wound, Captain Greville and 
Lieut. Speke were struck down. The 
Column wavered; Nicholson rushed fo^ 
ward, his lofty stature rendered him con- 
spicuous, and in a moment he was shot 
through the body, and in spite of his re- 
m onstrances was carried to the rear to die. 
" The 3d Column had been appointed 
to enter the city through the Cashmere 
Gate, which was to be blown open hy 
Lieuts. Home and Salkeld, Sergeants 
Carmichael, Burgess, and Smith. Home, 
with his bugler, was first down into 
the ditch. He planted his bag, but as 
Carmichael advanced with his he was 
mortally wounded. Smith then ad- 
vanced, and placed his dying comrade's 
bag as well as his own, and prepared 
the fnzes for ignition. Salkeld was 



ROUTE 6. THE SIEGE OF DELHI 



137 



ready with a slow match, but as he 
was lighting it he received two bullets, 
and falling he called on Smith to tako 
the match, which was taken by Bur- 
gess, and Smith was in the act of 
giving him a box of lucifers when Bur- 
gess also fell with a bullet through his 
body. Smith was now alone, but he 
had struck a light, and was applying 
it when a portfire went off in his face. 
There was a thick smoke and dust, 
then a roar and a crash, as Smith 
scrambled into the ditch. There he 
placed his hand on Home, who said he 
was unhurt, and having joined the 
Column went forward. The gate had 
been shattered, but not so destroyed 
as had been anticipated. But the 3d 
Column passed through it. Smith 
there obtamed stretchers, and had Bur- 
gess and Salkeld carried to the camp, 
out both of them died — Burgess on the 
way, and Salkeld a few days afterwards." 
Thus were the walls of Delhi won, 
but before the whole place was in our 
possession there was six days' more 
severe fighting, which there is not space 
to describe. Our loss in these street 
encounters was most severe, and tried 
greatly our exhausted force. 



Itinbrakt. 

The sights of Delhi and its neigh- 
bourhood cannot well be seen in less 
than 3 days. These 3 days may be 
employed in the following manner : — 

Ist Morning. — Fort and Palace, 
Jumma Musjid, Jain Temple, Ealan 
Musjid. 

Afternoon. — Drive to Ferozabad and 
Indrapat. 

2d Morning. — Visit sights outside 
the town in connection with the Mutiny, 
driving out by the Cashmere Gate and 
returnmg by the Mori Gate. 

Afternoon, — Drive by Jey Sing's Ob- 
servatory to Safdar Jang's Tomb, round 
by Tomb of Nizamu-din Auliya to that 
of Hamayun, and so back. 

Zd Day. — Starting early, drive to 
Kutb, stopping en route to see the 
Reservoir of Hauz-i-Khas. After an 
early limcheon, proceed to Tughlakabad, 
and back by the Muttra Boad. 



Objects of Interest within the 
City. 

The Fort which was built by Shah 
Jehan in 1638, has 2 grand gate- 
ways to the W. The Lahore Gate is 
truly a magnificent building, and from 
the top is a fine view looking W. to the 
Jumma Muqid, with, to its right, a 
white Jain temple and the Indian 
town. Straight from the gate is the 
street called the Chandni Chauk, 
"Silver Square." To the right, 
outside the city, are Hindu Rao's 
house, and the other celebrated places 
on the Ridge ; and immediately to the 
S. is the Delhi GfcUe of the Fort, very 
similar in appearance and construction 
to the other. 

Passing under the Lahore gateway, 
the traveller will proceed due E. along 
a great arcade like a huge cathedral, 
but lined with shops on each side, to 
the Nakar Ehana (A), beyond which 
is the Diwan-i-'Am (B), or Hall of 
Public Audience, "open at three sides, 
and supported by rows of red sandstone 
pillars, formerly adorned with gilding 
and stucco-work. In the wall at the 
back is a staircase that leads up to 
the throne, raised about 10 ft. from 
the ground, and covered by a canopy, 
supported on four pillars of white 
marble, the whole being curiously in- 
laid with mosaic work. Behind the 
throne is a doorway by which the 
Emperor entered from his private apart- 
ments. The whole of the wall behind 
the throne is covered with paintings 
and mosaic, in precious stones, of the 
most beautiful flowers, fruits, birds, 
and beasts of Hindustan. They were 
executed by Austin de Bordeaux, who, 
after defrauding several of the princes 
of Europe by means of false gems, which 
he fabricated with great skill, sought 
refuge at the court of Shah Jehan, 
where he made his fortune, and was in 
high favour with the Emperor. In 
front of the throne, and slightly raised 
above the floor of the hall, is a large 
slab of white marble, which was formerly 
richly inlaid with mosaic work, ot which 
the traces only now remain. " ^ 

1 Beresford's Guide to Ddhi, 1866. 



138 



ROUTE 6. PLAN OP PALACE 



Indi^ 




Plan of Delhi Palacjc in Fort, 



ROUTE 6. DELHI CITY 



139 



The Diwani-Ehas (D), or Private 
Hall of Audience, is about 100 yds. 
farther on to the E., and is a pavilion 
of white marble open. on all sides and 
richly ornamented with gold (regilt 
1891) and pietra dura work. The ceiling 
is said to have been plated with silver, 
which was carried off by the Marathas 
in 1760. Over the N. and S. arches is 
written the famous Persian distich : 

If on earth be an Eden of bliss, 
It is this, it is this, none but this. 

In the centre of the E. side is the whUe 
marble stand on which the Takht-i- 
Taus, or famous Peacock Throne, 
carried away by Nadir Shah in 1739, 
rested. It is still to be seen in the 
Royal Palace at Teheran. It "was 
so called from its having the figures 
of two peacocks standing behind it, 
tlieir tails being expanded, and the 
whole so inlaid with sapphires, rubies, 
emeralds, pearls, and other precious 
stones of appropriate colours, as to 
represent life. The throne itself was 
6 ft. long by 4 ft. broad ; it stood 
on six massive feet, which, with the 
body, were of solid gold, inlaid with 
rabies, emeralds, and diamonds. It 
was surmounted by a canopy of gold, 
supported by twelve pillars, all richly 
emblaaoned with costly gems, and 
a fringe of pearls ornamented the 
borders of the canopy. Between the 
two peacocks stood the figure of a 
parrot of the ordinary size, said to 
have been carved out of a single 
emerald. On either side of the throne 
stood an umbrella, one of the Oriental 
emblems of royalty. They were formed 
of crimson velvet, richly embroidered 
and fringed with pearls ; the handles 
were 8 ft. high, of solid gold, and 
studded with diamonds. The throne 
was planned and executed under the 
supervision of Austin de Bordeaux, 
already mentioned in connection with 
the Diwan-i-'Am.'* 

^ TheSamanBiirj(6)andRangMahal 
(C), to the S. of the Diwan-i-Khas, has 
in the centre of its N. wall a richly 
carved and gilt screen, with a small 
window in the middle, and above, the 
Mizan-i-Insaf, or ^'scales of justice." 



The ladies' apartments here are of 
white marble, beautifully inlaid below, 
with fresco-work above, and adorned 
with gilded scrolls. In the old days, 
as is explained by the verses, they were 
surrounded by a formal Oriental garden 
and fountains. The palace must then 
have been more beautiful than any- 
thing in the East that we know of. Now 
everything has been cleared away ; even 
the houses have been removed, and the 
buildings that are left have become 
quarters for the English soldiers. 
Viewing the detached remnants of the 
royal residence as they now stand, it is 
difficult to realise the general idea on 
which the ground was laid out, but this 
will be rendered more easy by an exam- 
ination of the accompanying native plan 
of the palace in its splendour, from a 
plate in Fergusson's Indian Architec- 
ture, 

A shallow channel for water runs 
from the Baths beneath the Diwan-i- 
Khas across the open courtyard to the 
Saman Burj. '- The Baths (F), called the 
'Akab Baths, are a little to the N. of 
the Diwan-i-Ehas. They consist of 3 
large rooms, floored with white marble, 
elaborately inlaid witK pietra dura 
work, and crowned with white marble 
domes. In the centre of 'each room 
there is a fountain, and in the wall of 
one of them a reservoir of marble. 
These baths were lighted by windows 
of coloured glass in the roof. 

Opposite to them, to the W. , is the 
Moti Musjid(E), or the "Pearl Mosque," 
an architectural gem of white and gray 
marble. It has a bronze door covered 
with designs in low relief, and the 
fa9ade has three arches. The mosque 
proper has three arches, and is divided 
into two aisles. The arches display 
some Hindu influence. The walls are 
most delicately decorated with low 
reliefs. Saiyad Ahmad says it was 
built in 1635 a.d. by Aurangzib, and 
cost 160,000 rs. 

The rest of the palace has been cleared 
away to make room for barracks, etc. 

Jumxna Musjid. — This mosque is 
said to 'be unrivalled for size. Mr. 
Fergusson says it "is not unlike the 
Moti Musjid in the Agra Fort in 



140 



ROUTB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



plan, though built on a very much 
larger scale, and adorned with two 
noble minarets, which are wanting 
in the Agra example ; while from the 
somewhat capricious admixture of 
red sandstone with white marble 
it is far from possessing the same 
elegance and purity of effect. It is, 
however, one of the few mosques, either 
in India or elsewhere, that is designed 
to produce a pleasing effect externally. 
It is raised on a lofty basement, and its 
three gateways, comoined with the four 
angle towers and the frontispiece and 
domes of the mosque itself, make up a 
design where all the parts are pleasingly 
subordinated to one another, but at the 
same time produce a whole of great 
variety and elegance. Its principal 
gateway cannot be compared with 
that at Fatehpur - Sikri, but it is 
a noble portal, and firom its smaller 
dimensions more in harmony with the 
objects by which it is surrounded." 
The gateways are surmounted with 
galleries, on the roof of which are fif- 
teen marble domes, with spires tipped 
with gold. Above these are six fluted 
marble minarets, with open arched 
chambers at the top, and surmounted 
with gilt pinnacles. These three noble 
gateways are approached by grand 
flights of steps, unrivalled elsewhere. 
As of old only the Mogul Emperor 
could enter the main gateway, so now 
only the Viceroy of the Queen-Empress 
may do so. Hence it remains shut 
save on a Viceroy's visit. 

The doors are massive and overlaid 
with brass arabesques half an inch thick, 
giving access to a stately quadrangle, 
325 ft. square, in the centre of which 
are a marble basin and fountain. 
Round three sides of the quadrangle 
runs an open sandstone cloister, 15 ft. 
wide, with pillars of the same material. 
The mosque proper is 201 ft. long and 
120 ft. broad. The inscription gives 
the date in Arabic as 1658 a.d., the 
year in which Aurangzib deposed his 
father, Shah Jehan. 

Five thousand workmen were em- 
ployed for six years in the construction 
of this mosque. At the N.E. comer is 
a pavilion in which are placed relics of 
Hohammed. The traveller must not 



forget to ask to see the MSS. and relics 
here. There is a Koran written in 
Euflk of the time of 'Ali, that is in the 
7th century of our era ; qne written by 
the Imam Husain, very clear and well 
preserved ; one written by the Imam 
Hasan, the pages of which are much 
crumpled at the beginning ; the Kafsh- 
i-Mubarak or "Prophet's Slipper," filled 
with jasmine; the Eadmu'l Mubarak, 
" Footprint of the Prophet " imprinted 
on a stone ; Mui-i-Mubarak, a hair of 
the Prophet's moustaches ; and part of 
the canopy over the Prophet's tomb. 
The two minarets rise to the height of 
130 ft. They contain staircases, and 
the ascent to the top is easy. At the 
top are small pavilions, from which the 
whole city can be viewed. 

Chandni Chaiil^ which is the princi- 
pal street of the city, runs from E. to 
W. in almost a direct line from the 
Lahore Gate of the Fort to the Lahore 
Gate in the W. wall of the city. It is 
lined with fine trees, and has a covered 
aqueduct running along the middle. 
The chief articles of native manufac- 
ture are jewellery and embroidery in 
gold and silver, and the best shops are 
in this street. In the centre of the 
Chandni Chauk is the Northbrook 
Fountain. The Mosque of Roshanu- 
daulah, also called the Sonala or 
" Golden Mosque," from its three gilt 
domes, is close to this fountain. It was 
built in Muhammad Shah's reign, by 
Roshanu-daulah Zafar Khan in 1721 
A. D. It is a small but beautiful build- 
ing, and on it Kadir Shah sat during 
the massacre at Delhi. The KotwaU 
is next to it, and it was here that 
Hodson exposed the bodies of the Delhi 
Princes whom he had killed. At the 
W. end of the Chandni Chauk is the 
Fatehptki Mosque. It was built in 
1650 A.D. by Fatehpiiri Begam, wife of 
Shah Jehan. It is of red sandstone. 
There are two minarets 105 ft. high. 
The Mor (or QueerCs) Sarai, in Queen's 
Road, near the rly. sta., is a modem 
structure built by the Municipal Com- 
mittee at a cost of 100,570 rs. for the 
accommodation of native travellers. 

Close by are the Queen's Gardens. 
They have the Chandni Chauk skirting 
then) to the S., and fs^ce the rly. an4 



BOUTB 6. DBLHI GITT 



141 



8ta. on the N. They are laid out with 
beautiful trees and shrubs of all kinds, 
and in them stands a huge stone ele- 
pliant. On the platform upon which it 
id raised is an iUseription stating that it 
was brought from Gwalior, and set up 
outside the south eate of his new palace 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan, 1645 a.d. 
A legend relates that the two famous 
Rajput chiefs, Jaimall and Patta, who 
defended Chitor against Akbar, were 
rejpresented by stone figures riding on 
this and another elephant which has 
been lost. Akbar himself killed Jai- 
mall, and set up the elephants, with 
the two warriors riding on them, 
at Agra. Shah Jehan brought them 
to Delhi. They were mutilated by 
Aurangzib and lost sight of. The two 
figures are now in the yerandah of the 
Museum of the Institute, which con- 
tains little of interest except portraits 
of the two Lawrences, Sir R. Mont- 
gomery, Nicholson, Lord Metcalfe, Lord 
, Canning, and others — ^poor pictures, but 
i better than none. The Clock Tower 
I adjoins this building, and stands in the 
I Chandni Chauk. It is of red sand- 
! stone, 128 ft. high. 

The Ealan Musjid, or Black Mosque, 
j to the S. of the town near the Turku- 
I man Gate,^ is well worthy of a visit as 
I one of the most perfect specimeus of 
I the age of Feroz Shah Tughlak, 1386. 
I On the outside, the building consists 
of two stories, of which' the lower, 
forming a kind of plinth to the actual 
place of worship, is 28 ft. high, the 
total height to the top of the battle- 
ments being 66 ft. ' * The sloping style 
of the architecture seems peculiarly 
illustrative of the buildings of that and 
earlier periods. The sloping pilasters 
on each side of the main entrance give 
somewhat of an Egyptian appearance 
to the front of the building, which is 
not dissimilar from those of the more 
ancient remains of Hindu architecture. 
. . . The peculiar construction of the 
arches and domes, the stones of which 

1 The Tarkuman Gate has its name from a 
saint called Shah Tttrkuman, who was styled 
the " Sun of Devotees." He died in 688 a.h. = 
1240 A.D., in the time of Muizzu-din Bahram 
Shah- There is a pavement round his tomb, 
and on the 24th of Rajab a great &ir is held 
here 



are held together by . the wonderful 
adhesive qualities of the lime used in 
those days, without any keystones, is 
characteristic of the Mohammedan 
Indian buildings of the 14th cent'* 
(Carr Stephen). The walls, which are 
very thick, have in the upper story a 
number of openings, fillea with red 
stone screens, now much mutilated. 
There is a stern look about this sombre 
unadorned building, the plan of which 
Bishop Heber sa^s **is exactly that of 
the onginal Arabian mosques — a square 
court surrounded by a cloister and 
roofed with many small domes of the 
plainest and most solid construction." 

The Jain Temple, to the N.W. of the 
Jumma Musjid (about end of last cent. ) 
is approached by narrow streets, and 
stands upon a high walled platform 
gained by narrow steps. It consists of 
a small marble court surrounded by a 
stucco colonnade in front of the temple 
proper, which rises breast-high above 
the court and is surmounted by an 
oblong dome. Within, the ceiling and 
walls are richly gilded, and are sup- 
ported by two rows of small marble 
columns. In the centre of the temple 
is a pyramidal platform in 3 tiers, upon 
which rests a small figure of Buddha, 
seated beneath an elaborate ivory 
canopy. In the porch, Ferguason 
draws particular attention to the ex- 
quisite device of filling in the back of 
the struts which support the architrave 
beneath the dome — characteristic of 
Jain architecture — with foliated tracery. 

The Cambridge MiBsion to Delhi 
was sent out from the University in 
1876. The members live in community 
at the Mission House near the United 
Service Hotel. They work among the 
natives in connection with the S.r.G. 
which has an old-established station 
here. The Mission Compound and St 
Step1ien*8 Mission Church, are close to 
the railway station. The two Missions 
conjointly have charge of St. StepherCs 
College^ of a native boys' boarding 
school with 600 pupils, and several 
day schools. 

The S.P.G. has also a Medical Mis- 
sion here. 



142 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



Sites in connection with the 
Mutiny and Siege of 1857. 

The Ridge is outside the city about 1 
m. to the N. W. The traveller driving 
there from the rly. sta. will pass the 
following objects of interest on his way. 

Near the Post and Telegraph Offices 
are the 3 Gateways of the Arsenal, 
which was blown up by Willoughby 
on the 11th May 1867. They have 
been left standing in memoriam. From 
what remains it is evident that it was 
a fine building. 

St. James's Memorial Church, rt., 
was erected at the sole expense of Colonel 
Skinner, as recorded in a tablet on left 
of entrance. Another tablet records 
that he died at Hansi in 1841, and was 
buried in this church in 1842. It is a 
rotunda, with four large porticoes sup- 
ported by pillars. 

In the church are a large number of 
tablets of unusual interest, some to 
commemorate regimental losses, some 
in remembrance of whole families, and 
others in memory of individuals. It is 
a sad list ; ' a record of evil times. 

Beyond to the W. is the Cashmere 
Gate, which was blown in on the 
morning of 14th September, and the 
site of the breaches close to it through 
which the storming columns Nos. 1 
and 2 passed. On a slab set up by 
Lord Napier of Magdala, just outside 
the gate, the event is described. 

Just inside the Cashmere Gate was 
posted the Main Guard at the time of 
the Delhi Mutiny. 

Outside the Cashmere Gate, the 
Eudsiya Gardens are about 300 yds. 
to the N. ; they are prettily laid out. 
Near them in the CeTnetery^ close to the 
entrance, is the tomb of General Nichol- 
son, one of the greatest heroes of India. 

" Who led the assault of Delhi, but fell 

In the hour of victory, 

Mortally wounded. 

And died 23d of September 1857. 

Aged 85 years." 

There is a splendid monument to 
Nicholson in tne Punjab, near Rawal 
Pindi, but this is the place where his 
body was actually interred. At the 
end farthest from the entrance is a 
memorial cross 25 ft. high. 



Just beyond the Cemetery is Lud- 
low Castle, a large house which was 
the residence of Simon Frazer, the mur- 
dered Commissioner of Delhi. There 
are two blocks of masonry in the com- 
pound inscribed as follows : — 

No. 2 Battery, Left, 

With annament nine 24-poanders, 

Mnjor Campbell, R,A., commanding. 

To breach curtain of Cashmere Bastion. 

The 2d block is 160 yds. to the S.E. 
and close to the cemetery wall : — 

No. 2 Battery, Right, 

Armament two IS-pounders and 

Seven 8-inch howitzers, 

Mi^or Edward Eaye, B.A., commanding 

Ludlow Castle was a post of importance | 
in the closing scene of the siege of Delhi, | 
as will be seen from the historical sum- 
mary above. Continuing along the 
Alipur Road, at some little distance the 
traveller will pass Metcalfe House on 
the right, and shortly after will reach 
the Ridge Road, which commands a fine 
view. Here is the Flag-staff Battery, 
a castellated tower, now auite empty. 

Turning at an acute angle to the S.E. I 
the Second Picquet, 300 yds. to the S., is I 
reached, and 400 yds. farther in the same ! 
direction is a mosque, where the Mosqne 
Picquet was stationed. The building 
is now a picturesque ruin. It is a 
Pathan mosque, with the remains of 
the battery in front. 200 yds. to the 
S.E. is Hindu Bao's House, which is 
now used as a convalescent hospital for 
soldiers. It is a large white bungalow. 
About 200 yds. S. of it is Asoka's Pillar. 

Asoka's Pillar. — On the pedestal is 
a tablet stating that this pillar was 
originally erected at Meerut, in the 3d 
century before Christ, by King Asoka. 
It was removed thence, and set up in 
the Kushak Shikar Palace, near tnis, 
by the Emperor Feroz Shah, 1356 A.D.; 
thrown down and broken into five 
pieces by the explosion of a powder 
magazine in 1713-19. It was removed 
and set up in this place by the British 
Government 1867 (see vol. v. of the 
Arcfb. Rep. ) There are two of Asoka's 
pillars at Delhi, this one and another 
standing on the top of a building in 
Feroz Shah's Kotila, in Ferozabad (see 
below). Both of these pillars were 
brought to Delhi by Feroz Shah. The 



THE ENVIRONS 
OF 

BBLHI. 




SumfardJi G&c^^ IsU^^ J^ruUft^, 



TQ/a<iejK 143, 



ROUTB 6. OLD DELHI AND NEIGHBOURHOOD 



143 



small inscriptions on this pillar are 
dated Samwat 1369 = 1312 a.d. ; Sam- 
wat 1416 = 1359 A. D. ; Samwat 1581 = 
1524 A-D. All the long inscriptions 
are given at the end of Saiyad Ahmad's 
Quide. 

The Mutiny Memorial.— This is 400 
yds. farther on along the Kidge, and 
is of red sandstone. It forms an octa- 
gonal Gothic spire, standing on three 
diminishing platforms, with seven win- 
dows, and was erected to commemorate 
the events of the siege, the names of 
the regiments and batteries who served 
at it, and of the officers who died in the 
performance of their duty. Ascending 
to the top of the building, the traveller 
will gain a complete view of the posi- 
tion. In the plain to the N. of the 
Ridge is the spot where H. M. the Queen 
of England was proclaimed Empress of 
India on the 1st of January 1877. On 
that day Lord Lytton occupied a place 
in a centre pavilion, with an amphi- 
theatre in front of him in which were 
all the feudatory princes and chiefs of 
India, while at his back sat the leading 
European officials and envoys from 

1 places even as distant as Siam, and to 
the W. an army of about 60,000 men, 
British and Indian, was drawn up. 

Turning from the Ridge S. by the 
circulai' road, the traveller may re-enter 
the city by the Mori Gate, close to 

I which is seen the Mori Bastion, from 
which the rebels maintained so terrible 
a fire till the storming. 

Old Delhi and the Neighbourhood. 

The Idgah is west of the city about 
1 m. from the walls, and not far off is 
theKadam Sharif^ or **Holy Footstep" 
(also called the Farash Khana), where 
there is the tomb of Prince Fateh Khan, 
built by his father Feroz Shah in 1374. 
There is also a Mosque, College, and 
other buildings, and a mii-aculous im- 
press of the Prophet's foot, said to have 
been brought from Mecca by the young 
Prince's tutor. 

The JaU is J m. S. of the Delhi Gate, 
on the opposite side of the road to 
Ferozabad. It was an old Caravansarai, 
and the walls are 25 ft. high, and very 
I massive. Paper, mats, carpets, and 
beddixig are made in the workshops. 



To the E. about 250 yds. from the 
jail is the fort of Ferozabad, built by 
Feroz Shah Tughlak, 1354. It is now 
utterly ruined, but must have been a 
strong place in the old time when it 
was the citadel of a city which extended 
from the fort of Indrapat to the Kushak 
Shikar, or "Hunting Palace," near 
Hindu Rao's house, where the other 
Pillar of Asoka, called the Delhi Meerut 
Pillar, now stands. The three-storied 
building called Kotila (see below), 
stands due N. and S., at J m. to the 
W. of the Jumna. The tibree stories 
diminish in area as they rise. 

The Lat, or Asoka pillar erected on 
the roof, is broken at the top in a 
jagged way. Cunningham calls it the 
Delhi-Siwalik Pillar, as it was brought 
from Tophar at the foot of the Siwalik 
Hills, where the Jumna enters the plains. 
It is a monolith of pink sandstone, but 
the people of the locality called it 
(Kurund) corundum stone. *'Wheu 
the pillar was fixed, the top was orna- 
mented with black and white stone- 
work surmounted by a gilt pinnacle, 
from which no doubt it received 
its name of Minar Zarin or * Golden 
Minaret.' This gilt pinnacle was still 
in its place in 1611 a.d., as when 
William Finch in that year visited 
Delhi, he described the pillar as passing 
through three several stories, rising 24 
ft. above them all, having on the top a 
globe surmounted by a crescent. " The 
pillar is 10 ft. 10 in. round, where it 
issues from the roof, and the total height 
is 42 ft. 7 in., of which 4 ft. 1 in. is 
sunk in the masonry. At 10 ft. 1 in. 
from the roof are some Nagri inscrip- 
tions, ivith the dates in two of them, 
Samwat 1581 = 1 524 A. D. These must 
have been inscribed after the removal 
of the pillar to Delhi. The others 
were written at Tophar. Above these 
Nagri inscriptions is the Pali, which 
contains the edict of Asoka prohibiting 
the taking of life. The Pali inscription 
dates from the middle of the 3d century 
B.O., and the characters are of the oldest 
form that has yet been found in India. ^ 
Though it is very clearly written, when 
Feroz Shah assembled all the learned 
of the day to decipher the inscription, 
they were unable to do bo. The last tea 



144 



BOUTB 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



lines on the £. face, as well as the whole 
of the continuous inscription round the 
shaft, are peculiar to this pillar, other- 
wise the inscription is to the same 
purport as those on the pillars of Gimar 
and Allahabad. Theie is a second in- 
scription, which records the yictories 
of the Chauhan Prince Yisaladeva. 
whose power extended from Himadri 
to Vindhya. This record consists of 
two portions, the shorter one immedi- 
ately above Asoka's edicts, and the 
longer immediately below them. Both 
are dated Samwat 1220 = 1163 a.d., and 
refer to the same prince. The minor 
Inscriptions are of Uttle interest. 

Indrapat or Furana KUla (Old 
Fort).^At 2 m. S. of the Delhi Gate, 
the trayeller (having passed rt. the fine 
gateway of Lai Darwazah) will come to 
the Old Fort, on the site of Indra- 
prastha, the ancient city of Yudish- 
thira, which fort was repaired by 
Humayun, who changed its name to 
Dinpanah. The walls of the Old Fort 
have crumbled in many places, and it 
certainly has the appearance of great 
antiquity. There have been several 
gStes, but all are closed save one to 
the S.W., reached by a steep incline. 
The EiUa Kona Mosque, the chief ob- 
ject of interest, is, Fergusson says, one 
of the most satisfactory buildings of its 
class ill India. It is a noble specimen 
of the late Pathan period, in which 
** every detail was fitted to its place 
and its purpose. We forget the Hindu 
except in its delicacy, and we recognise 
one of the completed architectural 
styles of the world." It is big and 
bold with huge arches and S'harp finely- 
cut mouldings. To reach it you pass 
along a lane between poor houses. It 
was built by Sher Shah in 948 a.h. = 
1541 A.D. It is of red sandstone, inlaid 
with marble and slate, and covered with 
inscriptions, texts from the Koran, in 
the Naskh and Kufik characters. In 
the alcoves and other parts the inlaid 
work is very beautiful. The fa9ade is 
about 150 ft. long, and consists of 5 
bays. The pendentives of the vaulting 
are remarkably fine and should not 
escape notice, and the struts which 
support the side bays, which are oblong 
in plan and not square ore curious. 



The white marble Kiblah is covered 
with texts, which are marvels of caU- 
graphy. In the angle towers at the 
back of the mosque are octagonal 
pavilions richly ornamented with ex- 
quisite designs in red sandstone. To 
the S. is an octagonal building of red 
sandstone called the Sher Mandil, 70 ft. 
high. In 963 a.h. = 1565 a.d. Huma- 
yun placed his library here. On that 
very night it was understood that 
Venus would rise, and the Emperor, 
wishing to see it, fell down the staircase 
and died a few days afterwards of the 
injuries he received. 

Tomb of Nizam-ud-din Auliyaisabout 
1 m. S. of Indrapat, and stands within 
an enclosure surrounded by other tombs 
and sacred buildings. The traveller 
must leave his carriage and walk 
through ruins to an archway. At 30 
yds. from this is the Chausath Ehamba, 
or **Hall of 64 Pillars," the resting- 
place of 'Azizah Kokal Tasb, foster- 
brother of the Emperor Akbar. It is 
all of white marble ; and the "chased 
style in which the pillars are orna- 
mented, the well -finished groined 
arches, and the beautiful screens, form 
an uncommonly beautiful sight." 
Azizah's cenotaph, also of white marble 
bearing the date 1623, is at the W. 
end ; beyond it is that of his mother, 
and there are eight others. 

To the W. of the Chausath Khamba 
is an enclosure in which is the Dargah 
of Nizam-vd-din, The first thing on 
entering to be noticed is the tomb of the 
Amir Khtiarau the poet. The real name 
of this personage was Abu '1 Hasan, and 
he was called Tuti-i-Hind, " Parrot of 
Hindustan," from the sweetness of his 
style. His grandfather, a Turk, came 
to Hindustan from Trans-oxyana, in 
the time of Changiz Khan, and died at 
Delhi, leaving a son named Amir Mah- 
mud, or according to others, Saifu- 
din, who was high in the favour of the 
Emperor Tughlak Shah. He perished 
in battle against the Hindus. His son 
Amir Khusrau succeeded to the royal 
favour, and enjoyed the confidence and 
patronage of seven successive emperors. 
He became so famous that it is said 
that S'adi, the celebrated Persian poet, 
visited India for the sole purpose of 



ROUTE 6. OLD DELHI AND NEIGHBOURHOOD 



146 



seeing liim. He was the author of 98 
works, of which the greater part are 
lost. His songs are still in popular 
use. He died at Delhi in 1315. 

At the N. end of the small square 
building which forms Khusrau's tomb 
is a tall white marble slab, on which is 
written, first the Moslem Creed, and 
then 18 Persian couplets. N. of this 
tomb is that of Mirza Jehangir, son of 
Akbar Shah II. There are, as custo- 
dians of the tombs here, 50 descendants 
of Nizamu-din's sister. The saint him- 
self never married. The family are 
Sufis. The tomb is of white marble, 
and the handsome lattice-work is of the 
same materiaL It is on the right of 
the entrance into the enclosure, and the 
tomb of Muhammad Shah is on the 
left. Muhammad Shah was the em- 
peror whom Nadir Shah despoiled of 
immense treasures. 

To the S. of it is the tomb of the 
truly pious and heavenly-minded i/eAaTi- 
araj daughter of Shah Jehan. At 
the W. end is a headstone 6 ft. high, 
on which at top is in Arabic, ** God is 
the life and the resurrection," followed 
by the letter Mim, one of the mystical 
letters of the Koran, under which is a 
Persian inscription as follows : — 

Save the green herb, iiUce naught above my 

head. 
Such pall alone befits the lowly dead ; 
The fleeting poor Jehanara lies here, 
Her sire was Shah Jehan and Chlst her Fir. 
May God the Ohazi monarch's proof make 

clear. 

The verses end with a conventional 
line, which expresses a prayer for her 
father. The date is 1681. 

The holy men of Chist are the family 
described in connection with the Dargah 
at Ajmere. 

On the left of Jehanara's tomb is that 
of 'Ali Gauhar Mirza, son of Shah 'Alam, 
and on the ri^ht that of Jamilu 
l^isa, daughter of Akbar Shah II. 

The building covering the tomb of 
I^izamu-din, the greatest of the re- 
nowned Chisti saints, is of white 
marble; it is 18 ft. sq., and has 'a 
verandah 8 ft. broad, built by Mir 
Miran's son. The date is 1063 a.h.= 
1652 A.D. 

Over the actual cenotaph is a wooden 



canopy, and as usual with tombs ot 
great personages it is covered with a 
cloth. The lattice-work screens of white 
marble are exquisitely carved, and the 
verandah is ornamented with a painted 
flower scroll. To the W. two fine trees 
overshadow the building, and a few 
yards to the S. of them is a Kirni tree, 
said to be as old as the time of Nizamu- 
din. 

N. of this is a Well with galleries, 
built by the saint, who is said to have 
blessed it, so that no one who dives in it 
is ever drowned. The usual depth is 39 
ft. Into this men and boys spring from 
the roofs and walls of the adjacent build- 
ing, coming down from a height of 50 ft. 

On the E. side of the tomb enclosure 
is a square marble cistern, holding 
perhaps twelve gallons, which when a 
person desires to make an offering has 
to "be filled with a mixture of rice, 
sugar, milk, and other good things. 
On one occasion, when the writer sat 
reading in the mosque, one of the 
principal dancing women of Delhi 
arrivea to pay her devotions, accom- 
panied by her mother and her attendant 
musicians, and bringing the food in a 
very large iron pot with her. Whilst 
this was preparing she dressed herself 
in cloth of gold and danced for a long 
time before the tomb of Khusrau, and 
afterwards for a shorter time before 
that of Nizamu-din. When this part of 
the ceremony was over, the food which 
had been placed in the marble vessel was 
distributed in a very orderly manner 
to every one connected with the place, 
H. G. Keene says of Nizamu-din : " He 
is said by some to have been a sorcerer, 
by others an assassin of the secret 
society of Khorasan. Sleeman was of 
opinion that he was the founder of 
Thuggism, as the Thugs profess a special 
reverence for his memory." 

Humayun's Tomb about 1 m. S. of 
Indrapat. The approach is through 
two gateways, the first being of red 
sandstone, and lofty. On the left of 
the second door of the entrance is a 
placard which says that the Nawab 
Hamidah Banc Begam, otherwise called 
Haji Begam, widow of Humayun, built 
the mausoleum after her husband's 

L 



146 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAY TO DELHI 



India 



death. He died in 1555 a.d. It cost 1 5 
lakhs, and took 16 years to build. 
Hamidah Bano and other members of 
the Imperial family are buried here. 
The mausoleum stands upon a wide 




Sketch Plan of Humayun's Tomb. 

raised platform, and consists of a large 
central octagon surmounted by a dome 
with octagon towers of unequal sides 
at the angles. " Its plan is that after- 
wards adopted at the Taj, but used 
here without the depth and poetry of 
that celebrated|building. It is, however, 
a noble tomb, and anywhere else must 
be considered a wonder " (Fergusson). 
A side door leads into a chamber in 
which are three beautiful white marble 
tombs, being those of 'Alamgir II., 
Farakh Sir, and Jehandar Shah. 
There are no names or dates. Huma- 
yun's cenotaph is of white marble, and 
is under the centre of the dome, in an 
octagonal hall, — it is quite plain, with- 
out any inscription. 

The enclosure in which the mauso- 
leum stands contains about 11 acres. 
The red sandstone is most artistically 
picked out in relief with white marble. 
The windows are recessed, and the 
lower doors are filled in with lattices 
cut out of the solid stone and marble. 
In the centre of each side of the main 
octagon is a porch 40 ft. high with a 
pointed arch. The wall of the dome 
IS 11 ft. thick, and covered with slabs 
of white marble. The view from the 
top is worth seeing. Hither Baha- 
dur Shah fled after the storming of 
Delhi in 1857, and surrendered to 
Hodson, who on the following day, with 
a small force and in the presence of a 
threatening concourse of natives, re- 
turned for the princes, the sons of 
Bahadur Shah, who also surrendered 
and were shot by him on the spot. 



Jai (Jey) Sing's Observatory, or the 
Jantr Mantr, is 2 m. S. of the Ajmere 
Gate and 250 yds. to the 1. of the main 
road. Mr. Beresford's description of all 
these buildings is the best (see Delhi, 
1856).^ "The largest of the buUdings 
is an immense equatorial dial, named 
by the Raja the Samrat Yantra, or ' 
* Prince of Dials,* the dimensions of the 
gnomon being as follows : — 



Length of hypothenose 
„ base . 
„ perpendicular 



ft. in. 

118 5 

104 

50 7 



These buildings, chiefly interesting 
to persons who have a knowledge of 
astronomy, were constructed in 1137 
A.H. = 1724 A.D., by Jai Sing XL, Rajah 
of Jeypore, commonly called Sawai Jai 
Sin^. He was an engineer, mathe- 
matician, and an astronomer. He con- 
stracted on his own plan this Observa- 
torv, and others at Jeypore, Benares, 
and Ujjain. All the buildings are now 
much ruined. 

Tomb of Safdar Jang. — At f m. 

beyond the Jantr Mantr, on the i ight 
of the road, is the tomb of Safdar Jang; 
whose real name was Abu '1 Mansnr 
Khan, Safdar Jang being merely his 
title. He was Vazir to Ahmad Shah, 
eldest son of the Emperor Muhammad 
Shah. In 1749-50 Safdar Jang engaged 
in a war with the Rohillas, and was 
defeated in a great battle, when he was 
obliged to call in the Marathas. In 
1753 he was deprived of his office of 
Vazir, and died. His son, Shuj'au- 
daulah, appointed Balal Muhammad 
Khan to superintend the building of 
this mausoleum, which cost three lakhs 
of rupees. It is of red sandstone and 
stucco. Safdar Jang's wife, Khujistah 
Bano Begam, is buried with him. 

The mausoleum stands in an en- 
closure. On the left of the entrance 
is a sarai for travellers, and on the 
right a mosque with three cupolas. On 
the ground platform are two earthen 
mounds, which are the real graves. 
This building is 99 ft. sq. and three stories 
high, and contains in the central apart- 
ment the marble cenotaph. Fergusson 
bestows only qualified praise upon it, say- 
ing *4twill not bear^close inspection." 



ROUTE 6. OLD DELHI AND NEIGHBOURHOOD 



147 



A cross-road leads from this mau- 
solenm to Humayuu's Tomb, which is 
distant under 3 m. On the left of this 
road is a group of four tombs, regarding 
which General Cunningham writes: 
"The N. group, consisting of two octa- 
^nal tombs and a bridge of seven arches, 
IS attributed by the natives to the time 
of the Lodi ramily, the larger tomb, 
within a square, being assigned to 
Sikandar Lodi, and I believe that this 
attribution is most probably correct. 
But the S. group, which consists of a 
mosque and two square tombs, belongs, 
in my opinion, to an earlier period." 
■ Haxu-i-ESias. — This reservoir was 
constructed by Sultan 'Alan -din in 
the year 1298 A.D. ; it is 2 m. N. of the 
Kutb, near the village of Kharera, and 
is difficult of approach, as there is no 
carriage-road to it. It is most easily 
reached from Safdar Jane's tomb. The 
area of the tank is a little over 100 
Indian acres. It is now a complete 
ruin. Feroz Shah cleared it out in the 
year 1854 A.D., and repaired it and 
built a coU^ near it, at which Yusuf 
Bin Jamal Husaini was professor, and 
be was buried in the courtyard of the 
college. The tomb of Feroz shah stands 
on tne bank. He died in 1888 a.d. 
The tank is now dry, and is culti- 
vated. 

From Safdar Jang^s tomb to the 
Eutb Minar is full 5 m. Near Begam- 
pur there is a mosque 800 yds. to the 
left of the ro**?. 

The Kntb Miliar, with its adjacent 
'mosque and surrounding buildings, is 
about 11 m. from the Ajmere Gate, and 
stands, it is said, on the site of the 
original Hindu city of Dilli, probably 
in the Fort of Lalkot built by Anang 
Pal II. in 1052 a.d. Adjoining to the 
E. was the Fort of Rai Pithora, 1180 
A.D. The line of fortification of these 
places is indicated by the mound ex- 
tending several miles to the W. and 
N.W. 

The Kutb is a grand monument, and 
ilooks what it is intended to be — a 
r tower of victory. It has been a question 
whether it was not originally Hindu, 
altered and completed by the Moham- 
medan conquerors. It is the general 
belief of the people that it was built 



by Rai Pithora, that his daughter 
mi^ht see the Jumna from the top 
of it. Saiyad Ahmad inclines to the 
belief that it is "of Hindu origin. But 
Cunningham seems to come to the right 
conclusion that it is a purely Moham- 
medan building.^ The inscriptions 
appear to show that it was begun by 
Altamsh. As we see it at present, it is 
240 ft. 6 in. high, and rises in a suc- 
cession of 5 stories marked by corbelled 
balconies and decorated with bandis 
of inscription. The base diameter is 
47 ft. 3 in., and that of the top about 
9 ft. The three first stories are of 
red sandstone with semicircular and 
angular flutings ; the two upper stories 
are faced chiefly with white marble, 
and were almost entirely rebuilt by 
Feroz Shah Tughlak in 1368, when he 
also added a cupola. On Ist Aug. 
1803 the whole pillar was seriously 
injured by an earthquake and the 
cupola thrown down. It was injudi- 
ciously restored in 1829, when besides 
the injury to the inscriptions already 
mentioned, the battlements and the 
balconies were removed and replaced 
by the present flimsy balustrades, and 
an entirely new cupola (now standing 
on a mound by the side of the tower) 
was erected. This cupola does not 
pretend to any resemblance to the 
original one. Notice should be taken 
of the honeycomb work beneath the 
brackets of the first-story balconies, of 
which the "structure differs in no 
perceptible degree from that in the 
Alhambra." It is worth, for the sake 
of the view, to ascend to the top of the 
Minar, where may be seen the stump 
of Feroz Shah's cupola. 
The Mosque of Kutb'ul Islam (Euvat 
ul Islam) was begun by Kutb-ud-din 
Aibak when Viceroy, immediately after 
the capture of Delhi in 587 a.h. = 119] 
A.D., as recorded by the King himselt 
in the long inscription over the inner 
archway of the E. entrance. Even in 
ruins it is a magnificent work. It was 
seen by Ibn Batuta about 150 years 
after its erection, when he describes it 
as having no equal, either in beauty or 
extent. It is not so large as the great 

1 For particulars regarding the discnssion 
see AtcIkeo. Rejxyrief vol. i. p. 190. 



148 



ROUTE 6. BOMBAT TO DELHI 



India 



mosques of Jaunpur and others, but 
is still unrivalled for its grand line of 
gigantic arches, and for the graceful 



demolished by the Mohammedans. 
Altamsh in 1210-1230 surrounded it 
by a larger cloistered court, in the S.E. 



PLAN 

OF 

MOSQUE OF KUTBU'L ISLAM 

AND THE 

KUTB MINAR 





OTomb 
Imam 



of 
Zamin 



Scale of Feet ALAI DARWAZAH 



IVaiierO-BoutaU sc. 



beauty of the flowered tracery which I comer of which stands the Kutb Minar, 

covers its walls. ! and in 1300 *Ala-ud-din appended a 

It occupies the ])latform on which further eastern court, entered by his 

stood Rai Pithora's Hindu Temple, | great S. gateway the Alai Darwazah 



ROUTE 6. OLD DfiLHI AND NEIGHBOURHOOD 



149 



(see below). 'Alau-din also began tbe 

Alai Minar (see below). The main 

entrance to the mosque is an arched 

gateway in the centre of its E. wall. 

This opens upon the courtyard (142 

ft. X 108 ft), which is surrounded by 

cloisters formed of Hindu, Buddhist, 

and Jain pillars placed one upon another. 

Some of these are richly ornamented ; 

many of the figures have been defaced by 

the Mohammedans, though some may 

i still be found in unnoticed comers. The 

number of pillars thus brought into 

use could not have been much less than 

1200. The Arabic inscription over the 

, E. entrance to the courtyard states that 

the materials were obtained from the 

demolition of 27 idolatrous temples, 

I each of which had cost 27 lakhs of 

' dilials, 50 dilials being equal to 1 rupee. 

I The cost of the whole, therefore, was 

' £108, 000. The domed pavilions in the 

' angles of the cloisters are worthy of 

notice. The S. side of the cloister was 

"with a strange want of discrimination" 

reconstructed in 1829. 

The famous Iron Pillar (see below) 
stands in front of the central opening 
to the mosque proper, a building of 
small proportions, now in ruins over- 
topped and hidden by the vast screen 
of gigantic arches which occupies the 
whole of the W. side. This screen was 
erected by Kutb later than his other 
work, and was extended beyond on 
either side for 115 ft. by Altamsh. 
The central arch is 53 ft. high x 31 ft. 
wide. "The Afghan conquerors had a 
tolerably distinct idea that pointed 
arches were the true form of architec- 
tural openings, but being without 
science sufficient to construct them, 
they left the Hindu architects and 
huiiders to follow their own devices as 
to the mode of carrying out the form. 
Accordingly they proceeded to make 
the pointed openings on the same piin- 
ciple upon which they built their domes 
—they carried them up in horizontal 
courses as far as they could and then 
closed them by long slabs meeting at 
the top." The impost in the central 
arch was added by the British restorers. 
The ornamentation, interspersed with 
texts from the Koran, is evidently 
taken from that on the old pillars. 



Fragments of the roof of the mosque 
still remain, supported by the small 
Hindu columns, and do not reach more 
than one-third of the height of the 
screen. 

The Iron Pillar is one of the most 
curious antiquities in India. The Col- 
ossus of Rhodes and the statues of 
Buddha, described by Hiouen Thsang, 
were of brass or copper, hollow, and of 
pieces riveted together ; but this pillar 
is a solid shaft of wrought iron, more 
than 16 in. in diameter, and 23 ft. 8 in. 
in length. The height of the pillar 
above ground is 22 ft. , but the smooth 
shaft is only 15 ft., the capital being 3 J 
ft. and the rough part below also 3 J ft. 
Dr. Murray Thompson analysed a bit 
of it, and found that it was pure 
malleable iron of 7*66 specific gravity. 

**The iron pillar records its own 
history in a deeply cut Sanscrit 
inscription of six lines on its W. face. 
The inscription has been translated by- 
James Prinsep (B.A.S. Joum, vol. vii. 
p. 630). The pillar is called * the Arm 
of Fame of Raja Dhava.* It is said 
that he subdued a people on the 
Sindhu, named Vahlikas, and obtained, 
with his own arm, an undivided sover- 
eignty on the earth for a long period." 
It appears that the Raja was a wor- 
shipper of Vishnu, and the pillar was 
probably surmounted by a figure of 
that deity. James Prinsep assigns the 
3d or 4th century after Christ as the 
date of the inscr3j)tion, which Mr. 
Thomas considers too high an antiquity. 
General Cunningham suggests the year 
319 A.D. According to universal tradi- 
tion, the pillar was erected by Bilan 
Deo, or Anang Pal, the founder of the 
Tomar dynasty. The name of Anang 
Pal also is inscribed on the shaft, with 
the date Samwat 1 109 = 1052 a.d. The 
remaining inscriptions are numerous 
but unimportant. At 7 ft. 3 in. from 
the pedestal there is a Nagri inscrip- 
tion. At 4 ft. above the inscription is 
a deep indentation, said to have been 
made by a cannon-ball fired by the 
troops of the Bhurtpur Raja. 

Tomb of Altamsh (who died in 1235 
A.D.) outside the N.W. corner of the 
great enclosure of the mosque. It is 
of red sandstone. The main entrance 



150 



BOUTE 6. BOKBAT TO DELHI 



India 



is to the E., bnt there are also openings 
to the N. and S. The interior is in- 
scribed with beautifully written pass- 
ages of the Koran, and in the centre of 
the W. side is a Kiblah of white marble 
discoloured with age. About 5 ft. from 
the ground are several lines in Kufik. 
The tomb is in the centre, and has 
been greatly injured ; the top part is of 
modern masonry. Cunningham says 
that there is no roof, "but there is 
good rea.son to believe that it was 
originally covered by an overlapping 
Hindu dome. A single stone of one 
of the overlapping circles, with Arabic 
letters on it, still remains. " Fergusson 
says : ** In addition to the beauty of 
its details, it is interesting as being the 
oldest tomb known to exist in India. " 

The Alai Darwazah, 40 ft. to the 
S.K from the Kutb Minar, is the S. 
entrance of the great or outer enclosure 
to the mosque. This gateway was 
built of red sandstone richly orna- 
mented with patterns in low relief, in 
1310 A.D., by 'Alau-din. Over three 
of the entrances are Arabic inscriptions, 
which give 'Alau-din's name, and his 
well-known title of Sikandar Sani, 
the second Alexander, with the date 
710 A.H. The building is a square. 
On each side there is a lofty doorway, 
with pointed horse -shoe arches. In 
each comer there are two windows 
closed by massive screens of marble 
lattice-work. A few yards to the E. 
stands the richly «arved building, in 
which is the tomb of Imam Zamin, or 
father of Imam Muhammad 'Ali, of 
Mashhad. He is otherwise called 
Saiyad Husain. He came to Belhi in 
the reign of Sikandar, and himself built 
the mosque as a tomb. He died in 944 
A.H. = 1537 A.D., and left in his will 
that he should be buried here. There 
is an inscription in the Tughra char- 
acter over the door. It is a small 
domed building, about 18 ft. square, of 
red sandstone covered with chunam. 

Alai Minar is at the distance of 435 
ft. due N. from the Kutb. Just above 
the base or platform, which is 4 ft. 3 
in. high, the circumference is 269 ft. 
The traveller must climb 8 ft. of wall 
to get into this Minar. The whole 
stands on a mound 6 ft. high. The 



inner tower and outer wall are made 
of large rough stones, very coarse 
work, as the stones are put in anyhow. 
The total height as it now stands is 70 
ft above the plinth, or 87 ft above 
the ground-level A facing of red stone 
would doubtless have been added. The 
entrance is on the E., and on theN. 
there is a window intended to light 
the spiral staircase. Had this pillar 
been finished it would have been 
about 600 ft high. 'Alau-din Khilji, 
who built it, reigned from 1296 to 
1316 A.D., and Cunningham thinb 
that the building was stopped in 
1812. 

Metcalfe House was the tomb of 
Muhammad Kuli Khan, the foste^ 
brother of Akbar. It has been en- 
larged, and rooms have been added for 
modern requirements. It is less than 
a 4 m. from the Kutb Minar. Sir 
T. Metcalfe made this his residence 
during the four rainy months. There 
were beautiful gardens in his time, and 
fine stables to tne S., of which only the 
entrance pillars now remain. 

Some other Buildings. — 1 m. to the 
N.E. is a solitary tower. N. of this 
tower is the tomb of Akbar Khan, 
brother of Adham and Muhammad 
Kuli Khan. ^ m. along a made road to 
the S.W. are the tombs of Jamaln- 
din and Kamalu-din, Maulvis ; they 
are white marble, covered with roo^ 
and have side walls adorned with en- 
caustic tiles and exquisite decorations. 
The handsome mosque of Faizu 'llah 
Khan is close to these. 

The Police Rest-hoiise is the Tomb 
of Adham Elian; it lies S.W. of 
the Kutb, and is 76 ft high. This 
Khan was put to death by Akbar for 
killing the Emperor's foster-brother. 
Adham was thrown from the top of a 
lofty building, and it happening that 
his mother died the same day, the two 
bodies were brought to Delhi and in- 
terred here. Close by is a deep Well 
into which the natives let themselves 
fall from a height of 60 ft. above the 
water, and then demand 8 annas each 
&om the spectators. 

S.W. of the Kutb Minar is the 
village of Maharoli. The tomb of 
Eutbu-din Ushi is here, as are also 



ROUTE 6. OLD DELHI AND NEIGHBOURHOOD 



151 



wveral tombs of kings after the time 
of Aurangzib. | m. from this a 
paved way is passed leading to the 
Temple of Jog Maya, which is very 
famous amongst Hindas, who refer it 
to the very ancient date of Krishna's 
childhood. In fact, however, the 
present building was erected in 1827. 
There is no image in it. There is a 
fair here every week. On the right are 
the ruins of the palace of Altamsh, and 
on the left tlie entrance gateway to a 
garden of the king. 

Tughlakabad. — This fort is upwards 
of 4 m. to the E. of the Kutb. It 
is on the left of the main road coming 
from Delhi, and is built on a rocky 
eminence from 15 to 30 ft. high. 
Cunningham thus describes it (Arch. 
Bep. vol. i. p. 212) : " The fort may 
be described with tolerable accuracy as 
a half hexagon in shape, with three races 
of rather more than | m. in length, 
and a base of 1^ m., the whole circuit 
bein^ only 1 furlone less than 4 m. It 
stands on a rocky height, and is built 
of massive blocks of stone, so large and 
heavy that they must have been quar- 
ried on the spot. The largest measured 
was 14 ft. in length by 2 ft. 2 in., and 1 
ft thick, and weighed rather more than 
6 tons. The short faces to the W. , N. , 
and E. are. protected by a deep ditch, 
and the long face to the S. by a large 
sheet of water, dry, except in the rainy 
season, which is held up by an embank- 
ment at the S.E. comer. On this side 
the rock is scarped, and above it the 
main walls rise to a mean height of 40 
ft, with a parapet of 7 ft, behind which 
rises another wall of 15 ft., the whole 
height above the low ground being 
upwards of 90 ft" 

In the S.W. angle is the citadel, 
which occupies about one-sixth of the 
area. It contains the ruins of an exten- 
sive palace. The ramparts are raised 
on a line of domed rooms, which rarely 
communicate with each other, and 
which formed the quarters of the 
garrison. The walls slope rapidly in- 
wards, as much as those of Egyptian 
buildings, and are without ornament, 
but the vast size, strength, and visible 
solidity of the whole give to Tugh- 
lakabad an air of stern and massive 



grandeur that is both striking and im- 
pressive. The fort has thirteen gates, 
and there are three inner gates to the 
citadel. It contains seven tanks, and 
ruins of several large buildings, as the 
Jumma Musjid, and the Birij Mandir. 
The upper part is full of ruined houses, 
but the .lower appears never to have 
been fully inhabited. Saiyad Ahmad 
states that the fort was commenced in 
1321, and finished in 1323, a.d. 

The fine Tomb of TugMak is outside 
the S. wall of Tughlakabad, in the 
midst of the artificial lake, and sur- 
rounded by a pentagonal outwork, 
which is connected with the fort by 
a causeway 600 ft. long, supported on 
27 arches. Mr. Fergusson says : ''The 
sloping walls and almost Egyptian 
solidity of this mausoleum, combined 
with the bold and massive towers of 
the fortifications that surround it, form 
a picture of a warrior's tomb unrivalled 
anywhere." The outer walls have a 
slope of 2*333 in. per foot; at base 
they are 11-)- ft. thick, and at top 4 ft. 
The exterior decoration of the tomb 
itself depends chiefly on difference of 
colour, which is effected by the free use 
of bands and borders of white marble 
inserted in the red sandstone. In plan 
it is a square, and three of its four sides 
have lofty archways, the space above 
the doorway being filled with a white 
marble lattice screen of bold pattern. 
It is surmounted by a white marble 
dome. A lesser dome within the same 
pentagon covers, it is said, the tomb 
of one of Tughlak's ministers. 

"Inside the mausoleum there are 
three cenotaphs, which are said to be 
those of Tughlak Shah, his Queen, and 
their son Juna Khan, who took the 
name of Muhammad when he ascended 
the throne." 

A causeway runs to *Adildbad, the 
fort of Tughlak's son Juna Khan, who 
assumed the title of Muhammad Shah 
bin Tughlak. He was a famous tyrant, 
and is still spoken of as the Khuni 
Sultan, "the bloody King." Feroz 
Shah, his successor, got acquittances 
from all those he had wronged, and 
put them in a chest at the head of the 
tyrant's tomb, that he might present 
them when called to judgment. 



i52 



ROUTE 7. AHMEDABAD TO SOMNATH 



India 



ROUTE 7 



ahmedabad to the runn of cutch 
(Wadhwan, Bhaunaoar, Pali- 

TANA, GiRNAR, AND SoMNATH). 

Leaving Ahmedabad (Rte. 6), 310 m. 
from Bombay the Sabaraiati is crossed 
on a fine bridge, with a footway for 
passengers alongside, and carrying the 
rails for both broad and narrow gauges. 
From, 4 m., Sabarmati (junc. sta.), 
on N. bank of the river of that name, 
the narrow gauge continues N. to Delhi 
and Agra, whilst the broad gauge turns 
W., and passing through a well-culti- 
vated country, reaches at 

"40 m. Viramgam junc. sta., 3^^ a 
walled town. Pop. 20,000. The Man- 
sar tank dates from the end of the 11th 
century. It is shaped like a shell, and 
surrounded by flights of stone steps ; 
round the top of the steps runs a row 
of small temples. The inlet is much 
ornamented. The neighbourhood 
abounds in black buck, grouse, and 
all manner of water-fowl. 

[From this place a branch line runs 
N.W. passing at 17 m. Patri, D.B., a 
small walled town with a Citadel ; and, 
at 22 m., reaches Eharaghoda, where 
there are very extensive government salt- 
pans on the edge of the Buim of Cutch. 
in the dry season the Runn presents the 
appearance of a hard, smooth bed of 
dried mud, and may be ridden over 
at any place. There is absolutely no 
vegetation except on some small islands 
which rise above the level of the salt 
inundation ; the only living creatures 
that inhabit it are some herds of wild 
asses, which feed on the lands near its 
shores at night, and retreat far into the 
desert in the daytime. With the com- 
mencement of the S.W. monsoon in 
May, the salt water of the Gulf of Cutch 
invades the Runn, and later in the 
season many rivers from Raj pu tana 
pour fresh water into it. The sea is 
now encroaching rapidly on the Runn 
at its iunction with the Gulf of Cutch, 
and there is reason to suppose that 
serious changes of level are taking place. 
The centre of the Runn is slightly 
higher than the borders, and dries first. 



The railway has many sidings extend- 
ing into the Runn, to facilitate the 
collection of the salt, which is stacked 
at the station in very large quantities 
under the custody of the Salt Customs 
Department. Originally it was con- 
sidered necessary to erect expensiveroofs 
ever the salt stacks, but experience has 
shown that this can be dispensed with. 
The salt is evaporated by the heat 
of the sun from brine brought up in 
buckets from depths of 15 to 30 ft. 
The mirage is beautiful in this neigh- 
bourhood, and in the winter season the 
flights of flamingoes and other birds 
are extraordinarily large. There are 
grouse to be had in the neighbourhood.] 

80 m. Wadhwan junc. sta. D.B. To 
the W. runs the Morvi State Railway, 
the exclusive property of the Morvi' 
state, constructed on 2J ft. gauge to 
maintain communication with Morvii 
JetaUar and Rajkot. To the S. the line 
IS continued by means oHhQBhaunagar 
Gondal Railway ^ a portion of the metre- 
gauge system, which opens up a large 
number of places in South Kattywar. 
These railways are under a central 
administration, but are the property of 
the states through which they pass. 

The Civil Station of Wadhwan^ on 
which the rly. sta. is built, is a 
plot of land rented by Government in 
perpetuity from the Wadhwan state, 
for the location of the establishments 
necessary for the administration of the 
N.E. portion of Kattywar. A small 
town has sprung up close to the rail- 
way station. 

The only institution of specialinterest 
in the place is the Talukdari Schooly 
where the sons of Girassias^ or land- 
owners, are educated when their parents 
are unable to atford the heavy cost of 
sending them to the Rajkumar or 
Princes' College at Rajkot. In many 
cases elder brothers are placed at the 
Rajkumar College, and the younger at 
the Talukdari School. 

The Province of Kattywar (or Kathi- 
awad) which is now entered, exists imder 
circumstances quite exceptional. It 
consists of 187 separate states, ranging 
in extent from considerable tracts of 
country, with chiefs enjoying great exc- 



ROUTE 7. WADHWAN CITY 



153 



eutive freedom, to mere village lands, 
necessarily states only in name. Almost 
without exception the capitals of these 
states are places of interest, but there 
is no space in this work to describe 
them. 

For pm-poses of administration the 
Province is divided into four PrantSy or 
divisions. 

The arduous task of administering 
this Province is entrusted to a Political 
Agent who resides at Rajkot, and has 
assistants distributed through the 
country. 

Everywhere in Kattywar the travel- 
ler will remark long lines of paliasy 
or memorial stones, peculiar to this 
Province, on which men are usually 
represented as riding on a very large 
Korse, whilst women nave a wheel below 
them to indicate that they used a 
carriage. 

A woman's arm and hand indicate 
here, as in other parts of India, a monu 
ment to a lady who committed sati. 

Proceeding S. by the Bhaunagar 
Gondal Railway, the river is crossed 
close to the station. 

At B3 m. Wadhwan City stais reached, 
The town wall is c/f stone and in good 
order. Towards the centre, on the N. 
wall, is the ancient temple of Banik 
Devi. She was a beautiful girl, bom 
in the Junagadh territory when Sidh 
Raja was reigning at Patan, and was 
betrothed to him. But Ra Kheugar, 
who then ruled Junagadh, carried her 
off and married her, which caused a 
deadly feud between him and Sidh Raja, 
whose troops marched to Junagadh. 
Khengar was betrayed by two of his 
kinsmen, and was slain by Sidh Raja 
and his fortress taken. The conqueror 
wanted to marry Ranik Devi, but she 
performed scUij and Sidh Raja raised 
this temple to her memory. 

The temple bears marks of extreme 
old age, the stone being much worn and 
corroded, and all but the tower is gone. 
1 Inside is a stone with tlie effigy in 
I relief of Ranik Devi, and a smaller one 
I with a reoresentation of Ambaji. N. 
of this temple, and close to the city 
wall, is a sati stone dated 1519. Close 
to the Lakhupol Gate is a well with 



steps, ascribed to one Madhava, who 
lived in 1294 a.d. 

The Palace is near the centre of the 
town, has four stories, and is 72 ft. 
high. It stands in a court facing the 
entrance, on the right of which is a 
building called the Mandwa, where 
assemblies take place at marriages. 

96 m. Limbdi sta. Chief town of 
the cotton-producing state of that name. 
Pop. 13,000. A well-cared-for place, 
very handsome palace. 

126 m. Botad sta. Frontier of the 
Bhaunagar state. 

152 m. Dhola junc. sta.(R.) Here the 
line turns W. to JDhoraji and Porbandar, 
and IJ. to Bhaunagar, passing at 

165 m. a little N. of Son^, 3^^ the 
residence of the Assistant Political 
Agent for the eastern portion of the 
Province. 

[Ezcursion to Palitana and the 
Shetrunjee (or Satraojaya) Hills. 

(Arrangements for a conveyance can 
be made, by applying to the Dep. Assist. 
Polit. Agent at Songad. No public con- 
veyances can be depended upon.) 

Palitana, s^c about 15 m.S. of Songad, 
the latter part of the road over a barren 
country between low rocky hills, is the 
residence of the chief, and is much en- 
riched by the crowds of pilgrims who 
reside in it during their visit to the 
Holy MountaiUj the site of some of the 
most famous Jain temples in India. 

The distance from Palitana to the 
foot of Satrunjaya, or the Holy Moun- 
tain, is 1^ m. The road is level, with 
a good water supply, and shaded by 
trees. The ascent begins with a wide 
flight of steps, guarded on either side 
by a statue of an elephant. The hill- 
side is in many places excessively steep, 
and the mode of conveyance is the doli, 
a seat or tray 18 in. square, slung from 
two poles and carried by four men. 
Few of the higher -class pilgrims are 
able to make the ascent on foot, so- there 
is an ample supply of dolis and bearets. 

Satrunjaya or Shatrunjaya hill is 
truly a city of temples, for, except a 
few tanks, there is nothing else within 
the gates, and there is a cleanliness 



154 



ROUTE 7. AHHEDABAD TO SOMKATH 



India 



withal, about every sauare and pass- 
age, porch and hall, tnat is itself no 
mean source of pleasure. The silence 
too is striking. Now and then in the 
mornings you hear a bell for a few 
seconds, or the beating of a drum for as 
short a time, and on holidays chants 
from the larger temples meet your ear ; 
but generally during the after-part of 
the day the only sounds are those of 
vast flocks of pigeons that fly about 
spasmodically from the roof of one 
temple to that of another. Paroquets 
and squirrels, doves and ringdoves 
abound, and peacocks are occasionally 
met with on the outer walls. The top 
of the hill consists of two ridges, each 
about 360 yds. long, with a valley be- 
tween. Each of these ridges, and the 
two large enclosures that fiU the valley, 
are surrounded by massive battlemented 
walls fitted for defence. The buildings 
on both ridges again are divided into 
separate enclosures called ^iz^,general]y 
containing one principal temple, with 
varying numbers of smaller ones. Each 
of these enclosures is protected by strong 
gates and walls, and all gates are care- 
fully closed at sundown. 

No attempt is made to describe the 
shrines in detail; their general char- 
acter is so often repeated that it would 
only be possible to do so with the aid 
of profuse illustrations. The area en- 
closed on the top is small enough for 
any one of ordinary activity to see all 
over it in the course of a two hours' visit. 

There is one gate leading into the 
enclosure, but there are 19 gates within,' 
leading to the 19 chief Pagodas. Not 
far from the Eam-pol (pol means gate) 
is a resting-place used by persons of dis- 
tinction, with a toleraWe room sur- 
rounded by open arches. 

James Fergusson says : — 

**The grouping together of these 
temples into what may be called * Cities 
of Temples,' is a peculiarity which the 
Jains practised to a greater extent than 
the followers of any other religion in 
India. The Buddhists grouped, their 
stupas and viharas near and around 
sacred spots, as at Sanchi, Manikyala, 
or in Peshawur, and elsewhere ; but 
they were scattered, and each was sup- 
posed to have a special meaning, or to 



mark some sacred spot. The Hindus 
also grouped their temples, as at Bhuvan- 
eshwar or Benares, in great numbers 
together ; but in all cases because, so 
far as we know, these were the centres of 
a population who believed in the gods 
to whom the temples were dedicated, 
and wanted them for the purposes of 
their worship. Neither of these re- 
ligions, however, possesses such a group 
of temples, for instance, as that at 
Satrunjaya, in Guzerat. It covers a very 
large space of ground, and its shrines 
are scattered by hundreds over the sum- 
mits of two extensive hills and in the 
valley between them. The larger ones 
are situated in tuksj or separate enclos- 
ures, surrounded hj high fortified walls ; 
the smaller ones Ime the silent streets. 
It is a city of the gods, and meant for 
them only, and not intended for the 
use of mortals. 

** All the peculiarities of Jain archi- 
tecture are found in a more marked 
degree at Palitana than at almost any 
other known place, and, fortunately for 
the student of the style, extending 
through all the ages during which it 
flourished. Someofthetemplesareasold 
as the 11th century, and they are spread 
pretty evenly over all the intervening 
time down to the present century." 

James Burgess in his report gives the 
following general description : — 

** At tne foot of the ascent there are 
some steps with many little canopies 
or cells, 1^ ft. or 3 ft. square, open 
only in front, and each having in its 
floor a marble slab carved with the 
representation of the soles of two feet 
{chcuran)f very flat ones, and generally 
with the toes all of one length. A 
little behind, where the ball of the 
great toe ought to be, there is a 
diamond-shaped mark divided into four 
smaller figures by two cross lines, from 
the end of one of which a curved line 
is drawn to the front of the foot 

"The path is paved with rough 
stones all the way up, only interrupted 
here and there by regular flights of 
steps. At frequent intervals also there 
are rest-houses, more pretty at a dis- 
tance than convenient for actual use, 
but still deserving of attention. Hiffh 
up, we come to a small temple of the 



BOUTB 7. EXCURSION TO VALABHIPUR 



156 



Hindu monkey god, Hanuman, the 
image bedaubed with vermilion in 
ultra-barbaric style. At this point the 
path bifurcates to the right leading to 
the northern peak, and to the left to 
the valley between, and through it to 
the southern summit. A little higher 
up, on the former route, is the shrine 
of Hengar, a Mussulman ^r, so that 
Hindu and Moslem alike contend for 
the representation of their -creeds on 
this sacred hill of the Jains. 

**0n reaching the summit of the 
mountain, the view that presents itself 
irom the top of the walls is magnificent 
in extent; a splendid setting for the 
unique picture. To the E. the pros- 
pect extends to the Gulf of Cambay 
near Gogo and Bhaunagar ; to the N. it 
is bounded by the granite range of 
Sihor and the Chamardi peak ; to the 
N.W. and W. the plain extends as 
far as the eye can reach. From W. 
to E., like a silver ribbon across the 
foreground to the S., winds the Satrun- 
jaya river, which the eye follows until 
it is lost between the Talaja and Kho- 
kara Hills in the S.W.] 

[Excursion to Valabhipur. 
The antiquarian who is not pressed 
for time may care from Songad to visit 
the site of the ancient city of Vala- 
bhipur, which is nearlv identical with 
the modern town of Walah, and is 12 m. 
distant by road. The authorities at 
Songad will always arrange the journey. 
Valabhipur was perhaps as old as Rome, 
and was the capital of all this part of 
India. The present town (under 6000 
inhab.) is the capital of one of the 
small Kattywar states. It has been 
very much neglected. There are scarcely 
any architectural remains at Walah, 
but old foundations are discovered, and 
sometimes coins, copper plates, mud 
seals, beads, and household images have 
been found in some abundance. The 
rains can be traced over a large area of 
jungle.] 

Resuming the journey from Songad 
to Bhaunagar, 

90 m. Sihor sta. D.B. This was 
at one time the capital of this state. 
The town, well situated 1^ m. S. of 



the rly., has some interesting Hindu 
Temples. 

103 m. Bhannagar. 30c The city (of 
60,000 inhab., founded 1723) stands 
on a tidal creek that runs into the 
Gulf of Cambay. The head of the 
Gulf above this creek is silting up so 
i-apidly that it is very diflScult to main- 
tain the necessary depth of water for 
native trading vessels and coasting 
steamers. The Bhaunagar state has 
from its first connection with the 
British Government been administered 
by men of intelligence, and the town 
will be found a most pleasing sample of 
the results of native Indian government 
going hand in hand with European 
progress. The staple export is cotton. 
There are no interesting ruins, but 
abundance of very handsome modem 
buildings on Indian models, water 
works, reservoirs, and gardens ; and at 
the port will be seen an intelligent 
adoption of modern mechanical im- 
provements. 

The traveller, if he proposes to visit 
Junagadh, Somnath, Porbandar, or 
any places in the W., must return to 
Dhoia jwrvc, and change there. There is 
nothing to detain him until he reaches 

Jetalsar junc. sta. (R.) 162 m. from 
Wadhwan. This place is the residence 
of the Assist. Political Agent for the 
S. or Sorath division of the Province 
of Kattywar. Here the line branches 
(1) S. to Verawal for Somnath, (2) W. 
to Porbaiidar, p. 162, and (3) N. to 
Bajkot, Vavikaner and Wadhwan^ p. 
166. 

(1) Jetalsar to Verawal, 
16. m. (from Jetalsar), Junagadh (the 
old fort) sta., a^c D.B., W. of the town, 
opposite a modern gateway, called the 
Reay Oaie; the capital of the state, and 
the residence of the Nawab. Pop. 30,000. 
Situated as it is under the Gimar and 
Datar Hills, it is one of the most pic- 
turesque towns in India, while in anti- 
quity and historical interest it yields to 
few. The scenery from the hills around 
is most pleasing, and the place has 
attractions wanting in most ancient 
Indian towns, which, as a rule, are situ- 
ated in uninteresting plains. There \s 
a great deal of game in Kattywar, and 



156 



ROUTE 7. AHMEDABAD TO 80MNATH 



India 



specially in the Gir, the large unculti- 
vated tract to the S.E. of Junagadh ; 
but the Gir is very unhealthy in the 
early part of the autumn, and again at 
the beginning of the rains. 

The fortifications of the present to\\Ti 
were all built by the Mohammedans 
after the capture of the place by Sultan 
Mahmud Bigadah, of Guzerat, about 
1472. The NawaVs Palace is a fine 
modernised building. In front of it is 
a good circle of shops called the Mahabat 
Circle. The Arts College was designed 
and built by a local architect, and was 
opened by Lord Curzon in Nov. 1900. 

The Tombs of the Nawabs are highly 
finished buildings. Fergusson says: 
"There is a cemetery at Junagadh 
where there exists a group of tombs all 
erected within this century, some within 
the last 20 or 30 years, which exhibit, 
more nearly than any others I am ac- 
quainted with, the forms towards which 
the style was tending. The style is not 
without a certain amount of elegance 
in detail. The tracery of the windows 
is executed with precision and appropri- 
ateness." Entering the enclosure by 
the N. gate, the tomb of Bahadur Khan 
II. is in front on the 1., next to it the 
tomb of Hamed Khan II., and on its 
1. that of Ladli Bu, a lady whose mar- 
riage, and the influence she gained, 
caused no slight difficulty to this state, 
and no little trouble in the Political 
Agency. Beside these is the tomb of 
Nawab Mohobat Khan, in Saracenic 
style, and finely carved. ^ m. beyond 
the N. gate of the town is the Sakar 
Bagh, a well laid-out garden that be- 
longs to the Vazir. There is a two- 
storied villa, surrounded by a moat full 
of water. About 50 yds. from the house 
is a menagerie, in which are panthers, 
deer, etc. In a still finer garden at the 
S. of the town, the SarcUr Bagh, are 
kept a number of lions and lionesses 
from the Gir forest. There are no 
tigers in the Kattywar peninsula, but 
up to the middle of the present century 
lions inhabited all the large jungles, 
and were shot in the Choteyla Hills E. of 
Rajkot. Now the animal is confined to 
the Gir. The lion is in no way inferior 
to the African species, although the mane 
is not so large. The Gir lion is not a man- 



eater usually, but Col. J. W. Watson 
has heard of one or two well-authenti- 
cated instances of his killing men. 

The soft sandstone which everywhere 
underlies Junagadh is an interesting 
study. Formed apparently in very shal- 
low water, it shows on all sides compli- 
cated lines of stratification. The faciUty 
with which itisworked may be one reason 
why it has been largely excavated into 
cave-dwellings in Buddhist times. 

The Caves. — In the N. part of the 
town enclosure, near the old telegraph 
office, is the group called the Kkapra 
Kkodia. These caves appear to have 
been a monastery, and bear the cogniz- 
ance of the then ruling race, a winged 
griffin or lion. They appear to have 
been two or three stories high. They 
are, however, excavated in good building 
stone, and the modern quarrymen have 
been allowed to encroach and injure 
them ; the lower ones have never been 
systematically cleared out. The most 
interesting caves of all are situated in 
the Uparkot, about 50 yds. N. of the 
great mosque. They are now closed by 
an iron gate. They consist of two 
stories, the lower chambers being 11 
ft. high. Mr. Burgess says: "Few 
bases could be found anywhere to excel 
in beauty of design and richness of 
carving those of the six principal 
pillars. " Inside the Waghesh wari Gate, 
through which theGirnar is approached, 
are the caves known by the name of 
Bawa Fiara^ a comparatively modem 
Hindu ascetic who is said to have resided 
in them. 

The Uparkot, on the E. side of the 
city, used as a jail until 1858, is 
now practically deserted. It was the 
citadel of the old Hindu princes, and is 
probably the spot from whence Junagadh 
derives its name. Permission to visit 
it must be asked. Without presenting 
any very special features to describe, the 
Uparkot is one of the most interesting of 
old forts. The parapets on the E. , where 
the place is commanded by higher 
ground, have been raised at least three 
times to give cover against the in- 
creasingly longrangeof projectiles. The 
views from the walls are delightful. 
Here were quartered the lieutenants of 
the great Asoka (250 B.C.), and, later, 



GIRNAR, 




ScaJeof Mies 



fi^^tiy 



1. Wagheshwari Oftte. 

2. Aafiki'3 Stone. 

4. Temple of Daiiiwdar. 

5. ,, ,t Bavaijuth. 
d t, ,t Bhavanatb. 
7. ChadA-ui-wao Well. 

a Wagheahvrari Templa 

9. BhairoTlmmpa. 

10. naomuk! Temple, 

11. AiTtba Ouva Temple. 



, 12. Malipflmb Khtmd. 
' 13. Datibiri. 

14 HAthI pagla Klnmd. 

IS, Sf-a^wftu Temple, 

II j. IfarttJiimdlijira Kluiiid and Temple. 
I 17* KamRndal Temple. 

IS. Jiakti ambli. 

11+, >Ulbela. 

20. SuKij Khniid. 

21. ^torkbarla. 

. 2% Bawflha Irladhi, 



To Ms p. 157. 



ROUTB 7. JUNAOADH — GIRNAR 



157 



tJiose of the Gupta kings. The entrance 
is beyond the town, in the W. wall, and 
consists of three gateways, one inside 
the other. The fort walls here are from 
60 to 70 ft high, forming a massive 
cluster of buildings. The inner gate- 
way, a beautiful specimen of the Hindu 
SToran, has been topped by more recent 
Mohammedan work, but the general 
effect is stUl good and, with the 
approach cut through the solid rock, 
impressive. On the rampart above 
the gate is an iascription of Manda- 
lika V. dated 1460. Proceeding 150 
yds. to the left, through a grove of 
mtaphal (custard apples), you come to 
a huge 10 in. -bore camion of bell-metal, 
17 ft. long and 4 ft. 7 in. round at the 
mouth. This gun was brought from 
Dio, where it was left by the Turks. 
There is an Arabic inscription at the 
muzzle, which may be translated : * ' The 
order to make this cannon, to be used 
in the service of the Almighty, was 
given by the Sultan of Arabia and 
Persia, Sultan Sulaiman, son of Salim 
Khan. May his triumph be glorified, 
to punish the enemies of the State and 
of the Faith, in the capital of Egypt, 
1631." At the breech is inscribed, 
"The work of Muhammad, the son of 
Hamzah." Another large cannon called 
Ghudanal, also from Diu, in the southern 
portion of the fort, is 13 ft. long, and has 
a muzzle 14 in. diameter. Near this 
is the Jonima Musjid, evidently 
constructed from the materials of a 
Hindu temple. Mr. Burgess says it 
was built by Mahmud Begadah. One 
plain, slim minaret remains standing, 
bnt the mosque is almost a complete 
ruin. The ascent to the terraced roof 
is by a good staircase outside. 

The Tomb of Nuri Shah, close to the 
mosque, is ornamented with fluted 
cupolas, and a most peculiar carving 
over the door. There are two Wells in 
the Uparkot — the Adi Chadi, said to 
have been built in ancient times by 
the slave girls of the Chudasama rulers, 
is descended by a long flight of steps 
(the sides of the descent show the most 
remarkable overlappings and changes 
of lie in the strata, for which alone it 
is worth a visit to any one with geo- 
; lozical tastes) ; and the NaughaUf cut 



to a great depth in the soft rock, and 
with a wonderful circular staircase. 

There is% fine dharmsala belonging 
to the goldsmiths near the Waghesh- 
wari Gate. 

The mountain Gimar is the great 
feature of Junagadh, and the Jain 
temples upon it are amongst the most 
ancient in the country. It is 3666 ft. 
high, and is one of the most remarkable 
mountains in India. From the city of 
Junagadh only the top of it can be seen, 
as it has in front of it lower hills, of 
which Jogniya, or Laso Pawadi, 2627 
ft., Lakshman Tekri, Bensla, 2290 ft. 
high, and Datar, 2779 ft. high, are the 
principal. Girnar was anciently called 
Kaivata or Ujjayanta, sacred amongst 
the Jains to Nemmath, the 22d Tirthan- 
kar, and doubtless a place of pilgrimage 
before the days of Asoka, 250 b.c. 

The traveller, in order to reach Gimar, 
will pass through the "Wagheshwari Gate, 
which is close to the Uparkot. At 
about 200 yds. from the gate, to the 
right of the road, is the Temple of 
Wagheshwari, which is joined to the 
road by a causeway about 160 yds. 
long. In front of it is a modem temple, 
three stories high, very ugly, flat- 
roofed, and quite plain. About a fur- 
long beyond this is a stone bridge, and 
just beyond it the famous Asoka Stone. 
It is a round boulder of granite, measur- 
ing roughly 20 ft. x30 ft, and is 
covered with inscriptions, which prove 
on examination to be 14 Edicts of 
Asoka (250 B.o.)^ Nearly identical 
inscriptions have been found at Dhauli, 
near Peshawur, and elsewhere. The 
character is Pali. 

On leaving Asoka's Stone, cross the 
handsome bridge over the Sonarekha, 
which here forms a fine sheet of water, 
then pass a number of temples, at 
first on the 1. bank of the river and 
then on the rt., where Jogis go about 
entirely naked, to the largest of the 
temples dedicated to Damo£u:, a name 
of Krishna, from Dam, a rope, because 
at this spot his mother in vain at- 
tempted to confine him with a rope 
when a child. The reservoir at this 

1 See Life of John Wilson, F.R.S., by Dr. G. 
Smith, for picture and account of the stone ; 
or Burgess, Second Archceol. Report. 



158 



ROUTE 7. AHMEDABAD TO SOMNATH 



Indk 



place is accounted very sacred. The 
path is now through a wooded valley, 
with some fine Indian fig If ees. Near 
a cluster of them is an old shrine called 
Bhavanath, a name of Shiva. There 
are a number of large, monkeys here, 
who come, on being called. Unless 



well called the Chadd-ni-wao. The 
paved way begins just beyond this and 
continues for two-thirds of the ascent, 
and may be divided into three parts : 
at the end of the first the first rest- 
house, Chpdia-paraba, is*reached, 480 
ft above the plain. The second halt- 




Temple of Nimnath, Gimar. 



the traveller be a very good climber, 
he will do well to get into a doli, for 
which he will pay 3 or 4 rs. according 
to tariff. A long ridge runs up from 
the W., and culminates in a rugged 
scarped rock, on the top of which are 
the temples. Close to the Mandir is a 



ing-place is Dholi-deri, 1000 ft. above 
the plain. There the ascent becomes 
more difficult, winding under the face 
of the precipice to the third rest-house, 
1400 ft. up. So far there is nothmg 
very trying to any one with an ordin- 
arily steady brain. But after that the 



ROUTE 7. JX7NAGADH — GIRNAB 



169 



path turns to the right along the edge 
of a precipice, and consists of steps cut 
in the rock, and so narrow that the 
doli grazes the scarp, which rises per- 
pendicularly 200 ft. above the travel- 
ler. On ther right is seen the lofty 
mountain of Data/r, covered with low 
jungle. At about 1500 ft there is a 
stone dharmsala, and firom this there 
is a fine view of the rock called 
Bhairav-l'hampa, which means **the 
terrific leap. '' It was so called because 
devotees used to cast themselves from 
its top, falling 1000 ft or more. 

At 2370 ft above Junagadh the gate 
of the enclosure known as the Deva 
Kota, or Ra Ehengar's Palace, is reached. 
On entering the gate, the large enclosure 
of the temples is on the left, while to 
the right is the old granite temple of 
Mem Sing, Bhoja Rajah of Cutch, and 
farther on the much larger one of 
Vastupala (see below). Built into the 
wall on the left of the entrance is an 
inscription in Sanscrit. Some 16 Jain 
temples here form a sort of fort on the 
led^e at the top of the great cliff, but 
gtiU 600 ft. below the summit The 
largest temple is that of Neminatha (see 
pluL, p. 158) standing in a quadrangular 
court 195 X 130 ft. It consists of two 
halls (with two porches, called by the 
Hindus mandapaTns), and the shrine, 
which contains a large black image of 
Neminath, the 22d Tirthankar, with 
massive gold ornaments and jewels. 
Bound the shrine is a passage with 
many images in white marble. Be- 
tween the outer and inner halls are 
two shrines. The outer hall has two 
small raised platforms paved with slabs 
of yellow stone, covered with repre- 
sentations of feet in pairs, which repre- 
sent the 2452 feet of the first disciples. 
On the W. of this is a porch overhang- 
ing the perpendicular scarp. On two 
of the pillars of the mandapam are in- 
scriptions dated 1276, 1281, and 1278, 
— dates of restoration, when Burgess 
says it was covered with a coating of 
chunam, and '^ adorned with coats of 
whitewash " within. The enclosure is 
nearly surrounded inside by 70 cells, 
each enshrining a marble image, with 
a covered passage in front of them 
lighted by a perforated stone screen. 



The principal entrance was originally 
on the E. side of the court, but it is 
now closed,«uid the entrance from the 
court, in Khengar's Palace, is that now 
used. There is a passage leading into 
a low dark temple, with granite pillars 
in lines. Opposite the entrance is a 
recess contaming two large black im- 
ages ; in the back of the recess is a lion 
rampant, and over it a crocodile in 
bas-relief. Behind these figures is a 
room from which is a descent into a 
cave, with a lar^e white marble image, 
an object of tne most superstitious 
veneration by the Jains, which the 
priests usually try to conceal. It has 
a slight hollow in the shoulder, said to 
be caused by water dropping from the 
ear, whence it was called AmijJiera, 
** nectar drop." In the N. porch are 
inscriptions which state that in Samwat 
1215 certain Thakors completed the 
shrine, and buHt the Temple of Ambika. 
After leavingthis, there are three temples 
to the left. That on the S. side contains 
a colossal image of Bishabha Deva, 
the 1st Tirthankar, exactly like that 
at Satruniaya, called Bhim-Padam. 
On the throne of this image is a 
slab of yellow stone carved in 1442, 
with figures of the 24 Tirthankars. 
Opposite this temple is a modem one 
to Panchabai. W. of it is a lu'ge 
temple called Malakavisi, sacred to 
Parshwanath. N. again of this is 
another temple of Parshwanath, which 
contains a large white marble image 
canopied by a cobra, whence it is called 
Sheshphanif **an arrangement not un- 
frequently found in the S. but rare in 
the N." (Fergusson). It bears a date 
= 1803. The last temple to the N. is 
Eumarapala's, which has a long open 
portico on the W., and appears to have 
been destroyed by the Mohammedans, 
and restored in 1824 by Hansraja Jetha. 
These temples are along the W. face of 
the hill, and are all enclosed. Outside 
to the N. is the Bhima Kunda, a tank 
70 ft. X 50 ft, in which Hindus bathe. 
** Immediately behind the temple of 
Neminatha is the triple one erected by 
the brothers Tejahpala and Vastnpala 
(built 1177)." The plan is that of 3 
temples joined togetner. The shrine 
has an image of Mallinath, the 19 th 



160 



ROUTE 7. AHMEDABAD TO SOMNATH 



India 



Tirthankar. Farther N. is the temple 
of Samprati Baja. This temple is 
probably one of the oldest#on the hill, 
date 1158. Samprati is said to have 
ruled at Ujjain in the end of the 3d 
cent. B.C., and to have been the son 
of Kunala, Asoka's third son. S, of 
this, and 200 ft. above the Jain temples, 
is the Gaumukha Shrine, near a plenti- 
ful spring of water. From it the crest 
of the mountain (3330 ft.) is reached by 
a steep flight of stairs. Here is an 
ancient temple of Amba Mata, which 



or attendant of the shrine is seen in 
front. To the rt. is a stone platform 
surrounding an unusually fine mango 
tree, with a tank just beyond, and the 
shrine of Datar, a building 30 ft. hi^h 
with a fluted cone at top. Here it is 
necessary to take off one's shoes. The 
shrine and the whole place are very 
attractive. 

There is a Leper Asylum near the 
Datar Temple for 100 lepers of both 
sexes, built at the expense of the Vazir 
Sahib Bahu-ud-din. H.R.H. Prince 




Temple of Tejahpala and Vastupala, Girnar. 



is much resorted to by newly-married 
couples of the Brahman caste. The 
bride and bridegroom have their clothes 
tied together, and attended by their 
male and female relations, adore the 
goddess and present cocoa-nuts and 
other offerings. This pilgrimage is 
supposed to procure for the couple a 
long continuance of wedded bliss. To 
the E., not far off, are the 3 rocky 
spires of the Gorakhnath, the Neminath 
or Giini-dattaraya, and the Kalika Peaks. 
S.E. of the Verawal Gate of Juna- 
gadh is the Shrine of Jamal Shah or 
Datar. After passing under a low arch 
near the city, the house of the Mujawir 



Albert Victor laid the foundation-stone 
in 1890. Above it, 4 m. in S.E. direc- 
tion, is the Datar peak (2779 ft.) 

On the summit of the hill is a small 
shrine, and a very beautiful view. The 
hill is held sacred by Mohammedans 
and Hindus alike, and is supposed to 
have a beneficial effect on lepers, who 
repair to it in considei*able numbers. 

61 m. Verawal sta. a^ The railway 
terminus is on the W. side of the city, 
close to the walls, and about \ m. from 
the lighthouse at the landing-place. 
This is a very ancient sea-port, and 
probably owes its existence to its more 
celebrated neighbour Patau Somna(ht 



BOUTE 7. PATAN SOMNATH 



161 



It rose into notice daring the time of 
tiie Guzerat sultans, and in their reigns 
became, untH superseded by Surat, the 
principal port of embarkation for 
kohammedan pilgrims to Mecca. It 
is still a flourishing little seaport. In 
the Temple Harsad Mata is a celebrated 
inscription (1264), recording that a 
mosi^ue was endowed in that year, and 
beanng dates in four different eras. 
It was from this inscription that it was 

favered that the Valabhi era com- 
ced in 319 a.d., and the Shri Sing 
from 1113 A.D. The river Devka 
flows to the N. of Verawal, and joins 
the sea at a place called Dani Bam. 
The Jaleshvar Temple, about 2 m. 



Red Sea, Persian Gtdf, and African 
coast The place is renowned in Hindn 
mythology, ^t was here the Jadavs slew 
each other, and here Krishna was shot 
by the Bhil. In the Gir forest, inland 
from Patau, is the only place in India 
where there are one or two separate 
communities of African negroes. Mah- 
mud of Ghazni conquered the town in 
1025 A.D., and it appears that he left 
behind a Mohammedan Governor. 
Subsequently the Hindus recovered 
their power, but it was again cast down 
by Akgh Khan circa 1300 A.D., and 
the coast belt or Nagher kingdom con- 
quered. From this date Moham- 
medan supremacy prevailed throughout 




Verawal a&d Fataa. 



1S.W. from the town, at the mouth on 
the right bank, is of great antiquity. 
On the S.W. face of Verawal there is a 
modern sea-wall and an unfinished 
stone pier, with a lighthouse at the end 
of it. A large Custom House has been 
built on the sea face, and near it is a 
dock established on reclaimed land. 

On the sea-shore, nearly 3 m. to the 
S.£. , is Patau Sonmath, also known as 
Prabhas Patau, or Deva Patau, the 
SemeTuU of Marco Polo. The anchor- 
ages at Verawal and Patau are so bad 
that it is hard to account for the un- 
doubted fact that from the earliest 
times they carried on a trade with the 



the belt, and from the reign of Muham- 
mad Tughlak regular governors were 
appointed. Finally, owing to the gal- 
lantry and statesmanship of Diwan 
Amarji, it was conquered by the Nawab 
of Junagadh in whose hands it remains. 

About the middle of the 15th cent 
Somnath (with Verawal) had become 
the principal port of embarkation for 
Mohammedan pilgrims to the cities 
of Mecca and Madinah, and this lasted 
till it was superseded by Surat 
Thoueh it is eclipsed now as far as 
wealth and population are concerned, 
by the adjacent port of Verawal, it is 
still an important town. 

Proceeding from Verawal to Patan by 



109 



BOUTS 7. 4^HXPABAD TO 80MKATH 



Jiiiin 



Dm roftd, to the rt. is a vast burial- 
ground, with thousands of tombs, and 
palioi. There are also buijdings which 
well deserve examioation after the tra- 
veller has seen the city. The Junagadh, 
or W. Gate, by which Patan is entered, 
is a triple gate, and is clearly of Hindu 
architecture. The centre part of the 
first division of the gateway is very 
ancient, and is shown to be Hindu by 
the carving of two elephants on either 
side pouring water over Lakshmi ; but 
the figure of the goddess is almost 
obliterated. 

After passing the second gate on the 
left, is the W. wall of a mosque of the 
time of Mahmud. There is no inscrip- 
tion in it, but its antiquity is so credited 
lihat the Nawab has assigned the 
revenue of three villages for keeping it 
in order. After passing the third 
portal of the Junagadh Gateway, there 
are four stones on the right hand, of 
which two have Guzerati, and two San- 
scrit inscriptions. Driving on straight 
through the bazaar, which is very 
narrow, and has quaint old houses on 
either side, the Jumma Mu^id is 
reached. The entrance is by a porch, 
which has been a mandir iu front of a 
Hindu temple. 

The most interesting part of this very 
ancient building is, that in each of the 
four corners is a carving of two human 
figures, with the Bo tree between them. 
A low door in the "W. side of the porch 
leads into the court of the mosque, 
which is much ruined ; it has been 
deserted for 25 years, and inhabited by 
Moslem fishermen, who dry their fish 
in it. 

To reach the Old Temple of Som- 
nath it is necessary to drive through 
the bazaar of Patan and turn to the 
right. The temple is close to the sea. 
Fergusson considers that it was prob- 
ably never a large temple, but adds that 
the dome of its porch, which measures 
38 ft. across, is as large as any we know 
of its age. The interior of the porch is 
even now in its ruins very striking. 
'*From what fragments of its sculptured 
decorations remain, they must have 
been of great beauty, quite equal to 
anything we know of this class of their 
age. " It WM, no doubt, like the temple 



of HflOiiiiith, on GImar, muxoimdidlf 
an enolofure which woild make lt«: 
strong place. Now the temple 




Plan of Temple of Somnath by J. Buigen. 

alone, stripped even of its marble ; like, 
but superior to, the temples at Dabhoii 
and liakkundi There are three en- 
trances to the porch, and a corridor 
round the central octagonal spaoe, 
which was covered by the great dome, 
There are four smaller domes. The 
dome in the centre is supported by 
eight pillars and eight arches, and no 
wood seems to have been used. The 
pillar on the right hand, looking from 
the E., next but one before reaching 
the adytum, has an inscription, which 
is all illegible but the date, Samwst 
1697 = 1640 A.D. The walls on the 
N., S., and W. sides have each two 
handsomely carved niches, in which 
there have been idols. 

The temple is said to have been first 
built of gold by Somraj, then of silver 
by Ravana, then of wood by Krishna, 
and then of stone by Bhimdeva. Though 
three times destroyed by the Moham- 
medans, it was nevertheless three times 
rebuilt, and so late as 1700 A.D. was 
still a place of great sanctity. Bat in 
1706 Aurangzib ordered its destruction. 



BOUIB 7. PATAK BOMKATR 



108 



m^ tlMTtiMnii tmy wiMn to believe 
^Mt ibie order wae carried out 

Sultftn Maltmnd's celebrated expedi- 
tion was in 1025 a.d. ; he seems to nave 
ttarched with such rapidity, by way of 
Gnzerat, that the Hinda rajas were 
unable to collect their forces for its 
defence. Thence he seems to have 
marched upon Somnath, and after a 
sharp fight for two days to have oon- 

?uered both the city and the temple, 
mmense spoU was found in the temple, 
and after a short stay Mahmud returned 
to Ghazni. It was on this occasion 
that he is supposed to have carried off 
the famous so-called ''Gates of Som- 
nath/' now in the fort at Agra. The 
trareller may at once dismiss from his 
mind as a fable that the gates brought 
from Ghazni to Agra in Lord Ellen- 
borough's time were taken from Som- 
nath. They are of Saracenic design, 
and are constructed of Himalayan cedar 
(see Agra).^ Elliot says that 10,000 popu- 
lated villages were held by the temple as 
an endowment, and that 300 musicians 
and 500 dancing-girls were attached to 
it There were also 800 barbers to shave 
the heads of the pilgrims. 

The confluence of the Three riyen, 
or Triffenif to the £. of the town, has 
been, no doubt, a sacred spot from 
times of remote antiquity. To reach 
this the traveller will proceed through 
the E. gate, called the Nana^ or "small," 
also the Sangam, or "confluence gate." 
It has pilasters on either side, and on 
the capitals figures are represented issu- 
ing out of the mouths of Makars, a 
fiibuloud crocodile, which in Hindu 
mythology is the emblem of the God 
of Love. About a J m. E. of the gate, 
outside it, you come to a pool on the 
right hand, called the Eund, and a 
small building on the left called the 
Adi Tirth, and then to a temple and 
the Tirth of Triveni, where people are 
always bathing. The stream here is 
from 200 to 800 yds. broad, and runs 
into the sea. N. of this, about 200 
yds. off, is the Snraj Handlr, or temple 
to the sun, half broken down by Mah- 
mud, standing on high ground, and 
wondrously old and curious. Over the 

1 There is a beautiful illustration of them 
Id Tula's Marin Polo. 



with a tree between each two. Inside 
the adytum is a round red mark for 
the sun, not ancient ; and below is t 
figure of a goddess, also coloured red. 
On the W. and S. outer walls are masses 
of carving much worn. At the bottom 
there is a frieze of Keshari lions, that 
is, Hons with elephants* trunks. This 
temple is probably of the same age as 
that of Somnath. About 260 yds. to 
the W. is a vast tomb, quite plain ; and 
below, in a sort of (juarry, is a subter- 
raneous temple, which is called Ahdi 
Shah's. The same name is given to 
a mosque with six cupolas to the N., 
which has been a Hindu temple. 

Returning from this, and reentering 
the Nana Gate, proceed 200 yds. to the 
N.W., where is the temple built by 
Ahalya Bai, to replace the ancient Som- 
nath. Below the temple is another, 
reached by descending 22 steps. The 
dome of this subterraneous building is 
supported by 16 pillars. The temple 
itself is 18 ft. sq. It is of no interest 
except on account of its builder, Ahalya 
Bai 

Returning towards Verawal, about \ 
m. outside the Patau Gate is the Hal 
Pari, which in ancient times was a 
temple to the sun. The carving of 
this building is exquisite, and in better 
preservation than that of the temple of 
Somnath. In the centre of the build- 
ing is an enclosure 6 ft sq., in which 
Mai Puri, **the Perfect Mother," is 
buried. A legend is told about her, 
which alleges that she brought about 
the siege of Somnath by Mahmud. 
The temp]e or mosque, as the Moslems 
have made it, contains a mass of old 
Hindu carving, still beautiful though 
mutilated. This temple is a perfect 
gem, and ought to be visited by everv 
traveller. About 300 yds. to the E. is 
a plain stone enclosure on the right of 
the road, in which are the tombs of 
J'afar and Muzaffar, quite plain, but 
with pillars 8 ft. high at the headafcone. 
Not far from the Mai Puri is the tomb 
of Silah Shah. There is a curious stand 
for lamps here carved in stone, in the 
shape of a crown. To the S.E., about 
50 yds., is the tomb of Mangroli Shah, 
which has been resto^edf before reach- 



164 



BOUTS 7. AHMSDABAD TO SOICSTATH 



India 



ing tlM ihrine yoa dui through the 
porch of an ancient Hindu tem^e. 

Not far from this spot is the Bhid 
BJianjcm Pagoda on the sea -shore, 
locaDy known as Bhidiyo, very old, 
perhaps of the 14th century. It is 60 
ft. high, and forms a good mark for 
sailors. To the £. of the pagoda is a 
clear space, where Englishmen coming 
from Kajkot pitch their tents. 

Many coasting steamers call at Vera- 
wal, and a traveller can go by sea to 
Bombay or to Porbandar, Cutch, or 
Karachi If he desires to return by 
land, he retraces his steps to Jetalsar 
June 

(2) Jetalsar to Porbamdar. 

9 m. Dhoraji, an important com- 
mercial town, pop. 16,000. 

79 m., Porbandar terminal sta., 
D.B., E. of the town, the capital of the 
state of that name, and a place of some 
interest. It is identified with the ancient 
city of SudAmpuri, known to readers of 
the BTtagawUa, Near this is an old 
temple of Sud&ma. The line is con- 
tinned for goods traffic along the shore 
to the creek W. of the town, where it ter- 
minates in a wharf. Here the traveller 
has reached a very old-world corner, 
not recommended to visitors in a hurry, 
but very interesting to those who have 
leisure, or to sportsmen. The coasting 
'steamers between Bombay and Kar- 
achi touch at Porbandar. 

[The places of interest in the neigh- 
bourhood are — 

(a) Shrinagar, 9 m. N.W. of Porban- 
dar, believed to have been the first 
capital of the Jethwa Rajputs. There 
are remains of an ancient temple of 
the sun. 

(6) Miani, a very ancient seaport 
18 m. N.W. of Porbandar. To the 
extreme N.W. in the district of 
Okhamandal, directly under the Gaek- 
war of Baroda are some of the most 
sacred Hiindu Temples in India, e.g, 
those at Dwarka ("door") and Beyt 
("island"). The original possessors 
of the place were a warlike tribe of 
Rqputs, called " Whagire,'' who wfere 
notorious pirates up to the early part 
of the 1 9 th century, and, though reduced 



at that time by the Biitiih Gorera* 
ment, still cling to their former tradi- 
tions by which each man believes that 
he is a prince in his own right. 

(c) Ghaya, a village 2 m. S.E of 
Porbandar, was once the capital. The 
old palace is stiU there. 

(d) Bilesh/war, S m. N. of Ranawao 
sta., a small village E. of the Baida 
Hills. There is here a fine temple of 
considerable antiquity, and in good 
preservation. 

(e) Ghumli or BhumXi, is about 12 m. 
N. of Bilesliwar, or 24 m. from Po^ 
bandar by the road passing W. of the 
Barda Hills. This place is now abso- 
lutely ruined and deserted ; it was th« 
jcapital of the Jethwas when at the zenith I 
of theirpower. It lies in a gorge of the 
Barda mils; theruinsareofthellthor 
12th century. The most interestLog | 
remains are the Lakhota, the Ganesh I 
Dehia, the Bampol, the Jeta Wao, and i 
the group of temples near the Son { 
Kansari Tank, and some ruins on the 
summit of the Abapura Hill. It was 
at one time a large flourishing city. It ' 
is about 4 m. S. of Bhanwar, a fort he- ' 
longing to the Jam of Nawanagar.^ . 

40 m. S.E. from Porbandar, at Mad' | 

havapnr, Krishna is said to have been 

married. There is an Important temple 

dedicated to him there.] 

(3) Jetalsar to Rajkot^ Vankaner and 

Wadhwan, 

23 m. Ctondal is the capital of the 
state of that name, and the residence 
of the chief. It is a cheerful, well- 
cared-for town, with many handsome 
temples. The public offices are situated 
outside the town on open sites sur- 
rounded by ^dens. The courtyard 
of the palace is very handsome. 

46 m. Bajkot sta.,30c a civil and 
military station, the residence of tiie 
Political Agent, and the headquarters 
of the administration. 

The most important public work in 
Kajkot is the Kaisar-i-ffind Bridge 
over the Aji river, built by Mr. S. B. 
Booth, whose name is connected with 
nearly every important modem build- 
ing in the Province. The total cost 
of the bridge was 117,500 rs., of which 

1 Ghumlf Is illoBtrated in Borgou's Second 
ArehcBoLM^ 



BOUTE 8. BEWARI OJO FEB02Sf TTB 



ie5 



the Chief of Bhaiinagar paid all but 
7500 rs. THe munificent donor of this 
bridge was educated at the Rajkumar 
C!ollege, on which he bestowed 100,000 
IS. to build a wing and a residence 
for the principal, and further contri- 
buted 60,000 re. to the Endowment 
Fund. 

The Bajkumar College deserves a 
visit, as the place where the young 
princes of Eattywar are educated. It 
was opened in 1870. On the ground 
floor is a fine hall, which gives access to 
the class-rooms. Some good portraits 
hang on the walls. Alone both fronts 
is a massive verandah, and over the E. 
entrance a rectangular tower 66 ft. 
high. The entrance is on the W., and 
is flanked by two circular towers. The 
N. and S. wings contain 32 suites of 
bedrooms and sitting-rooms, bath- 
rooms and lavatories. To the W. of 
the N. wing is a chemical laboratory, 
and on the opposite side a gymnasium 
and racquet-court. N. of the labora- 
tory are extensive stables. The young 
princes, besides playing all manly 

ries, are drilled as a troop of cavalry, 
of the quadrangle are the houses of 
the Principal and vice-principal, with 
extensive gardens. S. of the buildings 
is the cricket-field of 19 acres. The 
college was founded by Col. Keatinge. 

The JTigh School was opened in Janu- 
ary 1876. It cost 70, 000 rs, , which were 
given by the Nawab of Junagadh. In 
the centre is a fine hall. 

N.E. of Rajkot are the Jubilee Water 
Works, which are for the supply of the 
town. 

A branch line runs to (64 m.) Nawa- 
nagar or Jamnagar, capital of the 
state of that name, whence Mandvi 
can be reached by native craft. 
Small steamers occasionally ply between 
Beoi, near Nawanagar, and Bombay. 
The best way to reach Mandvi would 
be by steamer direct from Bombay. 
Steamers call about twice a week. 

From Rajkot the Morvi State Rail- 
way (a narrow-gauge (2-5) line) runs 
N.E. to Wadhwan, via Van^aner junc. 
8ta. (26 m.) This is the capital of a 
small state and the residence of the 
chiet The country around is undukt- 
ing, rising into hills W. and S. of the 



town. From Vankaner the line runs E. 
to (51 m.) Wadhwan, and (91 m.) Vir- 
amgam (see p. 162). From this point 
a line runs to Mehsana (see p. 118) for 
Ajmere, Delhi, etc. 



ROUTE 8 
Rbwaki to Eerozepur 

Bewari junc. sta. is 62 m. S.W. of 
Delhi, described in Rte. 6. (p. 181). 

62 m. Bhewani sta., with 36,000 
people, chiefly Hindus. 

74 m. Hansi sta., D.B., a modem town 
of 14,000 inhabitants, lies on the W. 
Jumna Canal. It is said to have been 
founded by Anangpal Tuar, King of 
Delhi, and was long the capital of 
Hariana. There are ruins of an ancient 
Citadel and some remains of gateways, 
and a high brick wall, with bastions 
and loop-holes. This old town has no 
connection with the new, which, like 
many others in this district, owes its 
origin to the establishment of a secure 
British rule, and the opening up of 
the country by railways. The canal 
which flows by it is fringed with hand- 
some trees, in 1783 it was desolated 
by famine, but in 1796 the famous 
sailor adventurer George Thomas fixed 
his headquarters at Hansi, which 
forthwith began to revive. Col. 
Skinner, C.B., settled here in 1829, 
In 1802 British rule was established, 
and a cantonment was fixed here in 
which a considerable force, chiefly 
of local levies, was stationed. In 
1867 these troops mutinied, murdered 
all the Europeans they could lay hands 
upon, and plundered the country 
When peace was restored the canton- 
ment was abandoned. At Tosham, 
23 m. S.W., are some ancient inscrip- 
tions. They are cut in the rock hfidf 
the way up, as is a tank which is 
much visited by pilgrims, who come 



166 



ttotrEE d. bewaM to ihEROtkvirk 



tniia 



from giMt dlstanoea to the yearly fair 
there. 

89 m. HiMwr sta. (R.X D.B. Pop. 
16,000. The W, Jumna Canal mAdehy 
the Emperor Feroz Shah oroeses from E. 
to W- In 1826 it was restored by the 
British. In this place as well as in 
Hansi the local levies revolted during 
the Mutiny of 1857, and murdered 
14 Christians, to whom a monument 
is erected beside the little church, 
but before Delhi was taken, a body 
of Sikh levies, aided by contingents 
from Patiala and Bickanur, under 
General Van Cortlandt, utterly routed 
them. 

As at Hansi, so here the modern 
town owes its present prosperity to a 
settled rule and to the introduction of 
railways. Like many other colonies, it 
baa beien formed at the foot of an old 
ruined town, which lies to the S. of 
it. It was founded in 1354 a.d. by 
the Emperor Feroz Shah, whose favour- 
ite residence it became. It is the 
centre of mounds and architectural 
remains, having lain on the main 
track from Mooltan to Delhi in pre- 
Kussalman times. At Hissar there 
ifl a Government cattle -farm {Bir), 
managed by a European superin- 
tendent, and attached to it is an estate 
of 43,287 acres for pasturage. 

The District of Hissar borders on the 
Rajputana Desert, and is itself little 
better than a waste, scattered over with 
low bushes. The water-supply is in- 
adequate, the average rainfall being 
only 16 in. The chief stream is the 
Ohuggar, which, with scant verdure 
alon^ its banks, winds through the 
district like a green riband. The Hissar 
•branch of the Western Jumna Canal 
passes through a part of the district. 

140 m. Sirsa sta. Pop. 16,000. 
The town and fort are supposed to have 
been founded by one Raja Saras, about 
the middle of the 6th century. A 
Muslim historian mentions it as Sarsuti. 
A great cattle -fair is held here in 
August and September, at which 150,000 
head of cattle are exposed for sale. 

187 m. Batinda junc. sta. (1400 
inhab.) From this place lines run £. 



t^ Patiala, Rajpura, and Umballa, and 
W. to Bahawalpur, Hydrabad and 
Karachi. There is a very high pictor- 
esque fort seen well from the railway, 
but the modem town contains nothing 
of special interest. It was brought into 
existence by the B^tish shortly beforB 
the Mutiny. 

213 m. Kot-Kapnra juno. sta. (B.) 
From here a branch line of 50 m. runs 
W. to Fazilka on the SuUej river. 

241 m. Ferozepur sta. (R.), D.B. 
Pop. 40,000. There is a fort and a 
military cantonment 2 m. to the S.' 
The place was founded in the time of 
Feroz Shah, Emperor of Delhi, 1351-87 
A.D. At the time of occupation by the 
British it was in a declining state, bnt 
through the exertions of Sir Heniy 
Lawrence and his successors it has 
increased to its present importance. 
There is a large commerce and a cotton- 1 
press. The main streets are wide and ; 
well paved, while a circular road which 
girdles the wall is lined by the gardens | 
of wealthy residents. 

The Fort, which contains the prin-| 
cipal arsenal in the Panjab, was rebuilt I 
in 1858, and greatly strengthened in' 
1887. The railway and the trunk road 
to Lahore separate it and the town 
from the Cantonment. 

The Memorial Churckj in honour of 
those who fell in the Sutlej campaign 
of 1845-46, was destroyed in the 
Mutiny, but has since been restored. 

In the cemetery lie many dis- 
tinguished soldiers, amongst them 
Major George Broadfoot, C.fi., Gover- 
nor-Generars Agent, N.W. Frontier, 
who fell at Ferozeshah in 1846, and 
Generals Sale and Dick. 

On the 16th of December 1845 the 
Sikhs invaded the district, but, after 
desperate fighting, were repulsed. Since 
then peace has prevailed, except during 
the Mutiny of 1857. In May of that 
year one of the two Sepoy regiments 
stationed at Ferozepur revolted, and, in 
spite of a British regiment and some 
English artillery, plundered and de- 
stroyed the Cantonment. 

The three great battlefields of theFint 
Sikh War can best be visited fiom 
this point Ferozeshah, where the battio 



ftOOTBJ 9. JBTPORB TO AGRA 



10? 



: Was fonght on 21st and 22d December 
1 1845, is distant 13 m. in a S.E. direction, 
and Moodki is 10 m. beyond it in a 
straight line. The fight at the latter 
place was on the 18th December 1845. 
Sobraon was the scene of a great battle 
on 10th February 1846. ft is 24 m. 
distant from Ferozepur in an N.E. 
direction.^ 

64 m. from Ferozepur Lahore sta. 
(seep. 199.) 



ROUTE 9 

Jeypore to Agra 

From Jeypore to Bandikui junc. 
sta. (R.), 56 m. (see p. 130). 

116 m. Blmrtpur or Bharatpur sta., 
D.B., the residence of the Maharaja chief 
of the Jat state (67,000 inhab.) The 
ruling family is descended from a Jat 
Zamindar named Churaman, who har- 
assed the rear of Auranffzib's army during 
his expedition to the Deccan. He was 
mcceeded by his brother and after him 
by his nephew, Suraj Mall, who fixed 
his capital at B hurt pur, and subse- 
quently (1760) drove out the Maratha 
goyemor from Agra, and made it his 
own residence. 

In 1765 the Jats were repulsed before 
Delhi and driven out of Agra. 

In 1782 Sindia seized Bhurtpur 
and the territory ; however, he restored 
14 districts to them, and when he got 
into difficulties at Lalkot he made an 
alliance with the Jat chief Ranjit Sin- 
dia ; and the Jats were defeated by 
Ghulam Kadir at Fatehpur-Sikri, anS 
were driven back on Bhurtpur, but 
being reinforced at the end of the same 
year, in 1788, they raised the blockade 
of Agra, and Sindia recovered it. In 
1808 the British Government made a 

1 See TAe Sikfu and tlM Sikh, Wan by 
06neml Googh, Y.O., and A. D. Innee. 



treaty with Ranjit, who joined Gkfneral 
Lake at Agra with 5000 horse, and re- 
ceived territory in return. But Ranjit 
intrigued with Jaswant Rao Holkar. 
Then followed the siege of Bhurtour 
by Lake, who was repulsed with a loss 
of 3000 men. Ranjit then made over- 
tures for peace, which were accepted on 
the 4th of May 1805. Troubles again 
breaking out regarding the succession, 
Bhurtpur was again besieged, and on 
the 18th of January 1826, after a siege 
of six weeks, the place was stormed % 
Gen. Lord Combermere. The loss oif 
the besieged was estimated at 6000 men 
killed and wounded. The British had 
108 killed, and 477 wounded and 
missing. 

The Walled City of Bhurtpur is an 
irregular oblong, lying N.E. and S.W. 
The Inner Fort is contained in the N. E. 
half of the outer fort Three palaces 
run right across the centrie of the inner 
fort from E. to W., that to the E. being 
the Eaja's Palace. Next is an old 
palace built by Badan Sing. To the 
W. is a palace which is generally styled 
the Eamara ; it is furnished in a semi- 
European style. 

There are only two gates to the inner 
fort, the Chau Burj Gate on the S*, and 
the Asaldati on the N. The bastion 
at the N. W. corner of the inner fort is 
called the Jowaha/r Burjt and is worth 
ascending for the view. N. of the 
Eamara Palace is the Court of Justice, 
the Jewel Office, and the Jail. On the 
road between the Chau Burj Gate of 
the inner fort and the Anah Gate of 
the outer fort are the Ganga ki Mandir, 
a market-place, the new mosque, and 
the Lakhshmanji temple. 

133 m. Achnera junc. sta. (R.) 
This is the junction of a line of railway 
passing through Muttra to Bindraban 
and to Hathras on the East Indian Rail- 
way. Also to Farakhabad, Fatehgarh, 
and Cawnpore. As, however, the 
journey from Agra to Cawnpore can be 
made more conveniently by the East 
Indian Railway, this route will not be 
described in detail. (For Muttra, Bin- 
draban,. and Dig see Rte. 10.) Fateli- 
pnr-Sikri (see below) is 10 m. &W. 
from Aohnera by a direct track, aad 



168 

nearly 18 
road. 



BOUTS 9. JKTFOBK TO AGBA 



Jndift 



via Kiraoli and the Agra 



149 m. AGRA Fort ■U.^c (R.), 
D.B. where travellers alight for the 
hotels. It is W. of the Fort, inst 
outside the Delhi Gate, and is need by 
all the lines ranning into Agra. The 
cantonment sta., June of the Indian 
Midland Bly. to Gwalior and Jhansi, is 
2 m. S. of the Fort sta. Abont 1 m. nn 
the river is the Pontoon Bridge whicn 
leads from the city to the old Bast 
Indian Railway station, now used for 
goods only. 

This is the second ci^ in size and 
importance of the N.W. Provinces, 
and has a pop. of 165,000. It is 841 
m. distant from Calcutta by rail, and 
139 m. from Delhi It stands on the 
W. or right bank of the Jumna, here 
crossed by a ^ilway Bridge of 1 6 spans. 



Itinerary. 

Though a week might veiy pleasantly 
be spent in visiting the sights in and 
around Agra, they can be seen in 
shorter time, and for those persons who 
have not many days at their disposal 
the following Itinerary may be of ser- 



1st Day, Morning, — Fort and Palace. 
Afternoon, — Drive to the Jnmma Mus- 
jld and on to the Taj. 

2d Day, Morning, — Drive to Sikan- 
darah. Afternoon. — To Itimadud- 
daulah, and Chini ka Roza. 

Most people will like to visit some of 
the places more than once. A full day, or 
better still, 24 hours should be devoted 
to the excursion to Fatehpur-Sikri. 

The old Native City covered about 
11 sq. m., half of which area is still 
inhabited. It is clean and has a good 
bazaar. The chief Articles of Native 
Manufacture are gold and silver em- 
broidery, carving in soapstone, and 
imitation of the old inlay work {pietra 
dura) on white marble. 



The Cantonment and Civil Station 
lie to the S. and S. W. of the Fort, and 
£. of them on the river bank is the 
famous Tig. 

History. — Nothine certain is knows 
of Agra before the Mohammedan period. 
The house of Lodi was the first Mo- 
hammedan dynasty which chose Agn 
for an occasional residence. Befoni 
their time Agra was a district of Bi 
Sikandar bin Bahlol Lodi died at Am 
in 1515 A-D., but was buried at DeLm. 
Sikandar Lodi built the Barahdaii 
Palace, near Sikandarah, which suborl 
received its name from him. The Led! 
Khan ka Tila, or Lodi's Mound, isnoH 
built over with modem houses ; itis saij 
to be the site of the palace of the Lodi^ 
called Badalgarh. Babar is said to ha^ 
had a garden-palace on the E. bank 
the Jumna, nearly opposite the Taj, az 
there is a mosque near the spot, with « 
inscription which shows that it wai 
built by Babar's son Humayun, in 1531 

A.D. 

On the Agra side of the river, nes 
the Barracks, there are the remains i 
an ancient garden. Mr. Carlleyle thinla 
it was the place where Akbar encampd 
when he first came to Agra. In it i 
the shrine of Kamal Khan, 40 ft long 
and rectangular. It has red sandston 

Eillars YfilSk square shafts and Hind] 
racket capitals. Broad eaves projea 
from above the entablatures, and an 
supported by beautiful open-wod 
brackets of a thoroughly Hindu cha» 
acter. The great well is at the bad 
of Kamal Khan's shrine ; it is 220 ft 
in circumference, with a 16-sided ex< 
terior, each side measuring 18 ft. 9 in.a 
at it 52 people could draw water at oncflk 
From such works it appears that Aat 
was the seat of government unaerl 
Babar and Humayun, though after 
Humayun's restoration he resided 
frec^uently at Delhi, and died and was 
buned there. Agra town was probably 
then on the bank of the Jamua. Akbu 
removed from Fatehpur-Sikri to Agra 
about 1568. The only buildings that 
can now be attributed to Akbar him- 
self are the walls, the Magazine to 
the S. of the Water Gate, once 
Akbar's audience - hall, and tb.e red 



BOUTB 9. AGRA 



169 



palace in tlie fort. He died at Agra 
m 1605. Jehangir left Agra in 1618, 
and never returned. Shan Jehan re- 
sided at Agra from 1632 to 1637, and 
built the Fort and Palace and the 
T«y. He was deposed by his son Aurang- 
leb in 1658, but lived as a State prisoner 
seven years longer at Agra. Aurang- 
zeb removed the seat of government 
permanently to Delhi. In 1764 Agra was 
taken by Suraj Mall, of Bhurtpur and 
Smnroo, with an army of Jats, who did 
much damage to the town. In 1770 the 
Harathas captured it, and were expelled 
by Najaf Khan in 1774. In 1784 Mu- 
hammad Beg was Governor of Agra, 
and was besieged by Mahadaji Sindia, 
who took it in 1784, and the Marathas 
held it till it was taken by Lord Lake, 
17th October 1803. Since then it has 
been a British possession. From 1835- 
1858 the seat of government of the 
K.W. Provinces was removed to Agra 
from Allahabad. 

On the 30th May 1857 two companies 
of the 40th and 67th N.L, who had 
been sent to Muttra to bring the 
treasure there into Agra, mutinied and 
marched off to Delhi. Next morning 
tiieir comrades were ordered to pile 
arms, which they did, and most of 
them went to their homes. On the 4th 
the Eotah contingent mutinied, and 
went off to join the Neemuch mutineers, 
consisting of a strong brigade of all 
arms. Their camp was 2 m. from the 
Agra cantonment, at Suchata. On 
5tQ July, Brigadier Polwhele moved 
out with 816 men to attack them. 
The battle began with artillery, but 
the enemy were so well posted, sheltered 
by low trees and walls and natural 
earthworks, that the British fired into 
them with little damage. At 4 p.m. 
the British ammunition was expended ; 
then Col. Biddell advanced with the 
English soldiers, and captured the 
village of Shahganj, but with such 
heavy loss that they were unable to 
hold* their ground, and were obliged 
to retreat into the Fort of Agra. The 
rebels burnt the cantonments, murdered 
all Europeans who were found out- 
side the Fort, and then marched to 
Delhi. 

There were now 6000 men, women, 



and children, of whom only 1600 
were Hindus and Mohammedans, shut 
up in the Fort. Among these were 
nuns from the banks of the Garonne 
and the Loire, priests from Sicily and 
Rome, missionaries from Ohio and 
Basle, mixed with rope-dancers from 
Paris and pedlars from America. 
The fort was put in a thorough state 
of defence. Soon after Brigadier Pol- 
whele was superseded, and Col. Cotton 
took his place. On the 20th of August 
he sent out his Brig. -Major Mont- 
gomery with a small column, and on 
the 24th Montgomery defeated the 
rebels at Aligarh, and took the place. 
On the 9th September Mr. Colvin, 
Lieut. -Governor of N.W. Provinces, 
died. When Delhi was captured by 
the British in September, the fugitive 
rebels, together with those of Central 
India, advanced, on 6th October, against 
Agra. Meantime Col. Greathed's cmumn 
from Delhi entered the city without 
their knowledge, and when they, un- 
suspicious of his presence, attacked 
the place, they were completely routed 
and dispersed. Agra was thus relieved 
from all danger. 

The Taj Mahal should be seen more 
than once. The best time for a first 
visit is late in the afternoon. A good 
road leads to it, made in the famine 
of 1838. It stands on the brink of 
the Jumna, a little more than 1 m. 
E. of the Fort. The building is pro- 
perly named Taj Mbi he Jtoza, or 
••The Crown Lady's Tomb." The 
Taj with its surroundings is a spot of 
unequalled beauty. The heroic size, 
the wonderful contrast of colours in the 
materials employed, the setting of noble 
trees, sweet shrubs, and clear water, 
form a combination that we seek in 
vain elsewhere. This mausoleum was 
commenced in 1040 A.H., or 1630 A.p., 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan, as a tomb 
for his favourite queen, Arjmand Banu, 
entitled Mumtaz Mahsd, lit. the 
** Chosen of the Palace," or more freely, 
** Pride of the Palace." She was the 
daughter of Asaf Khan, brother of 
Nurjehan, the famous empress- wife of 
Jehangir. Their father was Mirza 
Ghiyas, a Persian, who came from 



1?0 



ftOUTB 9. JETPORB HO AGRA 



IfuZis 



Teheran to seek his fortune in India, 
and rose to power nnder the title of 
Itimadu 'd-danlah. His tomb is de- 
scribed below. Mnmtaz - i • Mahal 
married Shah Jehan in 1615 A.D., had 
by him seven children, and died in child- 
bed of the eighth in 1629, at Barhanpur, 
in the Deccan. Her body was brought 
to Ajgra, and laid in the garden where 
the Taj stands until the mausoleum 
was built The Taj cost, according to 
some accounts, 18,465,186 rs., and, 
according to other accounts, 31,748,026 
rs. It took upwards of seventeen years 
to build, and much of the materials and 
labour remained unpaid for. According 
to Shah Jehan's own memoirs, the 
masons received 30 lakhs. There 
were originally two silver doors at the 
entrance, but these were taken away 
and melted by Suraj Mall and his Jats. 
It is uncertain who was the principal 
architect, but Austin de Bordeaux was 
then in the Emperor's service. He was 
buried at Agra, and it is probable that 
he took part in the decoration, and 
especially in the inlaid work, of the 
mausoleum. 

The approach to the Taj is by the 
Taj Oanj Gate, which opens into an 
outer court 880 ft. long and 440 ft. 
wide, in which (1.) is the Qreat (Gate- 
way of the garden -court, which Mr. 
Fergusson calls "a worthy pendant to 
the Taj itself." It is indeed a superb 
gateway, of red sandstone, inlaid with 
ornaments and inscriptions from the 
Koran, in white marble, and surmounted 
by 26 white marble cupolas. Before 
passing under the gateway, observe the 
noble caravanserai outside, and an 
equally fine building on the other side. 
Bayard Taylor says : ** Whatever may 
be the visitor's impatience, he cannot 
help pausing to notice the fine propor- 
tions of these structures, and the rich 
and massive style of their construction." 
They are not only beautiful, but they 
increase the glories of the mausoleum 
itself, by the contrast of their somewhat 
stem red sandstone with the soft and 
pearl-like white marble of which it is 
buUt. 

Having passed the gateway, the 
visitor finds himself in a beautiful gar- 
den. In the centre is a channel of 



water, which runs the whole length of 
the garden, and has 23 fountains in its 
course. The beds of the garden are 
filled with the choicest shrubs and 
cypress trees, equal in size and beanty 
to those of Mazandarun. It is now 
that the mausoleum presents itself to 
the gaze in all its glory. It stands in 
the centre of a platform, faced with 
white marble, exactly 313 ft sq. and 
18 ft. high, with a white minaret at 
each comer 138 ft. high. It is a sq. 
of 186 ft with the comers cut off 
to the extent of 33^ ft. The principal 
dome is 58 ft. in diameter, and 80 ft 
in height 

The Taj was repaired before the Prince 
of Wales's visit. The dome is brick 
veneered with marble, and all the slabs 
with which it is faced were examined, 
and repointed where necessary. The 
marble was damaged chiefly by the 
swelling of the iron clamps during 
oxidation. 

In every angle of the mausoleum is 
a small domical apartment, two stories 
high, and these are connected by 
various passages and halls. Under the 
centre of the dome, enclosed by "a 
trellis-work screen of white marble, 
a chef d*osttvre of elegance in Indian 
art," are the tombs of Mumtaz-i-Mahal 
and Shah Jehan. "These, however, 
as is usual in Indian sepulchres, are 
not the true tombs — the bodies rest in 
a vault, level with the surface of the 
ground beneath plainer tombstones 

E laced exactly beneath those in the 
all above." In the apartment above, 
where the show tombs are, " the light," 
says Mr. Fergusson, " is admitted only 
through double screens of white marble 
trellis-work of the most exquisite de- 
sign, one on the outer and one on the 
inner face of the walls. In oar climate 
this would produce nearly complete 
darkness ; but in India, and in a build- 
ing wholly composed of white marble, 
this was required to temper the glare 
that otherwise would have been intoler- 
abh. As it is, no words can express 
the chastened beauty of that central 
chamber, seen in the soft gloom of the 
subdued light that reaches it through 
the distant and half- closed openings 
that surronnd it. When used as i 






To face p. 170. 



Section and Plan of the Taj Mahal. 



THE FORT 

AGRA 




2, Des&iiit to WEtttr (late, 

^ NaffiiuUi Mns.iid auti Ijnites' privato linzaar- 

4* riuiall Gotirts and mins of Baths* 

5i Opeij Terrace ivt Ih D i h Ai 1 1- Kl las oi i li i^ide. 

fiL RfiC4?fls where the KinpiTor's Tdrojits 

7. tit wa H'i 'Am ( Ila ] 1 of Pii bl ic Aud i i^n co). 

S. .Machehl Hliavvaii. 

t'. ^^^ Calvin 'a (ira-^t'i, 

10. Th« >farbld Jiatha uf Urn Piincesseij, 



VL iS^uiian Burj (Jasminfj Tovier) (flt Ni 
an^lH fs as I outlet by sjsccret i)fti»Riiis]i 

13. kliaVMahal 

14. Shish :MBhal (Mirror Palace). 

15. Well. 

1 e. P[i]ar:p of JshBTii^r (or AkbarX 
17, Tuwer, At tlie tiaae ia an ciiiti&ticf I 

a secret passavie. 

15, Inrliiif! from Umjuer Sing's Gate. 

16. Iliifiizs of Bilnce of Akbar. 

20. K)<7phant Gate. 

21. Court af Ummer Slug's Gutei 



To Jncfjfi 17L 



k>tn!II §. AQRA 



m 



Barahdari, or pleasnre-palace, it must 
always have been the coolest and the 
ioyeUest of garden retreats, and now 
that it is sacred to the dead, it is the 
most graceful and the most impressive 
of sepulchres in the world. This build- 
ing too is an exquisite example of that 
system of inlaying with precious stones 
which became the great characteristic 
of the style of the Moguls after the 
death of Akbar. All l^e spandrils of 
the Taj, all the angles and more im- 
portant details, are heightened by being 
mlaid with precious stones. These are 
combined in wreaths, scrolls, and frets 
as exquisite in design as beautiful in 
colour. They form the most beautiful 
and precious style of ornament ever 
adopted in architecture. Though of 
course not to be compared with the 
beauty of Greek ornament, it certainly 
'stands first among the purely decorative 
forms of architectural design. This 
mode of ornamentation is lavishly be- 
stowed on the tombs themselves and 
the screen that surrounds them. 
The judgment with which this style 
of ornament is apportioned to the 
various parts is almost as remarkable 
as the ornament itself, and conveys a 
high idea of the taste and skill of the 
Indian architects of the age" (see 
3isL of Arch.) 

The delicately sculptured ornamenta- 
tion, in low relief, to be found in all 
parts of the building, is in its way as 
beautiful as the pietra dura work 
itself. 

There are two wings to the mauso- 
leum, one of which is a mosque. Any- 
where else they would be considered 
i* important buildings. There are three 
inscriptions: 1046 A. h. =1636 A.D., 
1048 A.H.=1638 A.D., and 1057 a.h. 
= 1647 A.D. Mr. Keene, who has given 
an excellent account of the Taj, thinks 
that "the inscriptions show the order 
in which the various parts of the build- 
ing were completed. Such then is 
this **poem in marble," whose beauty 
has been faintly shadowed out. It 
should be seen if possible by moon- 
light, as well as by day. The S. face, 
which looks upon the warden, is per- 
haps the most beautiful, but the N. 
front which rises above the Jumna, 



derives an additi(mal charm from the 
broad waters which roll past it 

The Fort. — Most of the magnifi- 
cent Mo^ul building which render 
Agra so mteresting in the eye of the 
traveller are situated within the Fort. 
They justify the remark of Bishop Heber 
that " the Moguls designed like Titans 
and finished like jewellers." The Fort 
stands on the right bank of the Jumna. 
The walls and nanking defences are of 
red sandstone, and have an imposing 
anpearance, being nearly 70 ft. hign. 
The ditch is 80 ft. wide and 35 ft. deep. 
The water gate on the E. is closed, but 
there are still 2 entrances — the Ummer 
Sing gate on the S., the Delhi Gate 
on the "W. Within it, and approached 
by a somewhat steep slope, is another 
gateway called the Hathiya Darwazah 
" Elephant Gate," or Inner Delhi Gate. 
There used to be two stone elephants 
here with figures of Patta and Jaimall, 
two famous Rajput champions ; they 
were removed, but the marks where their 
feet were fixed may still be traced on 
the platforms on either side of the arch- 
way. There are here two octagonal 
towers of red sandstone, relieved with 
designs in white plaster: the passage 
between these is covered by a dome. 
Following the road, the traveller will 
then pass the Mini Bazaar, now barrack 
premises, and reach 

The Moti MuBJid, the "Pearl 
Mosque," Fergusson describes as "one 
of the purest and most elegant build- 
ings of its class to be found any- 
where." It was commenced 1056 A.H. 
= 1648 A.D., and finished 1063 A.H.= 
1655 A.D., and is said to have cost 
300,000 rs. It was built by Shah 
Jehan on ground sloping from W. to E. 
The exterior is faced with slabs of red 
sandstone, but within with marble — 
white, blue, and gray veined. The 
entrance gateway of red sandstone, 
which is very fine, makes a trihedral 
projection from the centre of the E. 
face of the mosque, and is approached 
by a double staircase. ** The moment 
you enter, the effect of its courtyard is 
surpassingly beautiful." 



172 



ROUTE 9. JETPOBS TO AOBA 



tndU 



In the centre there is a marble tank, 
37 ft. 7 in. sq., for ablutions, and be- 
tween it and the S.E. inner comer of 
the mosque there is an ancient snn- 




Moti Musjld. 

dial, consisting of an octagonal marble 
pillar 4 ft. hign, with no gnomon, but 
simply two crossed lines and an arc. A 
marble cloister runs round the E., N., 
and S. sides of the court, interrupted 
by archways, of which those in the N. 
and S. sides are closed. The mosque 
proper consists of 3 aisles of 7 bays 
opening on to the courtyard, and is 
surmounted by 3 domes. On the en- 
tablature over the front row of support- 
ing pillars, i,e, on the E. face, there is 
an inscription running the whole lent^h, 
the letters being of black marble inlaid 
into the white. The inscription says 
that the mosque may be likened to a 
precious pearl, for no other mosque is 
lined throughout with marble like this. 
Narrow flights of steps lead to the top 
of the gateway and to the roof of the 
mosque, from which there is a fine view. 
During the Mutiny this mosque was 
used as an hospital. 

Turning rt. from the Moti Mosque, 
the grand Armoury Square, the Place du 



Carrousel of Agra, witTi the Diwan-i 
'Am on the left, is entered. There al 
ranges of cannons here and lai| 
mortars, and amongst them the. torn 
of Mr. Colvin. Here is also the Men 
of Jehaujeir, an enormous monolith] 
cistern of light -coloured porphyry q 
close-grained ^nite ; externally it I 
nearly 6 ft. high, and internally 4 fl 
deep. It is 8 ft in diameter at t<^ 
It originally stood in Jehangir's palaa 
Some have thought the Diwan-i-'A] 
was built by Akbar, others by> Jehangi 
but according to Carlleyle it was \m 
by Shah Jehan, and was his public Hal 
of Audience. This building is 201 i 
long from N. to S., and consists of 
aisles of 9 bays open on 3 sides. T!i 
roof is supported by graceful colunu 
of red sandstone, painted white an 
gold on the occasion of the Prince < 
Wales's visit. Along its back wall aal 
grilles, through which fair faces cool 
watch what was going forward in th 
hall below, and in its centre is a raise 
alcove of white marble richly decorate( 
with pietra dura work and low reliefsj 
which bear evident traces of Italian 
design. Here travellers describe Aa- 
rangzib sitting to watch the administra- 
tion of justice in the hall below. 

Ascend now some stairs at the back 
of the place where the Emperor sat in 
the Diwan-i-'Am, and pass through a 
doorway into Shah Jehan's pjuace. 
Here is the Machchi Bhawan, or " Fish] 
Square," formerly a tank. In the N.| 
side are two bronze gates taken hj] 
Akbar from the palace at Chitor. Atj 
the N.W. corner is a beautiful little 
three-domed mosque of white marble, 
called the Naginah Miisjid, or *'Gem 
Mosque." It was the private mosque 
of the royal ladies of the court, and was 
built by Shah Jehan, who was after- 
wards imprisoned there by his successor, 
Aurangzio. Beneath, in a small court* 
yard, was a bazaar where the merchants 
used to display their goods to the ladies 
of the court. A two-storied cloister 
runs all round the Machchi Bhawan, 
except on the side which fronts the 
Jumna, where the upper story gives 
place to an open terrace, with a Uaek 
throne, on the side nearest the river, 
and a white seat opposite, where it is 



BOVTM 9. AOBA 



178 



iid dMOoiirftJartvMt Tlu Uack 
Inme liaa a long fiasoie, which is said 
to have appeared when the throne was 
mrped hy the Jat chief of Bhurtpor. 
fkere is a reddish stain in one spot, 
rbich shows a combination of iron, but 
lis natiTes pretend that it is blood. An 
ascription runs ronnd the four sides, 
riiieh says in brie^ when Salim became 
Mr to the crown his name was changed 
D Jehangir, and for the light of nis 
Moe he was called Nnru-din. His 
vord cnt his enemies' heads into two 
blves like the Gemini. As long as 
le heayen is the throne for the sun, 
pkj the throne of Salim remain. Date 
toil A.H.=1603 A.D. Beneath this 
knace is a deep wide ditch where con- 
Mb between elephants and tigers used 
btake place. Close by, near the S. W. 
tamer of the terrace, ia the Heena 
Ib^id, or priyate mosque of the em- 
^r. On the N. of the terrace is the 
ite of the hall of green marble and 
hmmnm, now in a ruinous condition, 
lad on the S. 

The Diwan-i-Khu, or Hall of Priyate 
Audience. It is a miracle of beauty. 
Ru carying is exquisite, and flowers 
u« inlaid on the white marble, with 
nd cornelian, and other yaluable stones. 
From this bnildinff, or from his throne 
DA the terrace, tne Emperor looked 
orer the broad river to the beautifid 
prdens and buildings on the opposite 
lihore. The date of this building is 
1046 A-H.=1637 A.D. The inlaid or 
(ietra dura work has been restored. A 
staircase leads from the Diwan-i-Ehas 
to the Saman Bnzj, or Jasmine Tower, 
where the chief Sultana lived. Part of 
Ihe marble pavement in front of it is 
Blade to represent a Pachisi board. The 
lovely marble lattice-work seems to have 
Wn broken by cannon-shot in some 
places. A beautiful pavilion, with a 
wontain and retiring-room, close upon 
&e liver, are the chief apartments here. 
Adjoining and facing the river is the 
^Idsn Pa^on,so called from its being 
pofed with gilded plates of copper. In 
it are bedrooms for ladies, with noles in 
^ waU, 14 in. deep, into which they 
^wed to slip their jewels. These holes 
tre 80 narrow that only a woman's arm 



oould draw than <mt Thflra ia a dmi- 

lar building on the S. side of the Ehas 
Mahal (see below). 

Near here are remains of reservoirs 
and wateroourses, and arrangements 
for the raisine- of water from below. 

The travefier will now enter the 
Asgnri Bagh or '* Grape Garden," a 
fine square of 280 ft. planted with 
flowers and shrubs. At the N.£. 
comer is the Shiih Kahal, literally 
** Mirror Palace." It consists of two 
dark chambers furnished with fountains 
and an artificial cascade arranged to 
fall over lighted lami)8. The walls and 
ceiling are lined with innumerable small 
mirrors (restored in 1876). From here 
there is direct communication with the 
Water Gate and tiie Saman Burj. At 
the £. end of the square is a lovely 
hall, called the Khaa Kahal, the gild- 
ing and colouring of which were in part 
restored in 1876. In front are small 
tanks and fountains. Proceeding to 
the S., the visitor will come to three 
rooms, beautifully decorated in fresco, 
which were the private apartments of 
Shah Jehan. 

On the rt is an enclosure railed in, 
in which stand the so-called Gates of 
Somnath, 26 ft. high, and finely carved : 
they are of Deodar wood, of Saracenic 
work. There is a Eufic inscription 
running round them, in which the name 
of Sabuktagin has been read. They 
were captured by Greneral Nott at 
Ghazni and brought here in 1842. The 
room nearest the river is an octagonal 
pavilion, and very beautiful. In it 
Shah Jehan died, gazing upon the Taj, 
the tomb of his favourite wife. 

Jehangir Mahal, a red stone palace 
into which the traveller now enters, 
was built either by Jehangir or Akbar. 
It stands in the S.£. part of the Fort, 
between the palace of Shah Jehan and 
the Bangali bastion. The red saudstone 
of which it \a built has not resisted the 
destructive action of the elements. In 
some parts there are two stories ; the 
lower story has no windows looking to 
the front, but the upper has several. 
The upper front is ornamented with 
blue and bright green tiles inserted into 
the sandstone. The masonic symbol 



174 



BOUn •. JITPOBX fO AGRA 



India 



of dM doabU triftni^ inkid in wUte 
DiArblo, oeoan in lereral pkces on the 
front gateway. The entrance gateway 
leading directly into the palace is very 
fine. The two comer towers were sur- 
mounted by elegant cupolas, of which 
one only remains. Near here, on the 
roof, may again be seen arrangements 
for the storage of water, with 21 pipes 
for supplying the fountains below. The 
entrance leads through a vestibule into 
a beautiful domed hall, 18 ft. sq., the 
ceiling of which is elaborately carved. 
A corridor leads into the grand central 
court, which is 72 ft. sq. The design 
of this court, its pillars, the carving 
and ornamentation, are all pure Hindu. 

"On the N. side of the court is a 
grand open pillared hall 62 ft. long 
and 87 ft broad. The pillars support 
bracket capitals, richly carved and 
ornamented with pendants. The front 
brackets support broad sloping eaves 
of thin stone slabs. But the stone 
roof or ceiling of this pillared hall is 
the most remarkable feature about 
it. It is supported most curiously 
by stone cross-beams, which are orna- 
mented with the quaint device of a 
great serpent or dragon carved on them 
lengthways. A covered passage, or 
corridor, runs round the top of this 
hall, from which one can look down 
into it The other pillared hall on 
the opposite or S. side of the grand 
court is somewhat less in size." 

Passing from the grand court, through 
a large chamber to the E., the visitor 
will find a grand archway in the centre 
of a quadrangle which faces the river. 
It is supported by two lofty pillars and 
two half pillars of the more slender 
and graceful Hindu kind. Some of 
the chambers are lined with stucco, 
which has been painted, and has 
lasted better than the stone -work. 
For minute and exquisite ornamental 
carving in stone, the great central 
court is pre-eminent. The palace ends 
on the side facing the river with a 
retaining wall, and two comer bastions, 
each surmounted by an ornamental 
tower with a domed cupola. There 
are many vaulted chambers underneath 
the palace, believed to have been used 
as placea of retreat during the summer 



heats. They were thoroughly explored 
during 1657, but as the air is vexy 
close, and snakes are numerous, th^ 
are seldom visited. Between the pahu» 
of Jehangir and that of Shah Jehan 
there is a series of bathing tanks and 
pipes. 

The Jumma Muejid faces the Delhi ! 
gate of the Fort, and is close to 
the rly. sta. It stands upon a raised 
platform, reached by flights of steps on 
the S. and £. sides. The mosqae 
proper is divided into 5 compartmentsi 
each of which opens on the courtyard 
by a fine archway. The work has all 
the originality and vigour of the early 
Mogul style, mixed with many re- 
miniscences of the Pathan school Tht 
inscription over the main archway sets 
forth that the mosque was constructed 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan in 1644, 
after five years* labour. It was built in 
the name of his daughter Jehanarai 
who afterwards devotedly shared hef 
father's captivity when he was deposed 
by Aurangzib. The ^eat peculiaritf 
of this Musjid consists in its three great 
full-bottomed domes without neck^, 
shaped like inverted balloons, and buiHl 
of red sandstone, with zigzag bands of | 
white marble circling round them, i 
Its grand gateway was pulled down by ^ 
the British authorities during the 
Mutiny, as it threatened the defences 
of the Fort 



St. (George's Church is divided into 
a nave with two side aisles. It was | 
built in 1826, partly by Government , 
and partly by subscription. The tower 
and spire are of more recent date. The 
inlaid marble work for which Agra in 
so famous is well worth notice in the | 
reredos and the altar. 

St. Paure (Military) Ghurdi was : 
built by the E. I. Co. in 1828. It : 
contains several interesting tablets. ' 

St. Paul's {Civil) Church, about 4 ' 
m. N. of St. George's Church. | 

St. John's CoUegre is the centre of | 
the C.M.S. Mission. 

The Agra College. — At the end of 
the last cent. Maharaja Sindia made 
over certain villages in the districts of 
Muttra and Aligarh to a learned Brah- 
man for the twofold purpose of keepiii|f 



Boun 0. AasA 



176 



mait Mhool tnd of rapplying 
ill of pOgrima vidting th« 
aiotind Muttra. In 1818 he 
lands in trust to the £. India 
» devoted two-thirds of the pro- 
the 6Stahli8hn;ent of this col- 
ud one -third to hospitals at 
and Aligarh. The College, 
.835, consists of a high school, 
I pupils and 27 masters, and a 
roper, with 250 undergraduates 
rofessors. It is managed \>j a 
trustees. 



Catholic Cathedral, Con- 
d SchoolB, dedicated to the 
[ary, are quite dose to the Old 
I i UL N.W. of the Fort, 
n tower ahout 150 ft. high. 
> N. of the church is a fine 
ilding, a conyent, and to the 

priests' house. On the wall 
kiden are several insoriptions, 
t of which bears the date of 
. These buildings are large, 
architecturally interesting. 
^lishment is, however, worthy 
ion for its antiquity and the 
k: it does. It is the seat of a 
^tholic Bishop. The Mission 
ded in the time of Akbar, and 
been celebrated for its school, 
) children of soldiers and others 
ited. The earliest tombs cou- 
th the settlement of Christians 
re in the old cemetery attached 
ission. The most ancient epi- 
) in the Arraenian character. 
>8sinc and Walter Reinhardt 

lie here. 

mtral JaU, 1 m. to the N.W. 
'ort, is one of the largest, if 
largest, in India. The mann- 
in this Jail are well worth 
. In the carpet factory men 
aeh side, and the Instructor 
; the thread ; his words are 
bv one of the men, and the 
it in accordingly. A first-class 
s eight threads in the weft, and 
the warp in the sq. in. Six 
foil day of ten hours' work can 
Q. a day in a 12 ft. carpet. 

aiade Gardens, otherwise called 



the Atafa Begh, whore the bind idaye 
every Wedneodav. In the centre is a 
lofty sandstone obelisk, with an inscrip- 
tion to General Sir John Adams, 
G.C.B. 

The Tomb of rtlmadu-daulah.— - 
This building, one of the finest in Agra, 
stands on the left bank of the Jumna 
near the K I. Railway Goods Station. 
The traveller should cross the pontoon 
bridge and turn to the left, and at about 
200 yds. he will come to the garden 
in which it stands. It is the tomb of 
Ghayas Beg, called by Sir W. Sleeman, 
Khwajah Accas, a Persian, who was the 
father of Nur Jehan, and her brother, 
Asaf Khan, and became high treasurer 
ofJehangir. This mausoleum is entirely 
encased ivith white marble externally, 
and partly internally, being beautifully 
inlaid with pietra dura work. It is a 
square building with an octagonal tower 
at each comer and a raised pavilion in 
the centre. On each side of each of the 
entrances are window recesses filled with 
exquisite marble lattice-work. Notice 
the remarkably delicate low relief work 
in the return of the doorways overhead. 
Each chamber has a door leading into 
the next, but the central has only one 
open door, the other three being filled 
with marble lattice-work. In this cen- 
tral chamber are the two yellow marble 
tombs of Ghayas Beg ana his wife, on 
a platform of variegated stone. The 
walls are decorated with pietra dura. 

There are seven tombs altogether in the 
mausoleum. The side chambers are 
also panelled with slabs of inlaid marble, 
but the upper part of the walls and the 
ceiling are lined with plaster, orna- 
mented with paintings of flowers and 
long-necked vases. In the thickness of 
the outer walls of the S. chamber there 
are two flights of stairs, which ascend 
to the second story, on which is the 
pavilion, containing two marble ceno- 
taphs, counterparts of those below. The 
roof is canopy-shaped, with broad slop- 
ing eaves, and marble slabs. The sides 
are of perforated marble lattice-work. 
The octagonal towers, faced with marble, 
at each corner of the mausoleum spread 
out into balconies supported by brackets 
at the level of the roof. There was a 
marble railing, which has been do- 



X 



F) 

.J - 



176 



BOUTE 9. JETPOBB TO AOEA 



India 



stroysd, along the platform of the roof. 
The maueoleam is surrounded by a 
walled enclosure, except towards the 
river, or W. front ; in the centre of the 
river-front is a red sandstone pavilion. 

Chini ka Boza, or china tomb, 
stands on the left bank of the Jumna, 
opposite Agra. It has one great dome 
resting on an octagonal base. In the 
centre is a beautiful octagonal domed 
chamber in ruins. In it are two tombs 
of brick, which have replaced marble 
tombs. Besides the central chamber, 
there are four square comer chambers, 
and four side halls. The mausoleum 
stands on the river bank, in a masonry 
enclosure. Though called china, this 
ruin is only externally glazed or en- 
amelled. It is said to have been built 
by Afzal Khan, in the time of Aurang- 
zib. 

The Kalan Mosjid is opposite the 
present Medical School in the Saban 
Katra. Mr. Carlleyle thinks it the 
oldest mosque in Agra, and that it was 
built by Sikandar Lodi. 

Akbar's Tomb is at Sikandarah, so 
named from Sikandar Lodi, who reigned 
from 1489 a.d. It is 5^ m. from the 
cantonment at Agra, in a N.W. direc- 
tion. There are many tombs on the 
way, and a badly sculptured horse, which 
formerly stood on an inscribed pedestal, 
now removed. This is on the left or S. 
side of the road, nearly 4 m. from Agja, 
and nearly opposite the lofty arched 
gateway of an ancient building called 
the Eachi ki SaraL At ^ m. farther on 
is a tank of red sandstone, with orna- 
mental octagonal towers, called Guru 
ka Tal. On the S. side are three flights 
of steps, and E. of them is a long and 
broad channel of masonry, which brought 
water to the tank. At the E. side 
there is a mausoleum on a platfonn of 
masonry. According to Mr. Carlleyle, 
the Barahdari was built by Sikandar 
Lodi in 1495 a.d. It is a red sand- 
stone two-storied building. The ground 
floor contains forty chambers. Each 
comer of the building is surmounted 
by a short octagonal tower. It is com- 
monly known as the tomb of Begam 
Mariam, because Akbar interred here 
his so-called Portuguese Christian wife 
Mary. Her tomb is in the vault below 



and there is also a white marble 
taph in the centre of the upper story. 
The Barahdari is now occupied by a 
part of the establishment of the Agra 
Orphan Asylum. 

The gateway to the garden surround- 
ing Akbar's Tomb is truly magnificent 
It is of red sandstone, inlaid with white 
marble, very massive, and with a 
splendid scroll, a foot broad, of Tughra 
writing adorning it. On the top of the 
gateway, at each corner, rises a white 
minaret of two stories. The kiosks 
which crowned them have beea de- 
stroyed over 100 years. There is a fine 
view from the platform at the top, and 
it is worth ascending the steep stairs for 
it. To the W. are seen the Orphanagi' 
Church, and a little to the right of it 
the Begam ka Mahal, its dark red colour 
contrasting with the white of th» 
church. Far to the S.W. on a clear day; 
the grand gateway at Fatehpur-Sikri can 
be dimly seen. Over the tomb to the. 
N. is seen the Jumna ; to the S.£. are 
seen the Fort, the Taj, the church ii 
the Civil lines, and the city of Agra^ 
Abroad paved path leads to the mauso-^ 
leura of Akbi. It is a pyramidal 
building of 4 stories, three of which 
are of red sandstone, the fourth, whera 
rests Akbar's cenotaph, being of white.] 
marble. A massive cloister mns round ! 
the lower story, broken S. and N. by 
high central arches : that on the S. forms 
the entrance. The vaulted ceiling of | 
the vestibule was elaborately frescoed; 
in gold and blue. A section has been ' 
restored. The Surah-i-Mulk runs under i 
the cornice in a scroll 1 ft broad. A 
gentle incline leads to the vaulted 
chamber in which the great Akbai 
rests ; it is quite dark, and the once 
illuminated walls are now dirty and de- 
faced. On either side of the main arch 
bays of the cloister are screened off and 
contain tombs. First on the left is 
a tomb with an Arabic inscription in 
beautiful characters. This is the tomb 
of Shukra'n Nisa Begam. The second 
is the tomb of the uncle of Bahadur 
Shah, the last king of DelhL The next 
is the tomb of Zibu'n Nisa, daughter of 
Aurangzib ; and in a niche in uie side 
of the room, farthest from the entrance, 
is an alabaster tablet inscribed with 



ftOtJTE 9. PATEHPUR-SlKRt 



177 



lie dd divine names. On the E. of the 
Entrance is the tomb of Aram Bano. 

Narrow staircases lead above. The 
inirth or highest platform is surrounded 
ly a beautifnl cloister of white marble, 
iirved on the outer side into lattice- 
irork in squares of 2 ft., every square 
laving a different pattern. In the 
»ntre is the splendid white cenotaph 
if Akbar, just over the place where his 
Inst rests in the gloomy vaulted cham- 
fer below. On the N. side of this 
Bonotaph is inscribed the motto of the 
lect he founded, "AUahu Akbar," 
"God is greatest" ; and on the S. side 
"Jalla Jalalahu," "May His glory 
ihine." To the N. of this cenotaph, 
it the distance of 4 ft., is a handsome 
»kite marble pillar 4 ft. high, which 
WIS once covered with gold and con- 
iuned the Koh-i-Nur. It is said that 
Hadir Shah took it from here. 

A short distance to the left of the 
main road, which runs through Sik- 
mdarah, there is an old mosque, partly 
built of brick and partly of red sand- 
irtone, called Bhuri Khan's. It has one 
idome. There is an octagonal tower at 
pach front comer. A short distance 
to the S.E. are the remains of Bhuri 
Xhan's palace, namely, the gateway 
M part of the fa9ade. Just beyond 
the N.W. comer of the mausoleum at 
Sikandarah is an old Hindu boundary 
stone with a Nagari inscription, which 
gives the date 1494. 

A good road — the one used by the 
peat Akbar himself — leads W. from 
Agra through a shady avenue to 22J m. 

FATEHPUR - SIKRI, a^c D.B. (The 
nearest rly. stas. are Achnera June, 
12 m., and Bhurtpur, 11 m. No 
carriages at either place.) 

Proceeding to the W. from Agra 
tbrough Shahganj, observe at the en- 
trance to it the ruins of a mosque, with 
sn inscription saying it was built in 
1621, the 16th year of Jehangir's reign. 
: It marks the site of the old Ajmere 

Kte. Farther on is a Muslim cemetery, 
lown as Mnjdi ka Gumbaz, where is 
the tomb of Mirza Hindal, son of Babar, 
fether of Akbar's chief wife. At the 
foot of the tomb is a monolith 7 ft. 
high, with the date 1670. 
[India] 



The royal and now deserted city of 
Fatehpur-Sikri, standing on a low 
sandstone ridge, was essentially Akbar's, 
the whole being begun (1570) and com- 
pleted during his reign ; owing to this 
fact and on account of its very perfect 
state of preservation it forms a uni(ju« 
specimen of a city in the exact condition 
in which it was occupied by the Great 
Mogul and his court. It is hard to 
say what induced Akbar to build at 
Fatehpur-Sikri, possibly because after 
the death of twin sons it was prog- 
nosticated by Salim Chisti, an old 
saint residing there, that another would 
be bom to him who would survive. As 
foretold, this was the case, and the 
child, called Salim after the hermit, 
eventually ascended the throne as 
Jehangir. Akbar gave the town the 
prefix ** Fatehpur " (city of victory) to 
commemorate nis conquest of Guzcrat. 

Beyond the period of Akbar's occu- 
pation, Fatehpur-Sikri has no local 
nistory worth mentioning. The British 
Government had a tahsil here as late 
as 1850, when it was removed to Karaoli 
on the ground of unhealthiness. Dur- 
ing the Mutiny it was twice occupied 
by Neemuch and the Nusseerabad rebels 
between July and October 1857. 

From the arrangement of the build- 
ings it is evident that Akbar had the 
whole carefully planned out. This 
will be seen by the position of the 
Khwabgah, Akbar's private room, 
which commands the DafUr Khana, 
Record Office, and the whole of the 
principal buildings. From it he could 
reach, without being observed, "Jodh 
Bai " — by a covered way pulled down 
during 19th century restorations — 
Miriam's House, Bir Bal's, Panch 
Mahal, Turkish Sultana's Hou8e,Council 
Chamber, etc. etc. On entering the 
city by the Agra gate, the traveller will 
see the remains of an old building 
formerly used by merchants. Proceed- 
ing up the road, which lies between 
mounds of debris and ruins, he passes 
beneath the Nawbat Ehana, from the 
upper rooms of which musicians played 
as Akbar entered the city. Farther 1. 
are the remains of the 'Hr^asiiry, and 
opposite it what is known traditionally 
as the Hint, a large quadrangular build* 



178 



HOUTE 9. JEYFOBE TO AGBA 



Ifdia 



ing. Just in fifont of this is the Diwan- 
i-'Am, measuring some 366 ft. from N. 
to S. by 181 ft. from E. to W., and 
surrounded by a flat-roofed cloister. 
On the W. side is the hall, with a deep 
verandah in front, from which Akbar 
delivered his judgments in the presence 
of the assembled crowd below. He 
stood between two pierced stone screens 
of fine geometric design, extant but 
restored. The room behind has a 



in Persian (much defaced) to -the Em- 
peror. Originally the chamber was 
painted. Below is a room, and in it a 
platform supported by two splendid 
red sandstone shafts beautifoUy carved. 
Probably the Hindu priest lived here. 
W. is a door which led to the Dafter 
Khana (see above), and by it the 
officers and others could enter the 
Khwabgah. The space to the N. 
formed the Ehas Mahal. 



PLAN OF 

FATEHPUR SIKRI 




ATurkish 
Bath 

... ^J^9S40UJ (Record Ojyu 

rr^ki-^'' B&ol.^ Eefebence 

1. Shaik Salira Chisti's Daigah 

2. Panch Mahal 

3. Diwan-i-'Ara 

4. Jodh Bai's Palace 

5. Diwan-i-Khas 

6. Birbal's House 

7. Miriam's House 

8. Camel and Horse Stable 

9. Turkish Bath 

10. Sultana's Apartment 

11. Large Octagonal B4oli 

12. Gate of Victory 

WaUter&BotUaUsc. 



peculiar roof, which was painted. The 
road leads through the courtyard to the 
Dafter Ehana, or Record Office, now 
the D.B. On the back is a staircase 
leading to the roof, from which there is 
a fine view of the city. The inner 
stone partition walls are modern. In 
front, facing N., is Akbar's Khwab- 
gah, or Sleeping Apartment, literally 
** House of Dreams." Written on the 
internal walls over the architraves of 
the doors are some complimentary verses 



At the N.E. corner of the courtyard 
is the ''Turkish Queen's" House, 
thought by most people to be the most 
interesting apartment of all. As it 
now stands it consists of only one small 
chamber 15 x 16 ft. Every square inch 
is carved, including the soffits of the 
cornices. Tlie ceiling and decoration 
of the verandah pillars and pilasters 
are exceptionally fine. Inside is a most 
elaborate dado about 4 ft. high, con- 
sisting of 8 sculptured panels repre- 



EOUTE I 



FATEHPUR-SIKRI 



179 



aenting forest views, aniinal life, etc. 
Above, the wall takes the form of a 
stone lattice screen, the divisions of 
which were used as shelves. Mnch of 
the carving is curiously like Chinese 
work. 

W. is the Oirls' School, a small plain 
huilding carried on square stone piers. 
In front is an open square, upon the 
stone flags of which is Akbar's Pachisi- 
board, with his stone seat in the centre. 
It is in the form of a cross and is laid 
out in coloured pavement It is said 
the game was played with slave girls to 
take the moves, as we use ivory pieces 
on a chess-board. 

At the N. of the quadrangle is the 
Diwan-i-Ehas, or "Private Hall," or 
Council Chamber. From the outside 
it appears to be two stories high, but 
on entering it is found to consist of one 
only, with a central pillar crowned by 
an immense circular corbelled capital, 
ladiating from which to the 4 comers 
of the building are 4 stone causeways 
enclosed by open trellis stone balus- 
trades (restored). Tradition says that 
m the centre of this capital the Emperor 
sat whilst the comers were occupied by 
his 4 ministers. The shaft is oeauti- 
Mly carved, and should be carefully 
itudied. On the E. and W. sides are 
stone staircases communicating with 
the root The open screen-work in the 
windows is modem. A few feet to the 
"W. is the building known as the AtUc 
MicJumli, and the story told is that 
the Emperor here played hide-and- 
seek with the ladies of the Court ; but 
it was most likely used for records. 
It consists of 8 large lofty rooms sur- 
rounded by narrow passages, lighted 
by stone screen windows. The ceSings 
of 2 of the rooms are coved, but the 
3d is flat and supported on struts orna- 
mented with grotesque carving. In 
front, on the S.E. comer, is a small 
canopied structure used by the astro- 
loger, who probably was a Hindu Guru, 
or ** teacher." It is after the style of 
architecture used by the Hindus dur- 
ing the nth and 12th cents. Under 
the architraves are curiously carved 
struts issuing from the mouths of 
aonstep dowelled into the shafts 
at the comers. The under side of the 



dome was painted. Adjoining these 
buildings to the W. is the HospitaL 
Some of the stone partitions forming 
the wards are extant. The ceilings 
are of solid slabs of stone, carved on 
the outside to represent tiles. 

From here is next seen the Panch 
Mahal, a 5-8toried colonnade, each tier 
being smaller than the one below, till 
notlung but a small kiosque remains 
atop. It was probably erected for the 
ladies of the court as a pleasure resort, 
as the sides were originally enclosed 
with stone screens : these were removed 
during modern restorations, when the 
solid stone parapets were replaced by 
the pierced ones as at present seen, and 
the positions of the staircases were 
altered. The first floor is remarkable 
on account of the variety of the 56 
columns which support the story 
above, no two are alike in design. 
Many of the shafts are similar, but the 
caps vary: at the angles of one are 
elephants* heads with interlaced trunks, 
on another a man gathering fruit. On 
the N.W. angle is a group of 4 which 
should be examined. From the top- 
most floor there is a splendid view. 

S. and a little to W. of the Panch 
Mahal is the House of Miriam (said to 
have been Akbar's Portuguese Christian 
wife, but more probably a Hindu 
princess), a small building with defaced 
frescoes in the niches and upon the 
walls, and piers of verandah. One, in 
which the wings of angels are distinctly 
visible, suggests the Annunciation. At 
one time the whole house was painted 
inside and out. The original name 
Sunahra Makan, or "Golden House," 
was given it on account of the profuse 
gilding with which its walls were 
adorned. On the N.W. is Miriam's 
Garden, and at S.E. angle her bath, 
with a larffe column in the centre. On 
the W. side is the Naginah, or Zenana, 
Mosque, and the remains of a small 
Turkish bath. At the S. end of 
garden is a small fish tank, which, to- 
gether with the stone pavement of the 
garden, was brought to light by Mr. E. 
W. Smith of the Arch. Survey, 1891. 

To the N.W. a road leads to the 
Hathi Pol (Elephant Gate) on the Kw 
of the city. Over the "W. archway, 20 



180 



ROUTE 9. JEYPORE TO AGRA 



tnMn 



ft. from the grotmd, are 2 life-sized 
elephants much mutilated (probably 
hy Aurangzib). To the 1. is the 
Bnngin Bnij, a groined bastion or keep, 
said to have b^n the commencement 
of the fortifications planned by Akbar, 
but abandoned on account of objections 
raised by Saint Shlim Ohisti. * Down 
the old stone paved road on the L is 
the Karwan Sarai (caravanserai). It 
consists of a large court 272 x 246 fb. 
surrounded by the merchants' hostels. 
Formerly the S.E. side was 3 stories 
high. At the K. end, beyond the 
Sarai, stands the Hiran Ulnar (Deer 
Minaret), a circular tower some 70 ft. 
high studded with protruding elephants' 
tnsks of stone. Tradition says that it 
is erected over the grave of Akbar's 
favourite elephants, and that from the 
lantern in tne top the Emperor shot 
antelope and other game brought up by 
beaters, hence its name. The land to 
the N. and W. was a large lake in 
Akbar's time. 

On the 1. of the road returning to 
the Hathi Pol is a very fine stone 
well surrounded by rooms and stair- 
cases which formed a part of the 
waterworks. The water was lifted 
from this level by Persian wheels 
and a system of reservoirs to the 
arched gate on the N.W. comer of 
Bir Bal's House, and thence dispensed 
throughout the palace. 

The palace of Birbal is to the S.W. 
of Miriam's Garden (see above). It is 
the finest residence in Fatphpur-Sikri, 
and was built by Rajah Bir Bal for his 
daughter. It is a 2-8toried building of 
red sandstone standing on a raised 
platform, and consists of 4 rooms 15 
ft. sq. and 2 entrance porches on the 
ground floor and 2 above with small 
terraces in front of them, enclosed by 
stone screens, forming a ladies' pro- 
menade. Over the upper rooms are 
fiat-ribbed cupolas, carried on octagonal 
drums and supported on richly orna- 
mented corbel brackets stretching 
across the angles of the rooms ; and the 
stone panelled walls and niches are 
covered with intricate patterns. The 
ceilings of the lower rooms are supported 
on a fine and unique frieze, and the 
whole of the interior, pilasters, recesses, 



walls, and cusp-arched doorways ars • 
elaborately and beautifully carved with ! 
geometrical patterns. The exterior 
walls are almost as profusely orna- 
mented. No wood has been used in 
the construction of this extraordinary 
building, to which the words of Victor 
Hugo have been applied : ** If it were 
not the most minute of palaces, it was 
the most gigantic of jewel-cases." 
Rajah Birbal was celebrated for his wit 
and learning, and was the only Hindu 
of eminence who embraced the new 
religion of Akbar, whose favonrite 
courtier he was. He perished with the '• 
whole of the army he was commanding ; 
in the Yusufzye country to the N.R | 
of Peshawar in 1586. 

S. of Bir Bal's house are the StablM ; 
for 102 horses and nearly as many| 
camels. In some of the mangers stone 
rings for the horses' halters stul remain, 
and on the N.W. side one of the old 
doors. The camel stables are lighted 
by openings in the roof. 

The Palace of Jodh Bai, erroneously 
so called, was probably used by the 
Emperor or by his chief wife Sultana 
Rukia. It adjoins the stables, but the 
entrance is on the E. from the open 
space in front of the Record Ojfice, It 
is a quadrangular building, 232x215 
ft. The courtyard within has recep- 
tion rooms on tne N., S., and W. sides 
connected by a flat -roofed corridor 
partly closed by stone walls. The 
room on the "W. is more ornate than 
the others, and in the rear wall is a 
fireplace. There are chambers above, 
and those on the N. and S. sides rise 
to 2 stories : they are gable-roofed and 
ornamented with blue enamelled tiling. 
At the angles the chambers are sur- 
mounted by cupolas, originally painted. 

Overlooking Miriam's Garden is a 
small room, the walls of which are 
entirely composed of beautiful stone 
lattice- work. From the mezzanine floor 
on the N. side a closed passage leads to 
a garden abutting on the waterworks, 
beside which a gallery passed to the 
N. side of the Sarai near the Hiran 
Minar. It is now in ruins, and not 
easy of identification. In the pass- 
age, and just before the garden is 
reached, is a very fine stone sorecn 



BOCrTi: 9. FATSHPUIHBIKRI 



181 



beneath a bquiII cupola which should 
be seen. 

The Bargah and Mosque are S. W. of 
the Record Office. The £. gate, called 
the Badshahi, or "royal" gate, opens 
into the great quadrangle. To the rt is 
the Tomb or JDargah of Shaik Salim 
Chisti, the Nawasa or grandson of Shak- 
bar GaDJ Shah, who is buried at Pak 
Patan. It is surrounded by beautiful 
white marble lattice-work screens, and 
has doors of solid ebony, ornamented 
with brass. Within, the building is 
marble only for the first 4 ft Thecanopy 
over the tomb of the saint is inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl, hung with the usual 
display of ostrich eggs. On the ceno- 
taph is written the date of the saint's 
dfittth and the date of the completion of 
the building, 1580, "May God hallow 
his tomb ! The beloved helper of the 
sect and its saint, Shaik Salim, whose 
miraculous gifts and propinquity to the 
Divine Being are celebrated, and by 
whom the lamp of the family of Chisti 
illuminated. Be not double-sighted, 
looking to the transitory self, as well 
as to the everlasting Deity. The year 
of his decease is known throughout the 
world." This last line is the chrono- 
gram.^ 

The brackets which support the drip- 
atone or eaves of the tomb are copies of 
those in the old mosque of the stone- 
masons outside the quadrangle and W. 
of the mosque, where Shaik Salim lived 
Ids hermit life in a cave now covered 
by a room. In a portico on the right 
the saint taught his disciples before 
the place had attracted the notice of 
royalty. Childless women, both Hindu 
and Mohammedan, resort to the tomb 
and pray the saint to intercede in their 
favour. On the N. of the quadrangle 
is also the tomb of Islam Khan, sur- 
mounted with a cupola ; he was the 
grandson of the saint, and Governor of 
Bengal. 

The Mosque proper, to the W., is said 
to be a copy of the one at Mecca. It 
is about 70 ft. high, and very beautiful. 
It consists of 8 interior square chambers 
surrounded by rows of lofty pillars of 

1 All the inscriptions here may be found 
in the Jfi/taAu *l TawaHkh, by John Ellis, 
pzin^ at A^. 



Hindu type. At the K. and S. en4i 
are zenana chambers. Going out by 
a door at the back of the mosque, in an 
enclosure on the right is an infant'a 
tomb, said to be that of the saint's son, 
whose life was sacrificed at the age of 
6 months in order that Akbar's son 
(Jehangir) might liw when bom. At 
the S. of the quadrangle is the Gate of 
Viotory, Buland Daxwazah ("high 
gate "), which towers to the height of 
1 30 ft Fergusson says that when looked 
at from below its appearance is noble be- 
yond that of any portal attached to any 
mosque in India, perhaps in the whole 
world. Thegrandeur of thisgreat height 
is increased by a vast flight of steps on 
the outside, giving a total height of 
160 ft. Fine view from the top. 

In the archwajr is an inscription on 
the left hand going out, which says 
that the "King of Kings, Shadow of 
God, Jalalu-din, Muhammad Akbar, 
the Emperor, on his return from con-' 
quering the kingdoms of the S., and 
Khandesh, formerly called Dhandesh, 
came to Fatehpur in the 46th year of 
his reign, corresponding to 1601 a.d., 
and proceeded from thence to Agra." 
On the opposite side is inscribed " Isa 
(Jesus), on whom be peace, said : * The 
world is a bridge, pass over it, but 
build no house on it. The world en- 
dures but an hour, spend it in devo- 
tion.*" The doors of this great gate- 
way are studded with horse-shoes, affixed 
by the owners of sick horses who im- 
plore the prayers of the saint for their 
recovery. From the steps, or better 
still, from the summit of the gate, may 
be seen the villages of Sikri and Fateh- 
pur, and a tract of dry and barren 
countiy. It is supposed that it was 
the want of water which caused Fateh- 
pur to be deserted. In front of the 
steps are some Turkish baths. N. of 
the Dargah and outside the mosque 
are the houses of the brothers Abu '1 
Fazl and Faizi, the famous and learned 
favourites of Akbar and followers of his 
new religion. These are now turned 
into a boys* school. They consist of 
several rooms ; in one Hindu and Urdu 
are taught, in another English, and in 
a third Persian and Arabic. What is 
now the English class-rooip was tJi9 



182 



BOtTTB 10. AGRA TO BINDaABAH 



hMa 



EeiuuuL To the W. of Bnland Dar- 
wazah is a large well, into which boys 
and men spring from the walls, from 
heights Ya^^g from 80 to 80 ft. A 
M^B^ or fair, commences on the 20th 
of BamzaUt the anniversary of the 
saint's death, and lasts for 8 days. 

A little to the N.E. of the Becord 
Office is the Haldm, or doctor's house, 
and a very large and fine Huxnmam, 
the walls and ceilings of which are 
richly ornamented with stamped plaster- 
work. To the rt. on leavinf and ad- 
joining the Nusseerabad road is a spa- 
cious and interesting Baoli, from which 
the baths and this part of the city were 
supplied. Leading to a well at one 
end is a broad staircase enclosed on 
each side by rooms. Around the weU 
are chambers for Persian wheels for 
drawing the water.* 

The Nussecrabad road is stone pared, 
and leads through the market to the 
Tehra Gate. On the outside is a tomb 
with small mosque and 'Idgah, but 
they are not of much importance. 



ROUTE 10 

Agra to Bindbabak by Achnera 
JuNc. AND MuTTRA (with excur- 
sions to Mahaban and Dig). 



era June. sta. (17 m. W. of Agra), 
on the B. B. and 0. I. Rly. (see 
p. 147). 

From Achnera to Muttra is 23 m., 
from Hathras junc. (97 m. S. of Delhi) 
to Muttra is 29 m. 

MUTTKA (or Mathura) junc sta., 
D.B., in the cantonments S. of the city 
(the town rly. sta. is on the branch line 
to Bindraban, 8 m. distant, see below). 
Pop. 60,000. The city stretches for 
about 1) m. along the right bank of 
the Jumna. The Fort, rebuilt in Ak- 
1 Fathepur Sikri has been extensively illns- 
trated in 4 vols, of the ArchaUogicai Survey 
Reports by Mr. E. W. Bipith. 



bar's time, is in the centre : only 
substructure remains. The Jail 
Collector's Office are If m. to the BS 
beyond the town, and 1 m. to tbe W* ' 
of the town is a Jain temple and m 
large mound of bricks called Ghannutf! 
Tila. In a line with the Jain temple^': 
but bordering on the town, is the Kata^ 
mound (see oelow), and about } m. tor 
the S. is another mound caUed TfMh^if^ 
and to the S.W., at distances varyiiii^ 
from } m. to 1 m., are five moonS 
called the Chaubarah mounds.^ Thai 
are 3 Charches— the Anglican "Cbral 
Church," the Roman Catholic Cliurcl^| 
and a Presbyterian Church. The formcc 
contains several interesting monv 
ments. 

The city is entered by the Hardin(^ 
Gate, also called Holi Gate, built ^ 
the municipality. The finely -carTel 
stonework ia9ades of the better class el 
houses are well worthy of inspectioi^^ 
and are one of the peculiarities of thftj 
city. I 

The River and Ohats.-— Even in tbtj 
beginning of May the Jumna is heitl 
800 yds. broad. There is a payed streel 
the whole way along it, with bathiu* 
ghats, descending to the water, ani' 
ornamental chabutarahs, or platforms^ 
and small but well-proportioned ps* 
vilions. Generally speaking, the men 
bathe at separate ghats from the 
women. 

The river is full of turtles, some d 
them very large, poking their long 
necks and heads out to be fed. Ahoat 
80 yds, W. of the bridge is the fine 
House of the Guru Parshotamdas. 
Then comes another belonging to a 
Guzerati, called Ballamdas. Opposite 
to this, on the farther bank of the river, 
is the flourishing village of Hans (JtBJ, 
or "Swan borough," and N. of this 
again is a stone tower, 55 ft. high, 
called the Sati Buxj, because when 
Hans was killed by Knshna, his widow 
committed scUi here. Growse, p. 97, 
says it was the wife of Rajah Bh&r 
Mai, of Amber, mother of Bhagwan- 
das, who built it in 1570 a.d. The 
traveller now descends several steps to 

1 All these places will be fonnd mentioned 
by General Cunningham in vol. iii. of bis Art^ 
Survey Reports, p. IS, and also in vo). i. p. 209> 



ROUTE 10. MT7TTRA 



183 



at Ghat, a little N. of the Sati 
i 80 to a sort of square, where 
a are weighed against gold, 
a small white marble arch 
je to the river. Beyond this 
built by Jai Sing, of Jeypore, 
enormous house and temple- 
^ to Seth Lakshman Das, i.e. 
th Govind Das. 
amma Musjid, once corered 
austic tiles, stands high. Its 

14 ft. above the level of the 
Dn either side of the facade of 
way are Persian lines. The 
Eun gives the date 1660-61. 

fa9ade of the mosque proper 
9 names of God. At the sides 
pavilions roofed in the Hindu 
There are four minarets, which 
rt. high. At the entrance to 
f the town is the 'Idgah (the 
les should be observed), and 
n. to the W. of the town is 
latra, which is an enclosure 
; of a sarai, 804 ft long by 
road. Upon a terrace stands 
red stone mosque, the most 
3US object in a distant view of 

There is another terrace 5 ft. 
here are votive tablets in the 
taracter, dated Samwat 1713- 
I this site stood the great 
f Eesaya Rao, which Tavemier 
the beginning of Aurangzib's 
)parently about 1659 A.D., and 
i describes as very magnificent, 
hat it ranked next after the 

of Jagannath and Benares 

pt. ii. bk. iii. oh. 12, French 
Cunningham, Reports, vol. iii. 
In the Katra mound a number 
listic remains have been found 
ral Cunningham and others, 
y a broken Buddhist railing 
rith the figure of Maya Devi 
; under the Sal tree, and also 

on which was inscribed the 
)wn genealogy of the Gupta 

from Shri Gupta, the founder, 

> Samudra Gupta, where the 

15 broken off. He also found 
o the wall of a well, one of the 

curved architraves of a Bud- 
bteway, and an inscription on 

> of a statue of Shakya dated 
281, or 224 a.d., in which 



the Yasa Vihara is mentioned. Two 
capitals of columns, one no less than S 
ft. in diameter, were also found. A 
fragment of the larger one is still to be 
seen lying inside the gateway. At the 
back of the Eatra is a modem temple 
to Eesava, and close by is the Potara- 
Eund, a tank in which Krishna's baby 
linen was washed. This tank is faced 
throughout with stone, and has flights 
of stone steps down to the water. There 
is also a very steep ramp down where 
horses go to be washed. 

In the New Museum, erected by 
public subscription, at the suggestion 
of Mr. Mark Thornhill, is the carving 
which Mr. Growse calls, p. 101, "the 
most refined and delicate work of the 
kind ever executed." 

The best piece of sculpture in the 
Museum is the Yasa-ditta statue of 
Buddha. The face is really beautiful, 
more artistic than that of any figure 
yet discovered, but the nose has been 
broken off ; the most curious object is 
a carved block representing a Bacchanal 
group. Immediately opposite are the 

Public Gardens, and a little farther 
on is the Jail. 

When Fa Hian travelled in the end 
of the 4th century and the beginning 
of the 5th, he halted a whole month at 
Muttra, and found that there were 20 
Buddhist monasteries with 3000 monks ; 
but when Hiouen Thsang visited the 
place in 634 a.d. the number had de- 
clined to 2000, whence it appears that 
Buddhism was even then on the wane. 
It had wholly disappeared when Mah- 
mud of Ghazni came to Muttra in 1017 
A.D. He remained there 20 days, pil- 
laged and burned the city, and carried 
off five golden idols, whose eyes were of 
rubies, worth 50,000 dinars = £26,000. 
A sixth idol of gold weighed 1120 lbs., 
and was decorated with a sapphire 
weighing 300 Mishkals, or 3J lbs. 
There were also 100 idols of silver, 
each of which loaded a camel. The 
idols together were worth not less than 
£300,000. The Brahman temple of 
Kesava Rao was built on the very site 
where the great Buddhist monastery 
Yasa Vihara stood. 

Near the Jail stood a mound, in 
removing which to provide a site for 



4. il 



lU 



BOUTE 10. AORA. TO BINDBABAN 



India 



thi9 Collector's Office and KagUtratea' 
Courts, the most extensive duooveries 
were made. It appears that on it 
stood two Buddhist monasteries, the 
Huvishka and the Kuuda-Suka Yihara. 
The latter is the place where the famous 
monkey which made an offering to 
Buddha lumped into the tank and 
was killed. At this mound statues of 
all sizes, bas-reliefs, pillars, Buddhist 
rails, votive stupas, stone umbrellas, 
and inscriptions have been found. 
One inscription is of the 1st century 
B.C. The earliest is of the Satrap 
Sandasa, and the next of the great 
King Kanishka in the year 9. The 
left hand of a colossal Buddha has 
been found, the figure of which must 
have been 24 ft high. The most 
remarkable piece of sculpture is that 
of a female, rather more than half 
life size, whose attitude, and the 
position of whose hands resembles 
those of the famous Venus of the 
CapitoL Cunningham says it is one 
of the best specimens of unaided 
Indian Art. 

In the Chaubarah mounds, 1^ m. to 
the S.W. of the city, measuring from 
the gateway of the Katra, was found 
a golden casket, now in the possession 
of Mr. F. S. Growse.i 

The most important discoveries at 
Muttra have been made by Dr. FUhrer 
during his excavations at the Kankali 
Tila mound, which he looks upon as 
the site of the Upagupta monastery 
mentioned by Hiouen Thsang. The 
remains of one Yaishnava and two Jain 
temples, and a Jain stupa, some 49 ft. 
8 in. in dia., have been brought to 
light, and besides some hundreils of 
most valuable sculptures, stupa rail- 
ings, panels, etc., on many of which 
are inscriptions dating back before 
the time of Christ. The discover- 
ies prove that the national Indian 
arts of architecture and sculpture 
flourished in a high degree at Mutti*a, 
and have led to the conclusion that 
play-acting was practised very early in 
the city of the gods. All the objects 

1 For the many other discoveries made in 
different mounds near Muttra reference must 
be made to Cunningham's Bepc/rt, voL iii., 
where they are detailed at great length. 



diacovered have been deposited in tha 
Lucknow Museum,^ where they can be 
examined by visitors. 

[Mahaban is about 6 m. S.£. of 
Muttra, on the left bank of the Junma, 
and is reached by a good road. It is a 
very ancient town and place of pil- 
grimage, and first emerges into modern 
history in the year 1017 A.D., when it 
shared the fate of Muttra, and was 
sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni. The 
Hindu prince is said, when the fall of 
the town became inevitable, to have 
solemnly slain his wife and children, 
and then committed suicide. In 1234 
a contemporary writer mentions Maha- 
ban as one of the gathering places of 
the imperial army sent by Sham's-ud- 
din against Kalinjar. It is incidentally 
referred to by the Emperor Babar in 
1526. 

The country i^ound about it, althou^ 
now bare of woods, appears to have 
once been literally Mahaban^ " a great 
forest" Even as late as 1634, the 
Emperor Shah Jehan held a hunt here, 
and killed four tigers. This ancient 
woodland country fringing the sacred 
Jumna is the scene of very early reU- 
^ous legends. In Sanscrit literature 
it is closely associated with Goknl, 
about a mile off, overhanging the 
Jumna. , Indeed, the scenes of the 
youthful adventures of Krishna, as- 
cribed in the Purams to Gokul, are 
actually shown at Mahaban, about a 
mile from the river. Gokul seems to 
have been originally the common name 
for the whole, although it is now re- 
stricted to what must have been the 
water-side suburb of the ancient town. 
' The ruins of Mahaban rise as a hill of 
brick and mud, covering about 30 acres, 
the site of the old fort The architect- 
ural remains combine Buddhist and 
Hindu forms. 

The most interesting relic at Maha- 
ban is the so-called Palace of Nanda, 
the foster-father of the changelinf 
Krishna. It consists of a coverea 
court, re-erected by the Mohammedans 
in the time of Aurangzib from ancient 
Hindu and Buddhist materials to serve 

1 See illustrated description in ProoMdiium 
of the Archceol. Devt. of the N. W. P. 



BOUTB 10. DIQ 



185 



$sa mosque, and is divided into 4 aisles 
by 5 rows of 16 pillars, 80 in all, from 
which it takes its popular name of 
Assi Khamba, or the " Eighty Hllai-s." 
Many of the capitals are curiously 
carved with grotesque heads and squat 
figures. Four of them are supposed 
to represent by their sculptures the four 
ages of the world. The pillar known 
as the Surya Yug, or *' Golden Age," 
is covered with rich and beautiful 
carving; that known as the Dwapar 
Yug, or " Second Age " of the world is 
adorned with almost equal profusion. 
The Treta Yug, or "Third Age," is 
more scantily carved ; while the Kali 
Yug, or present "Iron' Age" of the 
world is represented by a crude un- 
sculptured pillar. 

In the Palace of Nanda are laid the 
scenes of Kiishna's infancy. His 
cradle, a coarse structure covered with 
red calico and tinsel, still stands in 
the pillared hall, while a blue -black 
image of the sacred child looks out 
from under a canopy against the wall. 
The churn in which Krishna's foster- 
mother made butter for the household 
is shown, and consists of a long bamboo 
sticking out of a carved stone. A spot 
in the wall is pointed out as the place 
where the sportive milkmaids hid 
Krishna's flute. One pillar is said to 
have been polished by his foster- 
mother's hand, as she leant against it 
when churning, and others have been 
equally polished by the hands of genera- 
tions of pilgrims. 

From the top of the roof there is a 
view over mounds of ruins, with the 
Jumna beyond showing its waters, at 
intervals, amid an expanse of sand, 
high grasses, and rugged ravines. 
Mahaban is still a very popular place 
of pilgrimage amongthe Hindus. Thou- 
sands of Vishnu worshippers, mth yel- 
low-stained clothes, yearly visit the 
scenes of the infancy of the child-god. 
The anniversary of Krishna's birth is 
celebrated during several days in the 
month of Bhadon (August) by a vast 
concourse of people. 

The riverside village of Gokul, where 
Yishnu first appeared as Krishna, has 
few relics of antiquity. Its shrines and 
temples are quite modern. It is ap- 



proached, however, by a lo£ty and 
beautiful flight of steps (ghat) from the 
river, and for more than three centuries 
it has been the headquarters of the 
Valjabhacharya sect, or Gokulastha 
Gusains, whose founder preached here. 
Many thousands of pilgrims, chiefly 
from Guzerat and Bombay, yearly re- 
sort to this centre of their faith, and 
have built numerous temples of a 
rather tasteless type.] 

[From Muttra a traveller with plenty 
of time may make an expedition to Dig, 
or Deeg, a town in the territory of the 
Rajah of Bhurtpur, 24 m. W. from 
Muttra by a good road, and should he 
be going S., he might rejoin the railway 
at Bhurtpur, 22 m. farther ; but he 
should make all arrangements for the 
journey before leaving Muttra. At the 
village of GoYardhau, about 14 m., is 
a celebrated hill, which was upheld 
by Krishna on one finger to shelter 
the cowherds from a storm excited by 
Indra as a test of Krishna's divinity. 
Here, on the rt., is the burial-place of 
the Bhurtpur Rajahs, a striking group 
of tombs, temples, and ghats buut on 
the margin of two vast tanks, one of 
which, called the Munusa Gunga, is 
the resort of thousands of pilgrims 
during the annual autumn fair. The 
chief chattris are those of Buldeo Sing, 
and of Suraj Mall, the founder of the 
dynasty, and his wives ; also of Rand- 
hir and Bala Diva Sing. Most of them 
show good specimens of carving. Fer- 
gusson says of one of the temples, built 
in Akbar's reign : " It is a plain edifice, 
135 ft. long bv 35 ft wide, externally, 
and both in plan and design singularly 
like those Early Romance churches 
that are constantly met with in the S. 
of Fiance, belonging to 11th and 12th 
centuries." 

For 3 m. before reaching Dig the 
road forms a sort of causeway above a 
very low, flat country. 

At Digif (or Deeg) ths chief object 
of interest is the splendid Palace, or 
rather group of palaces, built by Suraj 
Mall of Bhurtpur. Though his grand 
design was never completed, it surpasses 
all the other fortified palaces in the 
Rajput states for grandeur of conception 



186 



BOUTB 10. AGRA TO BINDRABAN 



India 



and beauty of detaiL Fergusson greatly 
admires this palace, and says: ''The 
glory of Deeg consists in the cornices, 
which are generally double, a peculiarity 
not seen elsewhere, and which for extent 
of shadow and richness of detail surpass 
any similar ornaments in India, either 
in ancient or modem buildings. The 
lower cornice is the usual sloping en- 
tablature almost uniyersal in such 
buildings. . . . The upper cornice, 
which was horizontal, is peculiar to Deeg, 
and seems designed to furnish an ex- 
tension of the flat roof which in Eastern 
palaces is usually considered the best 
apartment of the house ; but whether 
desired for this or any other purpose, 
it adds singularly to the richness of 
the effect, and by the double shadow 
affords a relief and character seldom 
exceeded even in the East." The chief 
pavilions are the Oopal Bhawan (where 
travellers are allowed to lodge, and from 
the roof of which there is a fine view), 
which stands E. of the fine Kachcha 
Tank ; the Nand Bhawan, N.E. of this, 
a fine hall 20 ft high; the Snraj 
Bhawan, S., 88 ft. long; the Harde 
Bhawan, W. ; and the Kishn Bhawan, 
S.E. All these are highly decorated, 
and between and around them are 
lovely gardens. Beyond and adjoining 
the gardens is the large Bup Saugar 
Lake. 

The W. gate of the Fort (there are 
two gates) is i m. from the Gopal 
Bhawan : it has 12 bastions, and a ditch 
50 ft. broad. Beyond this is a natural 
mound, about 70 ft. high, and beyond 
that a building which serves as a prison. 
The walls are very massive and lofty. 
There are 72 bastions in all. On the 
N.W. bastion, about 80 ft. high, is a 
very long cannon. 

Dig is celebrated for the battle fought 
on the 13th November 1804, in which 
General Frazer (see Mill, vol. vi p. 593) 
defeated Jeswant Rao Holkar's army. 
The British took 87 pieces of ordnance 
in this battle, and lost in killed and 
wounded about 350 men. The remains 
of Holkar's army took shelter in the 
fort of Dig. 

On the 1st December following. Lord 
Lake joined the army before Dig, and 
immediately commenced operations to 



reduce that town. On the night of the 
•23d his troops captured an eminence 
which commanded the city, but not 
without considerable loss. The enemy, 
however, evacuated Dig on the follow- 
ing day and the fort on the succeeding 
night, and fled to Bhurtpur. ] 

6 m. from Muttra is Bindxaban sta. 
(properly, Vrindaban literally, a forest 
of tulsi plantb), the place to which 
Krishna removed from Gokul. 

There is no reason to believe that 
Bindraban was ever a great seat of 
Buddhism. Its most ancient temples, 
four in number, date only from the 16th 
cent., ** while. the space now occupied 
by a series of the largest and most 
magnificent shrines ever erected in 
Upper India was 500 years ago an 
unclaimed belt of woodland " (see 
Growse, p. 174). The four chief temples 
are those of Gobind Deva, Gopi Nath, 
Jugal Kishor, and Madan Mohan. Bin- 
draban is famous as the place where 
Krishna sported with the Gopis (milk- 
maids), and stole their clothes when 
they were bathing. The Jumna bounds 
the town to the E., and winds 
pleasantly round it. At the entrance 
to the town, on the left, is the large 
red temple, dating from 1590, sacr^ 
to Oobind Deva, which was almost de- 
stroyed by Aurangzib, but has been 
somewhat restored by the British 
Government. "It is one of the most 
interesting and elegant temples in 
India, and the only one, perhaps, 
from which an European architect 
might borrow a few hints. The 
temple consists of a cniciform porch, 
internally nearly quite perfect, though 
externally it is not quite clear how it 
was intended to be finished. The cell, 
too, is perfect internally — used for 
worship — but the sikra is gone, possibly 
it may never have been completed. 
Though not large, its dimensions are 
respectable, the porch measuring 117 
ft. E. and W. by 105 ft. N. and S., 
and is covered by a true vault, built 
with radiating arches — the only in- 
stance, except one, known to exist in 
a Hindu temple in the N. of India. 
Over the four arms of the cross the vault 
is plain, and only 20 ft. span, but in 
the centre it expands to 35 ft , and is 



B0X7TB 1 1. DELHI TO SIMLA 



187 



craite equal in design to the best 
Gothic vsulting known. It is the^ 
external desi^ of this temple, how- 
ever, which IS the most remarkable. 
The angles are accentuated with sin- 
gular force and decision, and the 
openings, which are more than suffi- 
cient for that climate, are picturesquely 
arranged and pleasingly divided. It 
is, however, the combination of vertical 
withhorizontal lines, covering the whole 
surface, that forms the great merit of 
the design " (Fergusson, Arch,) 

K is a modem Temple, built by Seth 
Radha Krishna and Seth Govind Das 
in the Dra vidian style. Europeans are 
not allowed to enter. The temple con- 
sists of a vast enclosing wall, with three 
goporas, which are 80 to 90 ft. high, 
while the gates are about 55 ft. Above 
the W. gate is a terrace, commanding 
I view of the temple. 

This temple is dedicated to Shri 
Ranga, a name of Vishnu ; and figures 
of Garuda, the man-bird of Vishnu, 
are very conspicuous. In the great 
court are two white marble pavilions, 
one E. and one W. of the tank ; and a 
stone pavilion with a flat roof, sup- 
ported by sixteen pillars, opposite the 
E. gopura. 

At the back of a temple which is 
of red stone (repaired in 1877 by the 
Brit Gov.), and • adjoining it on the 
W., are, at two comers, two other 
temples which resemble each other. 
There is a new temple adjoining this 
to the W., built by a Bengali Babu. 
It is not tasteful, but has a finely- 
carved door. 

The Madan Mohan Temple stands 
above a ghat on a branch of the river. 
Under two fine trees, a Ficus indica and 
a NaucUa orientalis, is a pavilion, in 
which many cobras' heads are repre- 
sented. Shiva is said to have struck 
Devi with a stick here) when she 
jumped off this ghat, and made it a 
place for curing snake bites. There is 
nere a Sala^am (a species of Ammonite 
worshipped as a type of Vishnu), with 
two footprints, 2 J in. long. This temple 
is 65 ft. high, and is in the shape of a 
cone. 

The Temple of Gopi Nath is thought 
by Mr. Growse to be the earliest of the 



series. It was built by Raesil Ji, who 
distinguished himself under Akbar. 
It resembles that of Madan Mohan, 
but is in a ruinous condition. Its 
special feature is an arcade of three 
bracket arches. 

The Temple of Jngal Eishor is at 
the lower end of the town, near the 
Kesi Ghat. It is said to have been 
built by Nou-Karan, a Chauhan chief, 
in 1627 A.D. The choir has pierced 
tracery in the head of the arch, and 
above it a representation of Krishna 
supporting the hill of Govardhan. 

The Temple of Badha Ballabh.— 
The shrine was demolished by Aurang- 
zeb. The ruins are fine. 



ROUTE 11 

Dblhi to Umballa, Ealka, and 
Simla 

There are two railway routes from 
Delhi to Umballa, 

(a) The direct line on the right or 
"W. bank of the Jumna river through 
Paniput and Kumal, 122 m. 

(ft) The line on the E. bank of the 
river, crossing it twice, and passing 
through Ghaziabad, Meemt, and Sa- 
haranpur, 162 m. 

Leaving the central station at Delhi, 
the railway proceeds over a vast plain to 

54 m. Paniput sta., D.B. Pop. 
27, 547. The modem town stands near 
the old bank of the Jumna, upon a high 
mound consisting of the debris of earlier 
buildings. In the centre the streets are 
well paved, but the outskirts are low and 
squaUd. There are the usual civil offices. 
The town is of very great antiquity, being 
one of the places ci3led|?ato, orprasthas, 
demanded of Duryodhana by Yudish- 
thira, about 1100 b.o. It is famous 
for being the place where three of the 
most decisive battles in India have 
been fought ; but the silent plain tells 
no tale, and shows no sign of the events 
that have happened on it. 

Here on the 21st April 1626 
Babar encountered Ibrahim Lodi. 
On the night before the battle Babar 
had sent out 5000 men to make a 
night attack on the Afghan army, 



188 



ROUTE 11. DELHI TO BDOJL 



India 



but thia had failed, owing to a 
delay on the part of the attacking 
force, which did not reach the enemy's 
camp till dawn. With the first streaks 
of light next day the Mogul pickets 
reported that the Afghans were ad- 
vancing in battle array. Babar im- 
mediately prepared for action, and 
appointed commanders to each divi- 
sion. On the right and left of the 
whole line he stationed strong flanking 
parties of Moguls, who, when ordered, 
were to wheel round, and take the 
enemy in flank and rear. "When the 
Afghans arrived at the Mogul lines 
they hesitated for a moment, and 
Babar availed himself of their halting 
to attack them, at the same time 
sending his flanking parties, to wheel 
round and charge them in the rear. 
Babar's left wing was roughly handled, 
but he supported it by a strong de- 
tachment from the centre, and the 
Afghans in the end were driven back. 

On the right too the battle was ob- 
stinately contested. Babar's artillery, 
however, was very effective, and at 
last the Afghans fell into confusion. 
They maintained the battle till noon, 
when they gave way in all directions. 
The rest was mere pursuit and slaughter. 
According to Mogul accounts, 15,000 
Afghans were left dead on the field of 
battle, and those who fled from the 
field were chased as far as Agra. The 
body of Ibrahim Lodi was found the 
same afternoon with 6000 or 6000 of 
his soldiers lying in heaps around him. 
Babar reached Delhi on the third day 
after the battle, and on the Friday 
following his name as Emperor was 
read in the public prayers at the 
Grand Mosque. 

The Second great Battle was fought 
in the latter part of 1556 a.d., when 
the youthful Akbar, who had just suc- 
ceeded his father the Emperor Huma- 
yun, defeated Himu, the general of 
Sultan Muhammad Shah ' Adil, nephew 
of Sher Shah. Himu had 50,000 
cavalry, and 500 elephants, besides 
infantry and guns ; but after a well- 
contested battle he was wounded in 
the eye by an arrow, taken prisoner, 
and put to death. This battle was 
decisive of the fate of the Afghan 



dynasty called the Sur, and establiahed 
•the fortunes of the House of Timur. • 

The Third Battle took place on the 
7th of January 1761 A.D., when the 
whole strength of the Marathas was 
crushed with terrible slaughter by 
Ahmad Shah DuranL All the Ma- 
ratha chieftains of note, Holkar 
Sindia, the Gaekwar, the Peshwa's 
cousin and son, were present with 
their forces. The Maratha army is 
said to have amounted to 15,000 in- 
fantry, 55,000 cavalry, 200 guns, and 
Pindaris and camp-followers, number- 
ing 200,000 men. The Afghan force 
consisted of 38,000 infantry, 42,000 
cavalry, and 70 guns, besides numerous 
irregulars ; but the Marathas had al- 
lowed themselves to be cooped up in 
their camp for many days. They were 
starving, and on the morning of the 
battle they marched out with the ends 
of then* turbans loose, their heads and 
faces anointed with turmeric, and with 
every other sign of despair. Seodasheo 
Rao, the cousin and generalissimo of 
the Peshwa, with Wishwas Rao, the 
Peshwa's eldest son, and Jeswant Eao 
Powar, were opposite the Afghan 
Grand Vazir. The great standard of 
the Maratha nation, the BhagvxL 
Jhwnda^ floated in the Maratha van, and 
there were three Jaripaikast or Grand 
Ensigns, of the Peshwa in the field. 

The Marathas made a tremendous 
charge full on the Afghan centre, 
and broke through 10,000 cavalry 
under the Vazir, which unwisely re- 
ceived them without advancing. 
The dust and confusion were so great 
that the combatants could only dis- 
tinguish each other by the war-cry. 
The Vazir Shah Wall Khan, who was 
in full armour, threw himself from his 
horse to rally his men, but most of 
the Afghans gave way. 

Ibrahim ^Khan Gardi, who com- 
manded the Maratha artillery, broke 
the Rohillas, who formed the right wing 
of the Mohammedan army, and killed 
or wounded 8000 of them. Ahmad 
Shah now evinced his generalship; 
he sent his personal guards to rally tne 
fugitives, and ordered up his reserves to 
support the Vazir. In this protracted 
and close stru^^le the physical stren^b 



BOtTTEll. KUtlNAL — THANESAft 



18^ 



of the Afghans was an overmatch for 
tiie slighter frames of the Hindus. 

A little after 2 p.m. Wishwas Rao 
i was mortally wounded, and Seo- 
dasheo Rao, after sending a secret 
message to Holkar, charged into the 
thickest of the fight and disappeared. 
Whatever the message to Holkar was, 
it proved instantaneously fatal, for he 
went off and was followed by the 
Gaekwar. The Marathas then fled ; 
thousands were cut down, and vast 
numbers were destroyed in the ditch 
of their entrenchment. The village 
of Paniput was crowded with men, 
women, and children, to whom the 
Afghans showed no mercy. They took 
the women and children as slaves, and 
after ranging the men in lines, amused 
themselves with cutting off their heads. 

76 m. Komal sta., D.B. Pop. 
23,000. This town is traditionally of 
great antiquity, being said to have been 
founded by B[ajah Kama, champion of 
the Kauravas, in the great war of the 
Mahabharata. It was seized by the 
Rajas of Jind in the middle of the 18th 
century, and wrested from them in 1795 
I by the adventurer George Thomas. It 
was conferred by Lord Lake in 1808 
upon Nawab Muhammad Khan, a Man- 
dil Pathan. A British cantonment was 
maintained here until 1841, when it was 
abandoned, probably owing to the un- 
healthiness of the site, as the W. Jumna 
Canal, passing the city, intercepts the 
drainage and causes malarious fever. A 
wall 12 ft. high encloses the town. The 
streets are narrow and crooked, and the 
water is impure. Jacquemont speaks of 
this town as " an infamous sink, a heap 
of every sort of uncleanliness." He 
adds ; " I have seen nothing so bad in 
India, and it is fair to mention that 
amongst the natives its filth was pro- 
verbial It has, however, a handsome 
moajue overtopping the wall, which is 
worth a visit. A. government Stud 
Farm for horse breeding has been 
established in the old barracks. There 
w fair small game shooting. 

Kumal is famous as being the place 
where Nadir Shah defeated the Mogul 
Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1789. 
He had surrounded his camp with 
entrenchments, which appeared so for- 



midable to Nadir that he would not 
permit his soldiers to attack them. 
The battle lasted two hours, 20,000 of 
the Indian soldiers were killed, and a 
much greater number taken prisoners. 
An immense treasure, a number of ele- 
phants, part of the artillery of the 
emperor, and rich spoils of every de- 
scription fell into Nadir's hands. The 
Persian loss is variously stated at from 
600 to 2500 killed. The next day 
Muhammad Shah surrendered himself 
to Nadir, who marched to Delhi, and 
after a massacre in the streets and a 
58 days* sack returned to Persia with a 
booty estimated at £32,000,000. 

97 m. Thanesar, D.B. As many as 
100,000 persons have been known to 
assemble here on the occasion of an 
eclipse of the moon, when it is believed 
that the waters of all other tanks visit 
the one here, so that he who bathes in 
it at the moment of eclipse obtains the 
additional merit of bathing in all the 
others. The Tank is about 1 m. from 
the rly. sta. (To reach it, it is necessary 
to pass through part of the town, see 
below.) It is an oblong sheet of water 
8546 ft. in length, and is not only the 
centre of attraction to pilgrims, but 
also the haunt of innumerable wild- 
fowl from the pelican to the snipe. It 
is surrounded by temples in every stage 
of decay, overshadowed by great trees, 
and flights of dilapidated steps lead 
down to the water on all sides. On 
the W. a causeway stretches out to an 
island where, partly hidden by trees, 
the most perfect of the temples stands. 
The ruins of this causeway extend 
farther S. to the remains of other 
temples. Around the tank for many 
miles is holy ground, and popular belief 
declares the holy places connected with 
the Pandovas and Kauravas and other 
heroes to be 360 in number. 

The Town is about J m. N. of the 
tank, and beyond it are extensive re- 
mains of the Mohammedan Fort. The 
chief building of interest, and that in 
best repair, is the white-domed Tomb of 
Shaik Chihli. It is an octagon ot 
drab-coloured marble, lighted by trellis- 
work windows of fine design. It stands 
upon a small octagonal puitform in the 
centre of a larger one — a square — sur- 



190 



ROUTE 11. DELHI TO SIMLA 



InAlBL 



rounded by cupolas. In the centre of 
the W. side is a small pavilion with 
deep eaves. It also forms a tomb. 

S.W. from here, within a stone's 
throw, is a small mosque of red sand- 
stone (the Lai MoBJid), supported on 8 
columns. The carving on the domesand 
elsewhere is very beautiful and resembles 
that at Fatehpur-Sikri. Some of the 
trees in the neighbourhood are very 
fine. Between this and Delhi — round 
about Paniput — ^the rly. passes through 
the country which from the earliest 
times formed the battle-field of India, 
and the scene where, over and over 
again, her fate has been decided. 

123 m. UMBALLA Cantonment junc. 
ita. UmballaCityandCivUStationstc 
are 6 m. farther W. (total pop. 79,000). 
Theimportantcantonmentswereformed 
in 1843 : they cover 7220 acres, and are 
laid out with good roads and fine trees. 
The centre is occupied by the bui^alows 
of the residents, and to the "W. are the 
military lines, and the whole is sur- 
rounded by extensive Maidans. 

The Baoe-course is on the E. Maidan, 
TKget Park, a favourite resort, is on the 
N. There are several good . European 
shops in the town, which is a second- 
class municipal town, and the capital 
of a district. 

The Church, which is in the Gothic 
style, was consecrated in 1857, and is 
one of the finest, if not the finest, in 
India. There is also a Presbyterian 
Chorch, a Hospital, Charitable Dispen- 
sary, and a Leper Asylum. 

Umballa and its neighbourhood are 
intimately connected with the earliest 
dawn of Indian history. The strip of 
country included between the Saras- 
wati and Driahadvati (Sarasouti and 
Ghne^r) is "the Holy Land" of the 
Hindu faith, the first permanent home 
of the Aryans in India, and the spot in 
which their r&ligion took shape. Hence 
the sauctityj even in iiiodem times, of 
the wateiB of thti Sarasouti, to which wor- 
shippers flotik from all parts of India. 

35 m. (from UmUlIa) Ealka sta.,^ 
D.B* (K), the terminus of the railway 
at the foot of the hilU, 2400 ft. above 
sea-lev^L PasBengers for Kdaauli and 
Simla her« separate. 



(1) For Kascmlit travellers take a 
jhampan or pony and follow the olA \ 
Simla road (a bridle-path). 

9 m. Kasaoli. 3^ This is a canton- 
ment and convalescent dep6t on the 
crest of a hill overlooking the Ealka 
Valley, and 6322 ft. above sea-level 
The views from Easauli are very 
grand and extensive. 

This road continues on through 
Jittogh (see below) to Simla (41 m. from | 
Ealka). 

[3 m. ofif across a valley the road rises i 
to Sanawar, which, however, is notj 
quite so high as KasauIL 

Here is the Lawrence Military Asy- 
Inm. From it may be seen Dugshai 
and Sabathu, and in the far distance 
Simla. The ground was made over to 
the Asylum in 1858, in frdfilment of 
the wish of Sir H. Lawrence. There 
are separate barracks for boys, girls, 
and infants, and a chapeL Children 
of pure European parentage take pre- 
cedence as candidates for admission, as 
more likely to suffer from the climate 
of the plains, except in the case oC 
orphans, who have the preference over 
all others. The boys qualify for the 
service of Government in various de- 
partments. A local committee manages 
the (College.] 

(2) The tonga-road from Kalka to 
Simla runs E. of the old road ; the 
stages are as follows : — 



Name of Stage. 


Distance. 


Ealka to Dharmpnr 
Dhannpur to Solon 


. 15 miles. 


. 12 „ 


Solon to Keri Ghat 


. 16 „ 


Eeri Qhat to Simla 


. 16 » 



Total 



57 miles. 



The road to Dharmpur is narrow. 
[From Dharmpur a road strikes left to 
(10 m.) Sabathu, which lies between 
the two roads, and is a conspicuous 
object from Simla.] After leaving 
Dharmpur, there is an excellent road 
to the military station of Solon, s^c 
where is a neat D.B. on the E. The 
last 3 m. is a very sharp descent. From 
Solon it is one long ascent round pro- 
jecting rocks : the tongas go fast, the 
drivers blowing their horns, which \a 
necessary* as strings of mules and carts 
are continually passed. For the last 



ROUTE 11. SIMLA 



191 



A winda along the E. side 
B, and in places there are 
ch gradually increase in 
* Keri Ghat D.B. is 
I building is perched over 
k of 1500 or 2000 ft. The 
about 7 hrs. by tonga. 

[the plains the cold of the 

Tier trying. 

3^ The land upon which 
was retained by the 
ment as a sanitarium at 
Gurkha War in 1815-16, 
the surrounding district 
to the natives. Lieut, 
the first residence, a 
.en cottage, in 1819. 
Lieut Kennedy, in 1822 
>nent house. Other officers 
am pie, and in 1826 Simla 
iiettlement In 1829 Lord 
nt the summer there, and 
date the sanitarium grew 
favour with Europeans, 
government of Sir John 
in 1864, Simla has been 
ler capital for India. As 
16 hot weather sets in, the 
it officers and Viceroy quit 
!6r Simla, which is deserted in 
The European residences 
a ridge in a crescent shape, 
is from W. to E. for a distance 
m. 

foot of this ridge is a precipi- 

3nt, in some places a complete 

of about 1000 ft, leading down 

jr, which is watered by several 

as the Gumbhar and the 

in which are two waterfalls. 

these there are the Pahar, the 

and the Sarsa streams. 

bazaar road cuts oflf one 

a from another. The E. 

called Chota Simla, the W. is 

nj. The ridge running N,, 

"ed with oaks and rhododen- 

called Elysivm. On the 

W. of the station is Jvtogh, a 

ilitary post on the top of a lofty 

5ep hill. It m. to the E. 

;h is Prospect Hill, 7140 ft 

i-levcl, which is the W. point 

crescent of which we nave 

1 m. to the K of this hill is 



Peterhoff, the old residence of the 
Viceroy, with Observatory Hill and 
the fine Ghverrmient House on it 3 
furlongs to the W. 

The United Service Club lies 500 
ft due S. of Combermere Bridge 
on the slopes of Jako, a hill 8048 ft 
above sea -level. The Bandstand is a 
little way to the S. of the Club ; and 
the Mayo Orphanage is at the N.E. 
corner of Jako. 

The Pablic InBtitutions at Simla 
comprise the Bishop Cotton School, 
the Punjab Girls' School, the Mayo 
Orphanage, a Roman Catholic Con- 
vent, and a handsome Town Hall, 
besides the €k>venmient Offices. These 
occupy several fine blocks of building. 
In one are the offices of the Accountant- 
General, the Public Works Secretariat, 
the offices of the Executive Engineer, 
the Superintendent of Works, the 
Director-General of Railways. Another 
building contains the Legislative and 
Home Departments, the office of tiie 
Surgeon-General of H.M. Forces, the 
Commissariat Department. Another 
block is occupied by the Judge Advo- 
cate-General's office, the office of H.K 
the Commander-in-Chief, the Quarter- 
master-General's office, the Intelligence 
Branch, and the Revenue and Agricul- 
tural Departments. Above are the 
Adjutant-General's office, the Meteoro- 
logical Department, the Survey of 
India, and many other offices. About 2 
m. from these building is the Foreign 
Office. Not far from it is the General 
Post-Office and the Telegraph Office. 
In the Court House are the various law 
offices. The Town Hall contains the 
Municipal Offices and the Station 
Library. This building also has a 
theatre, a concert -room, and a fine 
ballroom. A few minutes' walk from 
the Town Hall is 

Christ Church at the/oo< of Jako Hill, 

The scenery at Simla is of peculiar 
beauty ; it presents a series of magni- 
ficent views, embracing on the S. the 
Umballa Plains with the Sabathu and 
Easauli Hills in the foreground, and 
the massive block of the Chor, a little 
to the E. ; while just below the 
spectator's feet a series of huge ravines 
lead down into the deep valleys which 



Ids 



ROUTE ll. DELHI TO SIMLA 



India 



score the moantain sides. Northwards 
the eye wanders over a network of 
confused chains, rising range above 
range, and crowned in the distance by 
a crescent of snowy peaks standing out 
in bold relief against the clear back- 
gronnd of the sky. The rides and 
walks will furnish endless amnsement 
to the visitor, who, however, will do 
well to be cautious, particularly as 
regards the animal he mounts. A 
number of people have been killed by 
falling over precipices at this station, 
and many more have had narrow 
escapes of their lives. 

AxLaadale is a fairly extensive plain, 
in a valley 1200 ft. below the ridge 
on the N.W. of the station. The 
jRaee-cou/rae surrounds it, and it con- 
tains the Public Gardens, the Cricket 
Oroimd, and some very fine trees. This 
is the spot where all open-air meetings 
are held. West again of Anandale is the 
Glen, a charming wooded valley with 
some grassy slopes and fine timber. The 
dripping rock should be looked for in it. 

The distances at Simla, taken from 
Christ Church, are — Round Jako, 5 
m. ; Boileauganj, 2| m. ; to the end 
of Chota Simla, 2 m. 



From Simla the traveller may make 
an expedition to, 4 m., Mvsliotara, a 
pleasant place to spend a few days, 
and to 

NarkaiidaandEotgaxh,D.B. There 
he will be rewarded by seeing some 
grand scenery. The stages are as 
follows : — 



Names of Stages. 


u. 


Above Sea-level. 


Mahasu from Simla 


10 


8200 ft. 


Phagu . 


15 


8200,, 


Theog . 


22 


7700,, 


Matteana 


as 


7720 ;; 


Narkanda 


45 


9000,,